REBUILDING THE FORT and Dealing with BUGS!


Hello! How you guy’s doing? I’m out in the woods today obviously, as you can hear from the buzing sound We’re not bringing [dog name] out here today There are too many bugs I don’t want him to have any bad experiences he is still very young. I’m going to be out here all day He’s going to get eaten alive He’s just going to be laying here, eaten alive I’m going to have to drive home. And, uh, drop him off at home half way through the day anyways I understand that. I knew it was going to be very buggy hear because it is very buggy in the woods right now And we’re in the middle of the woods There is not a breeze There are some birds chirping; so that’s a plus! I’m just going to get some bug spray up on here Start her off good, you know So today we’re going to revamp the fort We’re going to tear all of this down What’s left of this We’re going to start building the back wall It’s going to be a complete re do; like, uh Big back wall Big back high wall, slanted roof, vaguely Build sides But today I’m going to get all of this down I’m going to even probably retie this We’ll see how it goes. Maybe I’ll get a little smokey fire going, too keep the bugs at bay, but, as long as I have this on it’s not too big of a deal. That’s why I wore the long sleeve cool guy shirt, you know. So, even my big support log fell Which isn’t surprising because it was on top of snow a bit. We’ll have to drop this down just a touch too to make that fit, but that’s okay So we gotta keep this guy (excursion sounds) (Sound of leaves crunching under feet) I left my uh reflector oven out here The last time I was out here was with Doug and [inaudible] So that’s going to come home with me I only brought an Axe and a saw a banana and a water bottle Okay (Flying insect sounds) If I can reuse all this stuff, obviously I will So I had a video ready for Friday This past Friday. I missed the uh.. I missed the post date because I was uploading my video that I had shot and filmed and edited and I was uploading it from my editing software into my computer VIA my external hard drive and there is a lot going on at my house you know I got a baby, an eight (8) year old And I got Tripper who is a wild, wild dog Things happen External hard drive got knocked out broke and I lost all my files. I lost a bunch of Scout stuff A bunch of Autumn when she was a baby That video; tons of videos Home videos The good news is I sent it to Toronto and there is like a forensic data recovery thing that’s going to help me out hopefully.. But that didn’t help the video coming out Friday Especially when I had skip–when I had missed two weeks Prior to the videos put out So, anyways My apologies It’s the video of Tripper’s first backing trip ever and it was a really fun time; it was a good video It’ll come out in a bit, I gotta wait a couple weeks for that data service to get back to me So, anyway Kind of sucks, but It is what it is. Nice dry piece of wood right there Oops (Laughs) Okay, it’s a good amount of wood Good pile of wood here (Wood cracks) As you can see here my silly Bed Is no more, I lost the big piece on it But that’s okay, we’re going to revamp everything Some dry wood under there, a little cooking grill. So As you can see This side slopes down I figure if I put this support over on this side It will even it out and it will hold this support log in place because it’s down on this side I left a little bit of a lip on this side I don’t know–I can’t remember if this was the top or the bottom last time Hoping that the lip holds this in place a little bit more. Okay Bah, I got bugs in my gloves! I’m going to put some weight on here And it’ll hold it good too Alright You know what Wonder if I should just slide that over to the end here No I’m going to flip this around We’ll see how this side looks Yeah a bit better Okay I’m going to have to tie that together there.. but that’s okay. Ohhh, it’s getting warm. It’s gettin warm. Check this out, this is one black fly bite There, and it’s starting to travel. See the spider web? The leg, going down One black fly bite No joke. I got one on the back of my head too, behind my ears (laughs) I react horribly to them Obviously. First order of business Now that I’ve cleared that all away Is to make the back wall. I’ve got to pound some big longs in as stakes into the ground Pretty far, so.. Let’s do that now I don’t have a backpack with me like I said. I only have a few things, so, I’m going to hang my Axe mask up here so I don’t misplace it I saw one log over here that I knew would be good for that And I could just replace it for the back wall. Here it is. Nice solid pine. Spruce.. whatever it is. Ahh, mosquitos.. To be safe I think I’ll cut this log right in half. It’s a bit long Uh, that way, but I’d rather have it too long and sticking out then I can trim it down after than cut it too short for no reason and waste it Because this is going into the ground I do want it to be as smooth as possible so it doesn’t make more work when we try to pound it in. So, first thing, get rid of these nobs. Old limbs Alright, now I’m going to sharpen it up. There is a really nice easy way to do this Should be able to do it in three (3) or four (4) hits One Two Three and then, see, the bottom just needs a little bit of pointing. We’ll do that in one hit. There ya go. Okay, so one done. One and done! The top was a little bit shorter. And it’s a little bit wider too so I’m going to go on a higher angle and narrow it down. To a point Whoops! No three on that one, okay. Both of those are done. A good idea too is to chamfer the edges so they don’t mushroom out on you You just kind of take a little bit of material off the circle of the top And it helps it not mushroom out so bad or split Now that I got all the logs cleared away back there, it’s time to measure how far back I need to go.This log is from that pile of back logs All of those are going to stationary size because I’ve already cut them to size So, I can measure it with this and be good to go. So, what I’m thinking of Is having a little bit of overhang, still with the logs and having the back log up about this high. And that’s, I think I can go, there. There is plenty of room Especially if my bench is right on the edge or even back a touch Have tons of room for head, head height, and storage So I think that’s what I’ll do Going to right about here With the back wall So I got to pound some stakes right there So the idea is to put one on either side and leave a space in the middle big enough for some logs so that is about big enough for some logs I could even tie it up at the top after but we’ll just stick that there. stick that there oop and get to hammerin’. Get to hammerin’! Now I don’t mean to sharpen my own axe or anything *whacks log* *log bounces back* oh my goodness it must’ve hit a root but I have been known for my axecuracy (accuracy) *chuckle* axecuracy (accuracy) I’m saying accuracy but with an axe instead eh about there *sniffle* axecuracy (accuracy) okay she must have hit a root or something but they are in there pretty good Axecuracy okay they’re in there *sniffle* ahhhh *sits down* *breathing heavy* This little mesh makes it hard to breathe lesser of two evils though Cool. Thanks for coming I hope you guys enjoyed it I hope you guys, uh yeah, are looking forward to the next installment of the fort. I’ll see you later. Captions added by the following:
@ericjx
(Insert names here)

