The Curious Webspinner Insect Knits a Cozy Home | Deep Look

The Curious Webspinner Insect Knits a Cozy Home | Deep Look


Ok, under a log, you uncover a wispy white web. You’re thinking: spider. Not so fast. This maze of woven silk has nothing to do
with arachnids. It’s actually created by a kind of insect
called a webspinner. They’re related to stick insects and praying
mantises. Never heard of ’em? Not surprised. They give spiders a run for their money. Their handiwork is a tent … umbrella … and
invisibility cloak all-in-one. But while spiders produce silk from their
backends, a webspinner’s silk comes from her feet. Yep, her front feet. She intertwines the strands, waving back and
forth, back and forth. She has tiny hair-like ejectors on the bottom
of each foot, which shoot out the silk. It’s the thinnest silk of any animal. The work is painstaking. But the result is pretty cozy – kinda like
a quilted roof. Their home – also known as a gallery – is their
only defense, hiding their soft bodies from predators. There’s also plenty of moss and lichen to
eat inside. So why leave? And if they need to do some housekeeping,
it’s easy to take out the trash. They just stick it to the roof … and forget
about it. The silk also keeps out something they really
like to avoid: rain. Webspinners can easily drown if a downpour
floods their gallery. Luckily, they’ve got exceptional weather-proofing. Water just beads up on the silk’s surface,
like on a rose petal. And that water actually changes the silk,
making the surface more slippery by transforming the proteins. So it becomes extra waterproof. But having silk-slinging front feet has a
downside. Say an unwanted visitor comes along. If they want to get away, webspinners have
to tiptoe to avoid triggering their silk ejectors. Not exactly the fastest runner. So to get away, webspinners dart … backwards,
to avoid getting tangled up. They’re much faster in reverse. Small price to pay for the ability to weave
an entire hidden world. One that will keep the webspinners – and
their young – safe … for generations to come. Hi, it’s Lauren. Music fans – here’s a special playlist for
ya of Deep Look creatures that make music of their own. Also, check out Sound Field, a new show from
PBS Digital Studios that breaks down our favorite songs and artists from all genres … from
Bach to Beyonce. It’s hosted by two amazing musicians, Nahre
Soul and LA Buckner, who even come up with an original song in every episode. Link is in the description. Thanks.

4K CC. Tarantula Hawk Swarm, Catching Amazing Pet Insects & Reptiles  CA NM AZ TX USA Herping HD.

4K CC. Tarantula Hawk Swarm, Catching Amazing Pet Insects & Reptiles CA NM AZ TX USA Herping HD.


Massive swarm Of Tarantula hawks that landed here This thing right here is gigantic and he’s lookin at me That thing is like 2 1/2 inches long wow Jeez that thing is huge That’s the biggest one so far he’s like 2 3/4 inches that last one Haha ha I hope I don’t get stung haha that’s gonna suck Buuzzzzz….Tarantula Hawk flies right past my head WOAH Oh my god That’s a giant Bumble Bee uh uh uh ah he he They are every where

STUNG by a VELVET ANT!

STUNG by a VELVET ANT!