What is HIV and AIDS? | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


– [Voiceover] What is
HIV, and what is AIDS? Well, let’s first look at HIV. HIV is a virus that
attacks our immune system, and if we expand this out, we can see that that’s reflected in its name: Human Immunodeficiency Virus. So this implies that it
does something to our immune system somehow, and we’ll actually explore that a little bit later on. And if we don’t treat HIV,
it’ll eventually cause AIDS in the infected person. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. So right away you already get a sense that HIV attacks your immune
system so destructively, that you end up acquiring
an immune deficiency system. It puts you into a state
of immune-system failure, so you end up not being able to fight off even the most basic infections. And this immune-less state,
is what we call AIDS. So let’s explore this a
little bit further now. Let’s actually use the help of a graph, this might be helpful. So here’s our graph, and
we’ll put time down here on our X-axis, and actually
just to make this extra useful, we’ll put weeks in this
beginning part here, and then we’ll transition
to years here, and you’ll see how this is relevant in
a few more minutes here so, on the Y-axis here, we’ll
put CD4 T-lymphocyte count. T-lymphocytes are a
really really important type of immune system cell. And CD4 just refers to a
type of protein that’s stuck through their cell membranes,
that’s kinda how we like to identify them, by this
protein on their membranes. And the reason they get a
special spot on an entire axis of our graph here is
because they’re super important in the progression from
HIV infection to AIDS. Because as you might have
suspected, it turns out that HIV preferentially
loves to infect these CD4 cells of our immune system. And why is this so bad? Well, these CD4 cells,
also called helper T cells, play a huge role in signalling
your other immune cells to come and destroy every
given infectious particle that our body discovers. Like maybe strep throat
bacteria, or flu viruses, or even HIV viruses, for that matter. So these CD4 cells are kinda central. They’re almost like little
amplifiers of our immune system. So because HIV loves to
infect and kill these cells, it completely disrupts how
our immune systems function, and renders it essentially useless. So let’s say you acquire HIV in your body, either in your bloodstream
or your tissues, maybe through unprotected
sex with an infected partner, that would be the most
common method of becoming infected with HIV, in adults at least. What happens? Well, the main thing is that
the virus really quickly gets into your white blood cells, so these T-helper cells, the
CD4 cells we’ve talked about. But also some other white blood cells, like your macrophages and so on. And from inside a white blood
cell, it can do two things. One, it can sorta hijack
your cell’s machinery, so it manages to insert
its genetic material into your own cell’s DNA. And from there it starts to
make lots and lots and lots of copies of itself, lots
of new HIV particles. Actually that’s really really important, so let’s put that on our
graph too, let’s say, “viral load” here on another Y-axis here. Viral load referring to the amount of HIV in your bloodstream. So we can see that after
our primary infection here, the viral load starts to increase. It’s hijacked our T helper cells, and now new HIV particles
are being churned out, and our viral load is
majorly on the upswing. And you’ll notice that the
viral load is starting to rise at around the two to three week mark, and that’s just ’cause it
takes a bit of time for the HIV virus production to start sort of ramping up within our bodies. And of course a major
concern here is well, the more HIV there is in your bloodstream, the more CD4 cells get
infected, get hijacked, right? But the biggest problem
here, thing number two here, is that HIV infection of your CD4 cells, triggers a self-destruct
sequence within these cells. So you end up losing these CD4 cells. And even worse, the
self-destruct sequence doesn’t just destroy the infected
cells, it even destroys nearby immune cells that
maybe have come into the area to try to help out. So I won’t go into the
mechanism in this video, but you do end up losing
lots more immune cells than just the infected
ones, and that’s part of why you see this massive dropoff
here, this line representing our CD4 T-cell numbers has this
really steep downward slope, we’re losing lots of T-cells. While at the same time our
HIV viral load is going up and causing more and more
infection of our cells. The other thing I wanna point
out here is you can see this massive rise in viral load
and this pretty massive drop in CD4 levels, and this
huge viral load means that this time period right,
early on in an infection, is when someone with HIV
has the highest risk of transmitting it to someone else. I guess one good thing
here is that eventually, maybe a month or so in,
your immune system gets somewhat of a handle on the virus, and it starts to make
anti-HIV antibodies, right? Those are just antibodies against HIV. So they start to fight off
the virus to some extent. And this is called seroconversion,
when you make antibodies to something, so now we’ve
seroconverted to HIV. So now the antibodies
get to work on helping to destroy the viral particles. And that’s why we see this decrease here in viral load in the bloodstream. Because our immune system
is starting to control the viral levels to some degree. And this also gives our CD4
cells a chance to recover, to some extent, because there’s less virus around to infect them. So you might be wondering, how
you’re gonna feel during all of this, with this massive
battle going on inside your body? Well, you’re gonna feel
sick, you’re probably gonna feel like you’re having the
worst flu you’ve ever had. So about here, about a month
or so in, at seroconversion, you start to fight the infection. And as a result, most
people get some serious flu-like symptoms, so things
like headache, and fever, and sore throat, muscle
pains, joint pains, some people get swollen glands, just sort of fatigue and feeling unwell. Some people get a rash, some people get some open sores in their mouth. These are some of the more common symptoms of an acute infection with HIV. And this flu-like illness
that people experience is referred to as Acute HIV Syndrome. And the reason for a lot of
these symptoms is because well, when immune system
cells get really active, or when they die off, both
of which are happening here of course, they tend
to release these little chemical signals that cause inflammation, sort of all throughout your
body, and so this is what underlies a lot of these symptoms here. So back to our graph,
the immune system can’t completely kill off the
HIV, even though we have antibodies now, right? And that’s because A, remember the rate of immune system killing is
roughly matching up with the rate of new viral
particles being produced. And B, because the virus has
sort of taken up residence in some really really hard-to-reach
reservoirs in our body. Like within the brain and
within our bone marrow, and within our genital tract. Because of these two
reasons, these curves tend to sort of stabilize at some
point, they reach a set point, where again, our immune
system is killing off HIV at a pretty similar rate to
which HIV is replicating. So the curves start to
come together a bit more and stabilize somewhat. So this period here is
thought of as the start of the second phase of HIV
infection, what’s called the latency period, or Chronic HIV. This acute infection back
here being phase one. So in this latency period, we
don’t tend to see any clinical signs of HIV illness, the
person is often asymptomatic. They’re still infectious, but
there are few or no symptoms during this phase, and without treatment, this phase will last on
average about 10 years. And I said that our curves
here stabilized, right? But it turns out that
HIV’s actually replicating, killing our immune cells
just a teensy little bit more than our CD4s are recovering. So over this long period
of time, phase two, eventually, again, without treatment, HIV will start to overwhelm
our immune system, and we’ll start to see symptoms again. So things like fever or muscle
pains or swollen glands, really similar to the
acute infection, and again, much for the same reasons as before. And many people at this
stage of the illness experience significant weight loss. HIV causes you to use
more energy than usual, and also prevents you
from absorbing nutrients from your food as well
as you normally would. So we often see some
significant weight loss for these and a few other reasons as well. Eventually, if our CD4 cells
get to a critically-low number, and result in our having no
functional immune system, that’s what AIDS is. Essentially a state of being
where we have no immune system. So at this point, this
is when certain bugs, bacteria and viruses that
would never stand a chance against even a
minimally-effective immune system, these things start to infect the person. And we refer to these
specific infections as AIDS-defining illnesses,
because we just know that if somebody has
one of these illnesses, they just cannot have a
functioning immune system, it just wouldn’t happen,
or at least it would be really really unusual. So there’s a high suspicion
of this person having AIDS and not just an HIV infection anymore if they have any of these
AIDS-defining illnesses. Two examples of
AIDS-defining illnesses are two fungal pneumonias, one
called pneumocystis pneumonia, and one called cryptococcal pneumonia. These are two common
AIDS-defining illnesses. And again, these aren’t the
types of infections that you get when your immune system
works even a little bit. So actually one of two
criteria has to be met before we can say someone has AIDS. Either they have to have
extremely low amounts of CD4 cells in their blood,
and to get a little bit technical here, it’s if they
have less than 200 CD4 cells per microliter of blood,
with the normal count, the normal CD4 count in
this amount of blood, it should be around
1000 to 1100 CD4 cells. Or, regardless of CD4 count, if they have any of the
AIDS-defining illnesses, like either of these, for example, then we can say that
they have developed AIDS. And so you might have suspected
this, but it’s actually the overwhelming impact,
and the complications of serious infections that you pick up because of the immune deficiency in AIDS that actually results in
the death of the person. So from HIV infection to
eventually an incredibly high amount of viral particles,
and low amount of CD4 cells in the bloodstream, to
development of a completely non-functional immune system in AIDS, very quickly leading to
overwhelming infection by essentially every infectious
pathogen from A to Z. And because of this, death results.