– I’m Coyote Peterson. Now you’ve seen me
stung by harvester ants, fire ants, and scorpions. But today, I’m moving a rung up on the insect sting pain index and I’m going to be
stung by the cow killer. I have a feeling that
this one is going to hurt. Oh boy. (dramatic music) (yelling) (dramatic music) There’s no question about it, the Wild West is
rough and rugged. And whether you’re talking
about the rocky terrain laced with spine-covered plants, or its animals, most of which are armed with
fags and stingers, Arizona Sonoran Desert is an
adventure-lover’s playground. Sure, we all have our
fears of being bitten by a rattlesnake when
venturing off trail, or in my case, having a
giant desert centipede run up my pant leg. But in actuality the good news is that each and every
one of these creatures does its best to avoid
human interaction. However, sometimes you
have an accidental run-in, and when you do, a bite or
sting can be incredibly painful. Yeah, he got me, he bit me? – [Mark] Are you sure? – [Coyote] Yeah, he
definitely bit me. When it comes to my line of work the goal is to
have an interaction so that I can show you the
effects of these encounters. This way we can all
learn why it’s important to be in tune with
our surroundings and
why it’s always best to admire animals
from a safe distance. Velvet ant, velvet ant! – [Mark] Got one? – Yeah, yeah, he’s right there on the other side of that log. I get my pack off. Yes! Hold on, no, he’s
underneath the log. I just started to tip
it, I saw he ran back, hold on a second. – [Mark] I saw him. – [Coyote] Did you see it? – [Mark] He ducked — again. (dramatic music) – [Coyote] There
it is, there it is. – [Mark] Get ‘im, get
‘im, don’t lose ‘im. – Ah! Yes, yes, look at that! – [Mark] Whoo! (laughing) – Oh, he almost got into
the crevice of that log. Wow, that is a
good sized one too. Ah, but we got our
velvet ant, there it is. Okay, cool, well
tomorrow morning I’m gonna get stung by
that little ornery bugger. Cool. The velvet ant, which
is actually a species of ground wasp and
not an ant at all, claims a famous
nickname, the cow killer. Ranked on the insect
sting pain index as being the fourth most painful
sting in the insect kingdom. Rumor has it that the pain is
so intense it can kill a cow. You may be looking at
this thinking to yourself, “Coyote, are you
gonna get stung?” Yeah, I am, I’m gonna
get stung by this today. Now the insect sting
pain index says that the intense pain will
last for about 30 minutes, and the reason that
I’m doing it is to work my way up
to the bullet ant. You wanna see me
stung by the bullet? Kinda feel like I
have to get stung by everything else
leading up to that. I am not looking
forward to 30 minutes of pain that’s gonna
come from this insect. I know, right? Here we go again. Coyote is about to
enter the strike zone. But this one’s a
little different. When it comes to alligator
bites, crab pinches, or blood-sucking leaches,
I’m fine with that. When it comes to
stingers and venom, that’s where even I get nervous. Now, the females
do not have wings, the males do have wings, but what’s interesting is that the males do not have stingers. Guess who does have a stinger. That’s right, the females, and
that who we have here today. Now one of the most impressive
things about this insect is the size of its stinger. In fact, it’s about as long as the entire length
of the abdomen. What I wanna do now is use
these little entomology forceps to pick the velvet ant
up and show you guys just how big that stinger is. You ready for this? – [Mark] Yeah,
are they delicate? – They are not. The velvet ant actually has a very, very
durable exoskeleton, one of the toughest exoskeletons
in the insect kingdom so me picking her
up with the forceps is not going to cause her
any sort of pain or damage. Come ‘ere. Oh. – [Mark] Gettin’
away, gettin’ away. – [Coyote] I got it, I got it. – [Mark] Got it? – [Coyote] Got it. – [Mark] Got it, awesome. – Now they can be
found in the grass so if you’re out there
walking around barefoot and you step on one of these
you’re not gonna squish it. What’s gonna happen is
it’s gonna spin around, and then it’s gonna
tuck its abdomen under, and boom, you’re gonna get
nailed with that giant stinger. Well, I think at this juncture it is time to for me to
actually take a sting. Are you guys getting nervous? I’ll tell ya what, I sure was. Now they say that this sting is painful enough to kill a cow, however there are no
reported cases of cows, or humans for that matter, ever dying from a
velvet ant sting. This makes me feel a bit better but you never know how your
body will react to venom so we always have an
Epinephrine Pen on location, just in case I have an
allergic reaction to the sting. Alright, Mark signaling me
that it is time, here we go. I’m about to be stung by
the velvet ant, here we go. – [Mark] Alright, Coyote,
well it’s about that time. – Yeah. – [Mark] How are we
gonna pull this off? I see we have, camera-wise,
we have a GoPro, small camera right next to me. Oh hey, there’s Chance. Chance over there. What’s the game
plan for this sting? What’s the idea? – Well, this is gonna
go down one of two ways. What I’m gonna try
first is to actually take this little glass,
flip it upside down, get the ant to this end, and then place it
down on top of my arm. This will isolate
the ant on my skin and I’m hoping that, as
it tries to get away, it’s just going to sting me. Now, if that doesn’t work, I also have my pair
of entomology forceps and I’m actually going
to pick up, hold the ant, place it on my arm,
and let it sting me. One way or another,
I am definitely going to be stung
by the velvet ant. Here we go, okay. Now the first thing
I’m gonna do is get the ant up into
that part of the glass, and then I’m going to spin
this over on my forearm, and with any luck the
ant is going to sting me. Here we go, ready? – [Mark] Let’s do
it, here comes the– – I’m Coyote Peterson, and I’m
about to enter the sting zone with the velvet ant. One, two, here we go, three. Oh boy. Oh, my heart’s racing right now. Oh boy, I can its
abdomen kinda pumpin’. My heart is going now. – [Mark] Any second
it could happen. – Yeah, any second