Dallas Home Inspector Finds Termites Active Even In Cold Weather | (214) 960-1005 | CALL US!

Dallas Home Inspector Finds Termites Active Even In Cold Weather | (214) 960-1005 | CALL US!


Hi everyone this is Cliff with Home
Inspection Solutions It is a Valentine’s Day February 14, 2012 I’m inspecting a house here in the Plano area and this is, looks like a termite tube up in one of the corners here and this gonna take up a slow screwdriver here and break it open and see you can see those termites run up and
down there see that we’re moving across the screen here. Okay this is just an illustration of the fact that termites are active all year long yes they are
more active during April and May where coming out about warmer weather in to cool that you have to be on the lookout for
on all year long here they are in January or excuse me in February traditionally when we call months of the year around here although it has been warmer than usual
but you have to be on guard for termites every month of the
year here in Texas. This is Cliff with Home Inspection Solutions

Terrifying fight to the death between 28ft anaconda and 6ft crocodile

Terrifying fight to the death between 28ft anaconda and 6ft crocodile


 These awe-inspiring pictures show a 28ft anaconda’s fight to the death with a crocodile  The green snake is captured attacking the six-foot long caiman, in Pantanal, Brazil after finding it in the swamps of tropical wetland where both species live  The anaconda can be seen wrapping itself around the member of the crocodile family trying to suffocate the caiman  Wildlife photographer Kevin Dooley, 58, was “lucky enough” to capture this extremely intense moment and says he has “never captured anything like this before ”    Kevin, from Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, said: “I was sitting in a boat having our lunch when this happened I couldn’t believe it all.  “I heard all of this splashing, and when I looked I could see the caiman was suffering  “The anaconda just kept strangling the caiman. It had even broken all of the crocodile’s legs ”  The wildlife photographer said he was sitting around 30ft away from the animals eating his lunch when he “turned to the right and witnessed an amazing sight ”  He added: “It all happened in around eight minutes.  “I think eventually the anaconda ran out of oxygen and had to let go of the caiman  “And at that point, the caiman then bit into the snake.  “But the snake managed to get away and slither out, I think eventually the caiman died ”  Kevin said this was a rare occasion in his photography career and thinks he will “be waiting a long time to see this happen again ”  He added: “I felt very blessed and very lucky and somewhat sad for the caiman.  “I never thought in my life I would witness something like this ”

Review of the Bug-A-Salt, a bug killing weapon.

Review of the Bug-A-Salt, a bug killing weapon.