it could sting me. (heavy breathing) Ooh, ooh, ohh, ow, ow, ow, ow, ow, it’s biting at my skin! It’s biting at the edge of the
container trying to get out. And that stinger’s gonna be like a little hypodermic
needle going into my skin. (heavy breathing) This is intense. The glass was actually
starting to get a little foggy from
the heat of my skin so at this point I think we
are going to move to plan B, which is holding the velvet ant
with the entomology forceps. I don’t think it’s going
to sting me at this point, it’s been in there
for about two minutes and so far no sting, it’s
just trying to get out. So I’m gonna flip
my arm upside down and get the ant
back under control. Okay, here we go, ready? – [Mark] Okay. – One, two, three. Okay. – [Mark] Whoo. – Ahhh. – [Mark] How do you feel? – Ahh, extremely nervous
and my heart is racing. I actually think I do
have to take a second just to get my heart
rate to calm back down. Okay, cutting GoPro. Okay, alright, the
only way to actually move forward with this is for me to hold the ant with
the entomology forceps up against my skin
and let it sting me. – [Mark] It seems this
is gonna do it, isn’t it? – Yeah. Hold on, I need a second. My heart’s like, oh, getting
dizzy, yeah, getting dizzy. In the world of
entomology when it comes to milking the venom of
insects and arachnids, holding them with forceps is a guaranteed way
to induce a sting. So I think we all know
what’s going to happen next. This is crazy,
guys, this is crazy. My nerves are going this
much for the velvet ant, I can’t imagine what
the tarantula hawk and the bullet ant
are gonna be like. – [Mark] I can’t believe
you’re about to do this, that stinger is enormous. – Yeah, yeah, okay, you can do
this, you can do this, okay. – [Mark] So that
stinger is gonna go all the way under your skin? – Yeah, it’s gonna go
right into my skin. – [Mark] Yeah, I’m ready. (dramatic music) Oh boy. (dramatic music) Alright, here we go. – You ready? Alright, let’s do this again one more time for good measure. I’m Coyote Peterson and I’m
about to enter the sting zone with the cow killer. Are you ready? – [Mark] Are you ready? – No, I’m never ready. One, two, three. You good? Get your shot, I’m gonna
place it right down on my arm. – [Mark] Got it. – Here we go, with my arm shakin’. And, go. (dramatic music) Ow! (grunting) Okay, let me get back here. – [Mark] You alright? What’re you feelin’? – Oh wow, oh wow, okay. (heavy breathing) Give me a second. Oh my gosh! – [Mark] You alright? – Oh yeah. – [Mark] What are you feeling,
what does it feel like? – Give me a second,
give me a second. (heavy breathing) Oh my gosh, guys,
this is super bad. Move this out of the way. (yelling) (heavy breathing) Hold on, I gotta try to
control my heart rate. Try to get a tight shot of it right there where
the stinger went it, you need to see there’s blood. Okay, try to get a shot
’cause I can get up and like walk
around for a second. Right there. – [Mark] Right there
is where it stung you? – Right where it stung me. I could feel it, it was like you could feel it go all
the way under the skin, all the way in. I could feel it
insert into my arm. (grunting) – [Mark] You gonna be alright? – Okay, now they say that
the sting of the velvet ant will last for about 30 minutes and I can tell
you guys right now this is the worst
sting I’ve ever taken, there’s no question about it. It’s worse than a harvester ant, it is worse than a fire ant. It feels like I’m getting
stung over and over again. You could see the welt
starting to form on my arm. – [Mark] Oh man, yeah,
there’s a welt, big time. Describe the pain, is it
like a pulsating pain, a stabbing pain? – The pain, it’s
radiating, it is radiating. It feels like, you
know if you get a charlie horse in your
muscle and it like seizes up, and then it’s like– Oh, that is powerful. I can see why they
call ’em cow killers. Oh, that is some intense
pain right there. How long has it been, about? – [Mark] About seven minutes. – Seven minutes? Now they say the pain from
this lasts for about 30, I have about 23 minutes to
go, guys, 23 minutes to go. (yelling) Now aside from working my
way up to the bullet ant, the reason I was willing to
take a sting from this insect was so that we could all see
the effects of the venom. 25 minutes has gone by,
my arm is still on fire, and what’s crazy is that
look at all the red blotching that’s formed around the sting. There’s the stinger
insertion point right there and it is swollen,
and it is very tender, and you could see how red the
entire radius is of the sting. And I’m sweating. My goal was to do
the best I could to describe the
pain I was feeling. And it still hurts, it
definitely still hurts, but not as bad as the initial
impact of the stinger. But what’s interesting is that all around the sting is tingling like these little, tiny
pin cushion needles going– And as you can see there’s all
these little red dots forming and I’m assuming that is where the venom is
spreading into my arm. Oh wow, well I
would say that this was definitely one
very intense sting. The cow killer has earned
its reputation as being one of the most powerful
stings in the insect kingdom. (yelling and grunting) And while it may
be ranked as a four on the insect sting pain index, for me at this point, it’s
definitely number one. I’d say I’m one step closer to being stung by the
bullet ant, but first, I’m gonna have to go up
against the tarantula hawk. I have a feeling that that
one is going to be bad. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave, stay wild. We’ll see you on
the next adventure. Whoo, let’s get
out of the desert. Velvet ants are
nomadic ground dwellers that feed primarily on nectar so there’s absolutely no reason
you should ever fear them. If you live or are hiking
in velvet ant territory you’ll want to avoid
a possible sting. Keep your boots on your feet
and you’ll be just fine. If you missed the painfully
entertaining conclusion to my climb up the
insect sting pain index make sure to go back and watch, Stung by an Executioner Wasp. And don’t forget, subscribe
and click the notification bell so you can join me and the crew
on our next wild adventure. (coyote howling)

This Killer Fungus Turns Flies into Zombies | Deep Look


We like to think we’re in control … that
our minds are our own. But that’s not true for this fruit fly. Its brain has been hijacked by another organism
and it’s not going to end well. It all starts when the fly is innocently walking
around, sipping on overripe fruit. It picks up an invisible fungus spore, which
bores under its skin. For a few days, everything seems normal. But inside, the fungus is growing, feeding
on the fly’s fat … and infiltrating its mind. At dusk on the fourth or fifth day, the fly
gets a little erratic, wandering around. It climbs to a high place. Scientists call this behavior “summiting.” Then it starts twitching. The fungus is in control. The fly sticks out its mouthpart and spits
out a tiny drop of sticky liquid. That glues the fly down, sealing its fate. A few minutes later, its wings shoot up. And it dies. Now that the fungus has forced the fly into
this death pose … wings out of the way … nothing can stop it. It emerges. Tiny spore launchers burst out of the fly’s
skin. Hundreds of spores shoot out at high speed,
catching a breeze if the fly climbed high enough. They’re the next generation of killer fungus. It continues for hours, spores flying out. These flies are in the wrong place at the
wrong time. And if spores land on a wing, which they can’t
bore into, they shoot out a secondary spore to increase their chances of spreading. So how does a fungus take control of a brain? At Harvard, Carolyn Elya is trying to understand
that. She thinks the fungus secretes chemicals to
manipulate the fly’s neurons, maybe stimulating the ones that make flies climb. But don’t worry: The fungus can’t hurt
humans. Scientists have tried to harness its power
for our benefit, to kill flies in our kitchens and farms. They haven’t had any luck though. The deadly spores are actually pretty fragile
and short-lived. It turns out, this lethal puppet master does
only what it needs to for its *own* survival. Hi, it’s Lauren again. If you love Deep Look, why not help us grow
on Patreon? We’re raising funds to go on a filming expedition
to Oaxaca, Mexico. And for a limited time, we’re sweetening the
deal with a special gift. Link is in the description. And if you’re craving more spooky videos,
here’s a playlist of our scariest episodes. Don’t watch ‘em after midnight. See you soon.