Okay, I’m going to review the Bug-A-Salt.
Its a gun that shoots salt that is supposed to kill bugs. Here’s how you fill it up with
salt. This is its ammo, if you will. To pump it up, slide this lever, and take off the
safety like this. before shooting bugs, I thought I’d get an idea of is power by shooting
a piece of thick card stock. It made a small dent, but otherwise nothing. So next I tried
a regular sheet of paper. Again, it made a dent, but that was all. I tried a piece of
foil. it left a lot of tiny dents. I decided to try again keeping the foil stretched tightly.
This time it penetrated through. Ok, time for some bugs. I tried this little
beetle bug I found. It knocked him several feet away, but overall he seemed fine. I tried
one more time. Again, he seemed annoyed but otherwise unharmed as he goes about his business.
Next I tried this wasp that was trying to build a nest inside my power strip in my garage.
It knocked him for a loop, but he was also unharmed. Next I tried this fly I found in
my kitchen. Wow. It actually worked well. He died almost instantly, as you can see here.
Next I tried a couple of spiders. here’s the first one, and the second one. Neither spider
was hurt by this. So I found this tiny grasshopper. As you guessed, he was not hurt. I tried one
more time, but again, he was not hurt. Al right, so what are my final thoughts on
the bug-a-salt? Well, I think its a great idea! I love the idea of being able to shoot
at bugs without worrying about damaging my property with a projectile. um, in practice,
doesn’t work so well as you can see in the video, um, works well against flies, but I’ve
tried a variety of other insects, no nothing. I tried a bunch of june bugs. I shot one of
them about 20 times. I didn’t get it on video because it was too dark outside. I want to
show you something else that really irritates me about this design, its this safety thing.
Every time you pump it up, you have to disengage the safety. It re-engages it every single
time. And I can’t tell you how many times I went to shoot a bug, and I had it just in
my aim. Pull the trigger, nothing happened. Then I have to take back, pull the stupid
safety back, and by that time, the bug has moved or whatever. Really, really irritating
that the safety resets itself every single time. But anyway, as you can see its not particularly
effective against wasps, I certainly wouldn’t try attacking a wasp nest like this, you’re
just going to wind up getting yourself stung. In fact, that’s another disadvantage I have
to tell you about. There were at least two or three occasions in my video where I was
shooting spiders or wasps. the spiders actually came back, I mean it actually hit the spider
and blew the spider off the wall and back onto me. That’s why the video ends so abruptly
on the spider videos because I had to brush the spider off of me. And when I shot the
wasp in my garage, that wasp came after me. I had to take off running. If I’d had another
camera setup you know about 50 feet away, you’d have seen me hauling butt with this
thing in my hand. Because it was not real pleased about getting knocked four feet away
from where it was but otherwise it was unharmed. So I guess my final review is if you like
shooting flies, this is probably the device for you. If you need to kill any other kind
of bug, don’t waste your money. Send me some comments, tell me what you’d like to see in
the next video. If you happen to live in the Dallas/Ft.Worth area and you want to do a
joint video sometime, let me know that as well and I’ll see you next time.

HIDDEN SAFE found by Adley and Mom!! Catching Bugs turns into a FUN Surprise!


– I see the cape, come on Mommy! I see the cape. – [Mom] I hear something. I thought I heard something. – Heard something? – Maybe it was a frog. I don’t know. Wait, I think I heard it over here. – Mommy! (dramatic bass) – Whoa!
– I found it! (gentle guitar music) (screams) – I’m gonna try to catch some bugs. – And I don’t like grasshoppers. How ’bout we catch a butterfly? – Uh huh. Butterfly! – Do you see one? – Over there, far. – It’s coming back, this way! – This way. – [Mom] I see some over here. – Me too. – Oh there it is. (squeals) – That was a bee. – That was a grasshopper. – I didn’t know grasshoppers can fly. – [Mom] Oh right there. See it? So close! There’s another one right here. Oh, dang it. – Whoa! – [Mom] Get him. That was close. – Let’s see if we see any more. – Yeah. – It’s over there.
– It’s right there. – Oh let’s go check on