The Hard Lives of Britain’s Synthetic Marijuana Addicts

The Hard Lives of Britain’s Synthetic Marijuana Addicts


Spice just hits you like a truck,
it just knocks you out. Whereas bud you just sit and chill. You know what? I wish I could go back to my bud. Because you know what,
Spice, it’s horrible. I woke up after the Spice,
with vomit all over my bed, and myself. I know a kid who died of it. Couldn’t get his heart beating more. It was beating too fast,
it just went and shook out. As the new government began
making moves to ban all legal highs, we headed to Manchester,
where synthetic drugs like Spice, and other brands like Vertex,
Pandora, and Insane Joker, are freely available to buy from news
agents and places known as head shops. Although manufacturers state on
the packets that they’re not fit for human consumption,
legal highs are used recreationally. And they make the press when
students overdose on them. Most people thought it was
a recreational drug, a party drug, something that you could,
perhaps, dip in and out of. But actually, nobody really knows
what they’re made of part and what structure they have and
how they impact on the body. Although students with a support
network tend to dip in and out of synthetic drugs. We wanted to meet a much more
vulnerable group of people who can suffer from the affects of
a real dependency on legal highs. All the clients that
are presenting here are using spice. It’s affecting the mental health,
it’s affecting the physical health, and it’s a massive, massive problem. Manchester has more rough sleepers
then anywhere else outside of London. Cuts to council services have left the city with 20% fewer emergency
beds than there were five years ago. And during that time, legal highs have become a crutch to many
of the people who now live on the streets. I use it myself, and I use it because it takes the pain away. It’s legal. What can I do? I can sit here now, there could be 20 officers around
me with guns and everything. As long as pull a bag of spice out and
start rolling it, I can roll it. Nothing that anybody can do. I pull a bag of weed out and
they’ll all be on me like a car bonnet. How might people go about trying to
get hold of it once you can’t go to a shop and buy it? There’s always gonna
be some match level drug. There’s already street dealers out there. Are you worried though that it
might start criminalizing people? Yes, yes I’ve seen some bad you
have got to look at this drug, it’s bringing heroine addicts, I know a
heroine addict that’s a Spice addict now. He takes Spice like he used to take
heroine every single day of the week. He doesn’t took to heroine now, so that heroine a class A drug and
the Spice is bringing him off that. What is in this stuff? It’s amazing. The Misuse of Drugs Act
controls substances on the basis of their structure. The banned cannabinoid in weed is THC. Synthetic cannabis like spice mimics
the effects of weed by replicating and slightly altering the chemical
that gets people high. Legal high manufacturers design
cannabinoids and constantly update the composition of their products,
so that they remain within the law. But, these experiments can leave
the users smoking a legal version of weed that can be a hundred times stronger. One of the few volunteer
organizations that caters to Manchester’s homeless
community is Lifeshare, a charity that looks after young people
seeking advice and accommodation. Where I’ve just come from
is everywhere… It’s everywhere… Yeah, it’s everywhere. People are making thousands
of pounds off that. In jail, yeah. And trust me I’ve seen
some kids in wheelchairs. It’s funny, yeah, but afterwards it’s not. So more people just die. Pretty much most of our
clients use the Spice. I think the main reason that it’s
being used quite a lot, is it’s cheap. People that used to smoke cannabis,
they’re spending ten pound on cannabis. And they’re getting two smokes out of it. They’re spending five
pound on a gram of spice. And it’s going a lot further and
it’s a lot stronger as well, I believe. What I’ve noticed when it comes
to Manchester is the number of rough sleepers there are. Most of our clients now
are homeless and will sleep here. Why is that? Well, realistically there’s
budget cuts to various services or whatever, and homelessness has been a major one. We need more shelters and
we need more hostels. Lifeshare is the first point of contact
for people living on the streets, and currently sees over 100 clients. A regular member of their
drop-in clinic is Titch. I’ve got a spliff there. Where do you sleep at night, Titch? Car park up Portland Street. Are you waiting for a hostel? When was the last time
you had a Spice hit? About half 10, 11 o’clock this morning. How are you feeling right now? Like I want to kill someone. I want to go back into Strangeways
(Prison) and do a 28 day detox. But that would be pointless. Why would it be pointless
going into Strangeways? Because there’s more Spice in there
than what’s out on the streets. [INAUDIBLE] You look like you’re about to roll a spliff. Yeah, [INAUDIBLE] I forgotten
a spliff this morning. That’s about 40 spliffs
right there in that one. I don’t want it, but I’m in pain. I’m in that much pain. Where does it hurt? My stomach, shooting pains down my leg, shooting pains up my spine. Pains in my neck and in my arm. Harmful if swallowed. May cause respiratory irritation. Do you want a glass of water to drink? Have you ever seen any other drug like this? This is supposed to be legal, but it has a sense of deterioration
that you don’t expect from crack. Crack cocaine, and then quickly, rapidly deteriorated,
over a few weeks of using it. I’ve gone from that to this. Can you remember the first
time you started Spice? In the summer seeing young people
begging that would have never normally begged before and
they’re going begging for Spice. Risking their accommodation and
everything, cuz they’re not going home to accommodation cuz they’re off their
faces on Spice in the car parks. How much Spice do you smoke? Six grams a day. Six grams a day?
– Yeah. And how much does that cost? It’s three for 20 pounds so
you are looking at about 30 pounds or 40 pounds a day. I’d rather it be illegal because, do you
know what yeah I’d rather blaze my bud. Look at me now yeah, right,
I’m rattling, right, my head’s all over, right,
and I can’t think straight. Now, if this was bud, don’t get me wrong,
I’d be sat here stressed, Judy’s seen me stressed when I’ve not had bud, but I’m not like this, I’m not rattling. You know what, it’s horrible. And it’s the same irritability that
you would associate with crack, but you’re actually sometimes now showing
physical withdrawal signs as well, which you usually associate with heroin. I mean some of the young people here
describe the heart palpitating and really, really going really fast. They just will not take on board that how detrimental it’s gonna be to their
mental health, their long-term well-being. How did it make you feel? The first time I had it?
– Yeah. It was actually Pandora’s box as well. Were you there? We can do that. I think. I don’t know! What are you doing with your legs? And I was just waving my legs,
laughing my ass off at every single thing. I don’t know. You had a spliff about half an hour ago now. How are you feeling now? I’m not as bad, a bit anxious but not too bad. I’m putting my full time into
getting off Spice, I know I can but I have to be away from
being surrounded by it. At the moment the town has
become a breeding ground for it. Everybody comes into town, they won’t
go home because they need to get Spice. It’s being in this
situation on the streets, while everybody else is doing it, that I
kind of find it hard to get away from it. Titch, do you see that your way out
of Spice, and being surrounded by Spice culture is by getting
a secure accommodation in a hostel? Yes, d’you know what? I’ve said this from day one. I will stop smoking Spice when
I get in a hostel, right? And the only reason, the reason is yeah,
is because of the bud. I’d love to smoke my bud after
this because I know yeah, my bud ain’t making me unfit,
it ain’t making me drop, it ain’t fucking my head up and that. Before meeting Tim, Johan realized that
legal highs like Spice were addictive. He’s only gone a few hours without smoking
it before showing signs of withdrawal. There’s the rattling going now. I wanted to find out from someone
whose job it is to get people off drugs, if the legal status of a particular
substance had any impact on whether people take it or not. There is a level of naivete
around thinking that by making legal highs illegal,
people will be less inclined to use them. If somebody is already in a situation of
relative chaos in their life in general, it would be unlikely that we would see
a significant impact in people using them. It’s not necessarily gonna positively
impact on the people who are using it, but it impacts on who’s in charge of the
supply and where the supply comes from. It’s a public health issue. And what we wouldn’t want to see is for the criminal aspect of that problem to be
prioritized over the public health aspect. I think all services providing
information, support, access for members of the public, we’ve had
significant financial cuts, I think, over the last five years. And that’s probably going to continue, so there’ll be a 25% reduction in
the overall spend on drugs and alcohol. He’s one of the biggest
Spice heads in town. I know two people who have died of it. At a city center soup kitchen, local health workers are dealing with
Spice casualties on a daily basis. The guy that we first
came across on the wall, he was completely out of it, unconscious. We’ve been talking to
lots of people about it. They say they’ve never seen a drug
have as massive effects as legal highs do on people. No. We’ve gone from having no problems with it to now we’re getting three or
four people every night. We’ve had no training on it, obviously,
when we did the training it wasn’t there, now we are starting to get training on
it because there’s so much out there, it’s so bad. Outlawing something doesn’t sort of
change people’s intention to do something. It doesn’t no, but it becomes
illegal more can be done about it. Same again, now I can smell it now. – Yeah, me too. And it doesn’t smell like weed,
does it? No.
It is so much chemically related, that nobody really knows what’s in it. It will knock you out and it will numb
your senses to the elements and stuff. This is why it’s becoming
a homeless phenomenon, it’s because it numbs your senses and it makes you dull and
it makes the elements not bother you. Later that night we went to find it. As we wandered the streets,
it was hard to ignore the irony and the fact that Spice was, to some degree,
a problem of the government’s own making. And there seemed to be a similarity
between Titch’s cycle of satisfying his own addiction and the government’s way of handling drugs. A sort of Whac-a-Mole tactic that
only serves as a temporary solution. As ministers debate the details of
the new psychoactive substances bill, while cutting addiction services and
housing support, only time will tell where the problem
might pop up again in the future.