that island over there. – Okay, that’s a good idea. – La la la – Skip, skip. – If we see you, if we’re quiet, then one will come out. Mommy. – What? – There’s a lion key. – What they heck, you found a key? – Yeah. Hey maybe it goes
to our treasure chest. – Really? – Yeah. – Should we go find some? – Yeah, put the key in here. – Okay, key is safe. – Yeah. Now no bugs will get it. – No bugs or people will get the key. What if we came here
looking for butterflies and we actually find treasure instead? – But now we have a
key, maybe we could have a treasure chest. – Yeah. – Let’s go find a treasure chest. – Okay. Could be anywhere. – It could be in here. – What kind of bugs do
you think live in here? – I think maybe grasshoppers. – Grasshoppers? – Oh I think maybe frogs really
live in here, ’cause lookit. – Yeah, let’s not fall
in, that looks gross. – And it looks like gross sand. – Oh look, dragonflies. – This is where dragonflies live. I see the cave, I see
the cape! Come on Mommy! I see the cape. – [Mom] I hear something. I thought I heard something. – Heard something? – Maybe it was a frog, I don’t know. Wait, I think I heard it over here. – Mommy! – Whoa!
– I found it! – [Mom] You think that’s it? – Yeah, key! That’s the key! – Oh my gosh. Oh, it’s really heavy, can you help me? – Yep. (grunts) okay, let’s open it on the, over here. – Let’s take it in the, what is that? – That’s a pirate ship, maybe. – Let’s take it to the pirate ship. – Yeah, and play ‘tend pirate. – Do you need help? That’s really heavy. – I got it. Let’s take it to a picnic table. – I wonder what could be inside? – Yeah. – Okay, set it down. – I want to open it Mom, give me the key. – Okay, let’s get the key. Here’s the key. – Okay, open. – [Mom] Push the key in. It worked! We just opened it! – Lookit, boxes. – I wonder what’s in them. – Let’s open this one first. – Oh yeah, they have
little punch out things. – What the heck? It has little gun shooters, I know it! – What? – But it needs a bomb. – Look at this, what are they? – Little stickers. I think after we open all these, maybe let’s put them into piles. – Put it in the safe? Oh my gosh, look what’s in here. – What? – [Mom] A diamond, a purple one! – Let’s open this. – And there’s a blue one! What else could be? – Let’s break it! Oh I need this. Finally. – A hammer? Why do we need a hammer? – Watch this. – Uh oh. – Oh it doesn’t (laughs) – There’s two more. You got a red, a green, and a yellow. Cool! – You wanna try, Mom? – Yeah. – This one. – Do the red one? Okay, whoa! Holy cow. – I think this is a hammer. – What if we need the hammer
for something in here? – Yeah! – Okay, so we’re done with this box. – I’m gonna hammer this and fix it. Open. Let’s break this. – [Mom] What? Glasses? – This is what we need. Oh, this is what we
really need, for hammer. Mom, take those glasses off. – Whoa, your eyes are like, sparkling. – Can I try? – Yeah. And look– – [Adley] Mommy! – It’s a space rocket guy. – There’s another one. You wanna do this one? – Yep, let’s do the next one. – Let’s open this. This one, – Yep, pull the two. Whoa, okay now it says do the three. Oh my gosh. – Open your glasses up, hurry. – Holy cow. I think we need to build it. – Oh there’s another – Another key? – We gotta find what the key belongs to after we build this guy, okay? – Okay, good idea. Okay, where does the arm go? – Okay, here. – Here’s the other arm. Now what do you need? – Now legs.
– Legs? – I’ll put the legs on by myself. – [Mom] Okay. – Now he’ll be super rocket, here you go, it’s so nice. Let’s up this up, I forgot. – Okay, what did we forget? – We forgot the key, remember we’re gonna find the key works. – Yeah, where do you think that key goes? – Gotta find. – Do you see another one? – Treasure? You see another treasure? – Okay, what if it’s inside? Do you see anything in here? – [Adley] No, – What? Right there! Do you think that key fits? – [Adley] Yeah, it does, it does, it does! (gasps) – I got it. What? Confetti! What else is in there? Money! Treasure! This is a brick of silver. We could use this for our pirate treasure. – It’s just a little, it’s like a fridge. – It does look like a fridge. – [Adley] Okay, the dreck packs are her, his works and he flies. – Hey do you wanna fly with me? – Yeah, let me put this over here. – [Mom] Let’s turn our jet packs on! – I don’t have a jet pack. – [Mom] I’ll hold you. – Aw, thank you. – [Mom] Three, two, one
– [Adley] Two, one (whoosh) thanks for watching, bye! (upbeat music)