STUNG by a COW KILLER!

STUNG by a COW KILLER!


– I’m Coyote Peterson. Now you’ve seen me
stung by harvester ants, fire ants, and scorpions. But today, I’m moving a rung up on the insect sting pain index, and I’m going to be
stung by the cow killer. I have a feeling that
this one is going to hurt. Oh boy. (scream) (intense percussion music) There’s no question about it. The wild west is
rough and rugged. And whether you’re talking
about the rocky terrain, laced with spine covered
plants, or its animals, most of which are armed
with fangs and stingers, Arizona’s Sonoran Desert is an
adventure lover’s playground. Sure we all have our
fears of being bitten by a rattlesnake when
venturing off trail. Or in my case, having a
giant desert centipede run on my pant leg. But in actuality, the
good news is that each and every one of these creatures does its best to avoid
human interaction. However, sometimes you
have an accidental run-in. And when you do,
a bite or a sting can be incredibly painful. (gasping) Yeah, he got me. He bit me. – [Mark] You sure? – [Coyote] Yeah, he
definitely bit me. When it comes to
my line of work, the goal is to have
an interaction, so that I can show you the
effects of these encounters. This way we can all
learn why it’s important to be in tune with
our surroundings, and why it’s always
best to admire animals from a safe distance. Velvet ant, velvet ant! (mumbling) I can pick off, yes, hold on, he’s underneath the
log, I just started to tip and so I ran
back, hold on a second. – [Mark] I saw him. – [Coyote] Did you see it? – [Mark] He ducked out
and ducked back in. – [Coyote] There
it is, there it is. – [Mark] Get him,
get him to go in it. – Aagh! Yes, yes! Look at that. Whoo! Oh, you almost got me with
the crevice of that log. Wow, that is a
good sized one too. Ah, but we got our velvet ant. There it is. Okay, cool, well,
tomorrow morning, I’m gonna get stung. By that little ornery bugger. Cool. The velvet ant, which
is actually a species
of ground wasp, and not an ant at all,
claims a famous nickname. The cow killer. Ranked on the insect
sting pain index as being the fourth
most painful sting in the insect
kingdom, rumor has it that the pain is so
intense it can kill a cow. You may be looking at
this, thinking to yourself “Coyote, are you
gonna get stung?” Yeah, I am, I’m gonna
get stung by this today. Now the insect sting
pain index says that the intense pain will
last for about 30 minutes. And the reason that
I’m doing it is to work my way up
to the bullet ant. You wanna see me stung
by the bullet ant? Kind of feel like I have to
get stung by everything else leading up to that. I am not looking forward
to 30 minutes of pain that’s gonna come
from this insect. I know, right? Here we go again. Coyote is about to
enter the strike zone. But this one’s a
little different. When it comes to
alligator bites, crab pinches, or
blood sucking leeches, I’m fine with that. When it comes to
stingers and venom, that’s where even I get nervous. Now, the females
do not have wings. The males do have wings,
but what’s interesting is that the males do
not have stingers. Guess who does have a stinger? That’s right, the females. And that’s what we
have here today. Now one of the most
impressive things about this insect is
the size of its stinger. In fact, it’s about
as long as the entire length of the abdomen. What I want to do now
is use these little entomology forceps to
pick the velvet ant up, and show you guys just
how big that stinger is. You ready for this? – [Mark] Are they delicate? – Um, they are not. The velvet ant
actually has a very, very durable exoskeleton,
one of the toughest exoskeletons in
the insect kingdom. So me picking her
up with the forceps is not going to cause her
any sort of pain or danger. Oh! – [Mark] Oh, getting
away, getting away. – [Coyote] I got it, I got it. – [Mark] You got it? – [Coyote] Got it. – [Mark] Got it, awesome. – Now they can be
found in the grass, so if you’re out there
walking around barefoot, and you step on one of these,
you’re not gonna squish it. What’s gonna happen is
it’s gonna spin around, and then it’s gonna
tuck its abdomen under and boom, you’re gonna get
nailed with that giant stinger. Well, I think at this juncture, it is time for me to
actually take a sting. Are you guys getting nervous? I’ll tell you what, I sure was. Now they say that this
sting is painful enough to kill a cow. However, there are no
reported cases of cows, or humans for that
matter, ever dying from a velvet ant sting. This makes me feel a bit better, but you never know how your
body will react to venom, so we always have an
Epidendrum pen on location, just in case I have an
allergic reaction to the sting. All right, Mark’s signaling me that it is time, here we go. I am about to be stung
by the velvet ant. Hoo, here we go. Hoo. – [Mark] All right Coyote,
well, it’s about that time. – Yeah. – [Mark] How are we
gonna pull this off? I see we have a, you
know, camera wise we have a GoPro, a small
camera right next to me, oh hey, there’s Chance. Chance over there. What’s the gameplan
for the sting in here? What’s the idea? – Well, this is gonna
go down one of two ways. What I’m gonna try
first is to actually take this little glass,
flip it upside down, get the ant to this end,
and then place it down on top of my arm. This will isolate
the ant on my skin, and I’m hoping that as
it tries to get away, it’s just going to sting me. Now if that doesn’t
work, I also have my pair of entomology forceps,
and I’m actually going to pick, hold the
ant, place it on my arm, and let it sting me. One way or another, I am
definitely going to be stung by the velvet ant. Haaah, here we go. Okay, now the first
thing I’m gonna do is get the ant up into
that part of the glass, and then I’m going
to spin this over onto my forearm
and with any luck, the ant is going to sting me. Here we go, ready? – [Mark] Let’s do it,
here comes number four. – I’m Coyote Peterson,
and I’m about to enter the sting zone
with the velvet ant. One, two, here we go, three. Oh boy. Oh, my heart’s racing right now. Aah boy, I can see its
abdomen kind of pumping. My heart is going now. – [Mark] Any second
it could happen. – Yeah, any second
it could sting me. Oh boy, ooh ooh ooh, ow ow ow, ow, it’s biting at my skin, it’s biting at the edge of the
container trying to get out. Ooh. Oh, and that stinger is gonna be like a little hypodermic
needle going into my skin. This is intense. The glass is actually
starting to get a little foggy from the heat of my
skin, so at this point I think we are going
to move to plan B, which is holding the velvet ant with the entomology forceps. I don’t think it’s going
to sting me at this point. It’s been in there
for about two minutes, and so far no sting. It’s just trying to get out. So I’m gonna flip
my arm upside down, and get the ant
back under control. Okay, here we go, ready? – [Mark] Okay. – One, two, three. Okay, whoo. Ahhhh. – [Mark] How do you feel? – Aahh, extremely nervous,
and my heart is racing. I actually think I do
have to take a second just to get my heart
rate to calm back down. Okay, cut and GoPro. Okay. All right, the only
way to actually move forward with this
is for me to hold the ant with the entomology forceps. Up against my skin,
and let it sting me. – [Mark] This seems, this
gonna do it, isn’t it? – Yeah, hold on, I need
a second, heart’s like, – [Mark] You all right? – Ooh, getting dizzy,
yeah, getting dizzy. In the world of
entomology, when it comes to milking the venom of
insects and arachnids, holding them with forceps
is a guaranteed way to induce a sting. So I think we all know
what’s going to happen next. This is crazy,
guys, this is crazy. My nerves are going this
much for the velvet ant, I can’t imagine what
the tarantula hawk and the bullet ant
are gonna be like. Okay. – [Mark] I can’t believe
you’re about to do this. That stinger is enormous. – Yeah, yeah, okay, you can
do this, you can do this. – [Mark] So is that stinger gonna go all the
way under you skin? – Yeah, it’s gonna go
right into my skin. – [Mark] Okay, I’m ready. Oh boy. All right, here we go. – Here we go, ready? All right, let’s do this again one more time for good measure. I’m Coyote Peterson,
and I’m about to enter the sting zone with
the cow killer. Are you ready? – [Mark] Are you ready? – No, I’m never ready. One, two, three. You good? – [Mark] Yeah. – Get your shot,
I’m gonna place it right down on my arm. Here we go. With my arm shaking. And go. Ahh! (pained gasps) Okay, I’m gonna get back here. – [Mark] You all right? What are you feeling? – Gaah! Oh, wow. Oh wow, okay. (heavy breathing) Give me a second. Oh my gosh. – [Mark] You all right? – Oh yeah. – [Mark] What are you feeling,
what does it feel like? – Give me a sec, give me a sec. (rapid panting) Oh my gosh guys,
this is super bad. Move this out of the way. Gah! Gah! Oh my gosh, I gotta try
to control my heart rate. Try to get a tight
shot of it right there with the stinger, we need to
see to see if there’s blood. Okay, try to get a shot,
because if I can get it we’ll like walk
around for a second. Right there. – [Mark] Right there
is where it stung you? – Right where it stung me. I could feel it, it was like, you could feel it go all
the way under the skin. All the way in. I can feel it
insert into my arm. (grunting) – [Mark] You gonna be all right? – Okay. Now they say that the
sting of the velvet ant, will last for about 30 minutes. And I can tell you
guys right now, this is the worst
sting I’ve ever taken. There’s no question about it. It is worse than
a harvester ant, it is worse than a fire ant. It feels like I’m getting
stung over and over again. You can see the welts
starting to form on my arm. – [Mark] Oh man, yeah,
those are welts, big time. Describe the pain, is it
like a pulsating pain, a stabbing pain? – If it pain, it’s
radiating, it is radiating. It feels like, you know
if you get a charlie horse in your muscle, and
it like seizes up, and it’s like doomph, doomph. Ah, that is powerful. Ah, I can see why they
call them cow killers. (chuckle) That is some intense
pain right there. How long has it been? – [Mark] About seven minutes. – About seven minutes? Well they say the pain from
this lasts for about 30. I have about 23
minutes to go, guys. 23 minutes to go. Aah! Now aside from working my
way up to the bullet ant, the reason I was
willing to take a sting from this insect
was so that we could all see the effects
of the venom. 25 minutes has gone by. My arm is still on fire. And what’s crazy is that,
look at all the red blotching that’s formed around the sting. There is the stinger
insertion point right there, and it is swollen,
and it is very tender, and you can see how red
the entire radius is, of the sting. I’m sweating. My goal was to do
the best I could to describe the
pain I was feeling. And it still hurts, it
definitely still hurts, but not as bad as the initial
impact of the stinger. But what’s interesting is
that all around the sting is tingling, like these little
tiny pin cushion needles going tsk tsk tsk. And as you can see there’s
all these little red dots forming, and I’m assuming
that is where the venom is spreading into my arm. Oh wow, well I would say
that this was definitely one very intense sting. The cow killer has
earned its reputation as being one of the
most powerful stings in the insect kingdom Gaaggh! Arrrgghh! Ergh! And while it may
be ranked as a four on the insect sting pain index, for me, at this point,
it’s definitely number one. I’d say I’m one step closer to being stung by
the bullet ant, but first, I’m gonna
have to go up against the tarantula hawk. I have a feeling that that
one is going to be bad. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave, stay wild, we’ll
see you on the next adventure. Whoo, let’s get
out of the desert. Velvet ants are nomadic
ground dwellers, that feed primarily on nectar. So there is absolutely no reason you should ever fear them. If you live or are hiking
in velvet ant territory, you’ll want to avoid
a possible sting. Keep your boots on your feet,
and you will be just fine. If you thought that
sting was intense, make sure to check
out the compilation of all my worst bites,
pinches, and stings, as we work our way up to
the bullet ant challenge. And don’t forget, subscribe, so you can join me and the crew on this season of
Breaking Trail. (animal howl)