Are Insects Really Going Extinct? – De-Natured

Are Insects Really Going Extinct? – De-Natured


On Nature League, we spend the third week
of each month exploring a current trending article from the peer-reviewed literature. Scientific information isn’t just for scientists.
It’s for everyone! It just requires a bit of a break down. [CHEERY INTRO MUSIC] For this month’s De-Natured segment, we’re
going to look at an article released online in January 2019 in the journal Biological
Conservation. This month is all about extinction, and in
this month’s Lesson Plan we discussed some traits that are connected to a higher likelihood
of extinction. We mentioned how species with larger body sizes and ranges are typically
more likely to go extinct from currently existing threats and pressures. But what about smaller organisms? What about
the world’s insects? Are they actually going extinct? In this paper entitled, “Worldwide decline
of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers”, the researchers investigated current trends
and types of extinction threats to entomofauna (or insects) worldwide, and their results
have stirred up some serious alarm. But first, let’s discuss what’s already
known. It’s estimated that about ⅕ of all vertebrates
on Earth are threatened with extinction. These estimates come from decades of research on
vertebrate species around the world. However, scientists have only recently started noting
concerns about extinction risks to invertebrates, including insects. The main drivers of biodiversity loss at present
are habitat loss and overexploitation; however, there is also evidence that the intensification
of agriculture is the main driver of declines in smaller groups of taxa like birds, insect-eating
mammals, and insects. And it’s not just the conversion of some
habitat into agricultural lands- it’s also the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
that’s driving some of the declines. In fact, two studies in 2013 pointed to pesticides
as the primary driver of population declines of grasslands birds and stream organisms. However, we don’t know whether these factors
are /also/ connected to the global decline of insects being witnessed at present. Unfortunately, more and more research is providing
evidence for a major and ongoing decline in insects worldwide. What’s additionally troubling
is that even though insects make up close to ⅔ of all land-dwelling species on Earth,
most of the recent studies on insect declines weren’t able to explain the majority of
the declines. In this study, the team summarized all available
research on insect declines worldwide and identified likely causes of these declines.
They searched databases of peer-reviewed literature for any long-term insect surveys published
within the last 40 years. They came up with 653 total publications,
but filtered this list by removing studies that focused on individual species, outbreaks
of pest species, and species considered invasive. Additional filtering related to study design
and data types was implemented, resulting in a final total of 73 papers. The team used these papers to estimate the
annual rate of decline for different groups of insects and regions of the world. Then,
they counted and analyzed the reported drivers of these declines. So what did they find? In this paper, the authors report their findings
by taxa, or species groups, and by region. These details are available in the full article,
but for the purposes of this episode we’re going to focus on overall trends and threats. Overall, the largest losses of insect biodiversity
on land are in dung beetles in Mediterranean countries. Of these species, more than 60%
are in decline, and a large proportion are considered threatened with extinction. Almost
half of moth and butterfly species are declining more quickly than expected, and in bees, 1
in 6 species have gone regionally extinct. Overall, aquatic insects fared even worse
than those on land. The research team also wanted to investigate
what the drivers of these declines were as stated in the papers they considered. Close
to half of the studies included in their meta-analysis indicated that habitat loss and change were
the main driver of insect declines, and the authors stress that a lot of this is due to
agriculture. In fact, a quarter of their studies indicated that agriculture-related practices
were the /main driver/ of insect declines, both on land and in aquatic systems. The second main driver of reported insect
declines was pollution, specifically in the form of fertilizers, synthetic pesticides,
sewage and landfill components, and industrial chemicals from factories and mining operations.
Other drivers included biological factors like parasites and pathogens, and climate
change, which impacts abundance and distribution of many insect species. In conclusion, by compiling the results of
published, peer-reviewed articles, the authors estimate that the proportion of insect species
in decline is 41%, and the pace of local extinctions is 10%. In the countries studied, the researchers
estimate that about ⅓ of all insect species are threatened with extinction. This article is making major waves on social
media and in the mainstream news media, which is rare for a journal article. Here’s why I think
this peer-reviewed piece is making the rounds: First off, we’re sort of late to the insect
game research-wise despite them making up such a massive amount of life on Earth. So,
any time a review article is published that catches us up on such a big piece of biodiversity,
scientists and the public alike get excited. So, that’s the positive spin here…but
you can probably guess what’s coming next. The main reason I think this study went viral
is because the news is… bad. Like… really bad. To put it in perspective, the 41% of insects
declining is double the proportion of decline in vertebrate species. And the local extinction
rate of insects this study estimates is 8 times the local extinction rate of vertebrates. So perhaps a better question is, “What’s
the big deal about losing insects?” Most scientists will cite quite a few reasons,
and most of these have to do with the services that insects provide for us and other species.
These include pollination, food, nutrient cycling, and decomposition, among many others. What’s more, the authors mention that because
the declines in insects were documented in the majority of species across different groups
of taxa, it is, in the authors’ words, “evident that we are witnessing the largest extinction
event on Earth since the late Permian and Cretaceous periods”. Cool. As with any piece of new research, there are
several areas of improvement that exist in this study. This study was a meta-analysis- that means
the researchers compiled and analyzed /other/ research. So, this study is subject to all
of the uncertainties of the /73 papers/ included in their analysis. My issue is not with meta-analyses, but rather
with data uncertainty. There’s simply not enough information provided in the paper as
presented to analyze the sources or extent of uncertainty in combining this many different
measurements from so many different papers. Another issue I have with this meta-analysis
is the inherent geographic bias in data availability. Long-term scientific surveys typically get
funded and take place in developed countries, usually in the northern hemisphere. However,
the authors directly acknowledge this, and suggest that their review doesn’t, in their
words, “adequately cover trends in tropical regions, where information on insect biodiversity
is either incomplete or lacking”. And now for some real talk. One of my critiques
here is more of a word of caution, particularly when discussing the results. There is a /big
difference/ between declining populations and extinct populations. Just because a population
or species is declining /does not mean/ it is, or will go, extinct. We have to be really careful to distinguish
these two processes. The authors of this paper do a good job of making this distinction,
but some reporting outlets have definitely confused the two. So let’s be clear- this
study used other studies to estimate that 41% of insect species are currently in decline.
But, these species are still here, and still living, mutating, adapting, and evolving to
the threats they’re facing. While extinctions have and will continue to happen, life on Earth
has proven itself to be a formidable contender. My last critique comes from ongoing research
in both ecology and environmental philosophy, and it has to do with phrases and wording
about ecosystems being pushed “beyond the brink” and “collapsing”. For example, in the conclusion section of
the paper, the authors state that in terms of these current insect declines, “the repercussions
this will have for the planet’s ecosystem are catastrophic to say the least, as insects
are at the structural and functional base of many of the world’s ecosystems”. Okay, so these are strong words, and the news
outlets reporting on this study are using the same kind of “collapse” and “catastrophe”
language. Don’t get me wrong- if this report is accurate,
I’m not happy about the results. I personally value having more species on Earth than less. But that value comes from a place of intrinsic
worth, and not some balance-of-nature, ecosystem-stability angle.
The thing is, we don’t really know what happens to ecosystems without insects. Perhaps
this would result in other species going extinct… or perhaps other species would fill these functional
roles and a different form of biodiversity would exist. There isn’t some perfectly “balanced ecosystem” —
this is completely relative to a pre-established idea of what “balanced” looks like. So
my biggest critique here is a personal one- I wish we could discuss how much it sucks
to lose species because of their own intrinsic worth instead of some human-conceived notion
of the “balance of nature”. My personal take home message? Insects are
incredible in their own right, and our actions are negatively impacting them in ways that
could lead to some extinctions. Thanks for watching this episode of De-Natured
here on Nature League. We’ll be shooting a question and answer episode soon, and we’d
love to hear from you. If you have a question related to life on
Earth, leave it in the comments below or tweet me @Nature_League and your question could
be featured in the next Q and A video. And, to keep going on life on Earth adventures
with us each week, make sure to subscribe at
youtube.com/nature league and share.