Millipede vs Centipede!

Millipede vs Centipede!


– I’m Coyote Peterson, welcome
to the desert millipede versus the desert centipede. (upbeat adventure music) Venturing into the
nighttime desert is not for the faint of heart, as this cactus strewn ecosystem is laced with a plethora
of nocturnal predators. Whether it be
scorpions, spiders, that right there
is a black widow, solpugids, or vinegaroons, these arachnids are
certain to be on the prowl, as they use the
cover of darkness to silently hunt for their prey. Look at that. Does that thing not
look like an alien? All arachnids come
equipped with eight legs, and most are also armed
with a set of fangs or a venom injecting stinger. That is the most venomous
species of scorpion in the United States. And he’s on my hand. All right, this makes
me a little bit nervous. I wanna see if I can get
him to just sit still. However, if eight legs, fangs, and stingers aren’t
enough to scare you, Arizona’s Sonoran
Desert is also home to a subphylum of creatures with even more
legs, the myriapods, which consists of
centipedes and millipedes. At the end of the day, both of these animals do
their best to avoid humans, however, today we are going
to capture one of each so we can get them in
front of the cameras for an up close comparison. First, let’s talk about
the desert millipede. Now, millipede
means thousand feet. And each one of these
little body segments has two pairs of legs on it. Now there’s no way
that I’m going to get underneath this creature
and count its legs, but I can tell you from
it crawling across my arm, that there are a ton of
them tickling me right now. It feels like a bunch of
little tiny pieces of Velcro grabbing onto your arm hairs. Despite the name,
there isn’t actually a species of millipede
on the planet that has a thousand feet. On average they have around 400, with the record being 750, more than any other
animal in the world. These myriapods have
very poor eyesight. They have very
simple eyes up front, so they’re really using these
antenna to help them navigate through the environment. And you’ll see as he dances
up in the air like that, he’s basically looking
for what his next move is going to be. If he can’t feel anything
with those antenna, he’s kinda like, woah, woah, I’ve run out of road here. And until he bumps
into something that he can walk on, he’s just gonna stay
put until he can get those front legs planted. Now, the millipede doesn’t
have many predators, and that’s because
these little myriapods are actually poisonous. They do have glands that run
along the side of their body, and if they are really,
really threatened, they will secrete a
nasty orange fluid. And it absolutely stinks. I actually got it all over
my hands the other night. Now, if you get this
poison on your skin, all you need to do
is wash you hands with soap and water, and you’ll be just fine. Now I’m completely
comfortable with millipedes. They don’t bite. If it doesn’t bite, it
can crawl all over me all that it wants. But the centipede is a
whole different ball game. And we’re gonna get that
guy out in a second, and get a close look at that
venomous little desert dweller. The desert millipede is
virtually harmless to humans. And if you encounter
one in the wild, just admire it from
a safe distance. (breathes out) OK, now we’re
on to the part of the episode that I have been dreading. There is no good way to do this. You just have to plop
him out and go for it. All right, here we go, ready? Oh boy. Now he’s kinda like,
oh, I’m on the ground, and I’m on the move. Desert centipedes can
inflict a very painful and venomous bite, so I stress, never
attempt what I am doing. OK, there we go. Now that I have his
head under control, and more importantly,
those fangs, I feel a lot better
about this situation. Oh, look at how creepy that
little desert creature is. Now, what’s really interesting
is that the centipede means hundred feet. Each species of
centipede varies. There’s no way that this
one has a hundred feet, but as they continue to grow, and their body
segments elongate, they grow more legs. Now one major difference between the centipede and the millipede is that the centipede has
a very flattened body. This allows them to fit
into crevices between rocks, and allows them to
glide very quickly over the surface of the desert. Now, these are
voracious predators. They are out here right
now walking the washes and searching through the
rocks for other animals. They will eat bugs,
they will eat scorpions, they will eat lizards, and the ones that
grow to the size of the giant desert centipede, they will even take rodents. But the bite from a
centipede of even this size is gonna put you into
some incredible pain. That’s why I wanna be
as careful as possible while handling this myriapod. One really interesting
feature about all centipedes is that you see
the back end here? This rump? You have these two modified legs on the back end here which have little hooks in them. And this back end is
pretty much a false head. It’s the same color
as the head is. And these two little modified
feet on the back end here have hooks on them. So, let’s say you’re a predator, and you’re coming, and
you’re like, all right, I’m gonna get him, I’m gonna
bite his head right off. These little modified
feet go up in the air, boom, and you get pricked
with those little spikes, throws you off guard, the
centipede spins around, and that’s when you get a bite
from those venomous fangs. This is not a creature that
is very easy to consume. Centipede venom is not
considered deadly to humans, however, the pain has been
said to keep a full grown man on the ground and in
pain for several hours. Moral of the story, steer
clear of centipedes. I hope everybody
enjoyed this comparison. The desert centipede versus
the desert millipede. Both species are native
to the Sonoran Desert. And I’d suggest avoiding both because the
centipede is venomous and the millipede is poisonous. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave, stay wild, we’ll see you on
the next adventure. Both of these myriapods
play an important role in the ecosystem. And while they may be creepy and have a gazillion legs
as compared to you and me, always try to remember that they’re going to
use each and every one to run in the
opposite direction. If you thought that
comparison was cool, check out the alligator
snapping turtle versus the common
snapping turtle. And don’t forget subscribe
to join me and the crew on this season of
Breaking Trail.