📻 Mini Spy FM Transmitter Bug – A Wireless Spy Listening Device

📻 Mini Spy FM Transmitter Bug – A Wireless Spy Listening Device


hey what’s going on guys, this is Kedar here so today we are going to build an FM transmitter that is ultra small, so let’s get started, now if you do a quick little Google search on to FM transmitter circuit. you’ll get many simple yet working circuits. if you prototype this circuits. it works really good but still they are big enough so they are not considered as spy ! so after searching little bit onto the internet i found this very interesting FM transmitter modules, this modules have a built-in microphone and you can also adjust the frequency by this potentio meter so i decided to use this modules for the battery i’m going to use this 3.7 volts lipo battery. i’m using this hundred milli amps per hour capacity and it will last more than 50 minutes of use. so start by soldering positive and negative terminal of the battery to FM transmitter module and there it is guys your FM transmitter should be transmitting now by default the FM transmitter range is not good. so we need to build an antenna so for that I’m going to use this conductive copper foil and i’m going to install this copper foil in cross manner like this and I’m going to solder this wire to the middle terminal of FM transmitter board so there it is guys our mini FM transmitter bug is ready.. now to set up we need to turn on any kind of FM receiver i’m going to use my smartphone FM, one of the advantages of using that I can also record my audios through this one so turn on your fm receiver and start by scanning your FM next channels and eventually you will find your own voice coming out through the FM receiver and now if you want to set your FM transmitter on to the particular frequency, you can do that by setting your frequency onto your FM receiver then tune the potentio meter on to the FM transmitter module so i’m going to show you how it will sound like. now in this test I’m going to use my smartphones built-in recording feature so let’s hear to that audio. i just finished making this spy FM transmitter bug, so this small device can transmit your audio into FM frequencies. so right now i’m recording this voice into my smartphone fm recording feature, so let’s hear the ambience you can clearly see how sensitive the mic is because (if i whisper into the mic you can here my voice pretty clearly) whispering that’s how sensitive the mic is so this is my FM transmitter bug you can take a look at its size. it’s really small we can fit in almost any kind of spaces now if you want to make this bug much smaller than this you can actually use this button cell batteries, you can use two of those in series you can make this bug more thinner, anyways guys now I’m really interested to know where you’re gonna use this one. so let me know in the comments down below guys and you’re like really helps me a lot so please hit that like button below guys also subscribe to my channel for next interesting DIY projects and thanks for watching goodbye

Iggy Azalea Eats Kangaroo and Talks New Playboi Carti Album | Disgustingly Healthy | Men’s Health


– I literally wouldn’t care if you asked to see my butt hole. I would do it before I would eat this. (piano music with a rhythmic drumbeat) What’s up, guys? It’s me, Iggy, and I’m here
with Men’s Health today to play Disgustingly Healthy. I have to taste test all of these disgustingly healthy
Australian-themed meals or, if I’m not game enough to try them, answer what’s probably going
to be a terrible question. So, let’s see how I go. Okay, plate number one, let’s see. That looks really mummified. Emu jerky. I don’t really wanna eat,
like, Outback delicacies. Yeah, I can’t do it, so I don’t even care what the question is, I’m gonna answer it. You said you once lost 15
pounds in a week by twerking. Rate the following twerkers: Cardi B, Nicki Minaj, Miley Cyrus. Well, Miley Cyrus is the
skinniest of all these people, so maybe that means she’s the best twerker because she’s lost the
most weight doing it. Next. Why is this all disgusting jerky? I don’t think this is
disgustingly healthy, this is just disgustingly disgusting! Python jerky? I’m not eating a snake, no. Like, I would vomit if I ate that. Why did your album take so long? Because I’m a procrastinator, okay? I’m a Gemini and I can
never make a decision really about anything. I say things and I take them back, and I say them and I take them back. It’s my personality and that’s
what I do with my album, so maybe I’ll hate it
next month, who knows? It’s kinda what I do. Next. Oh, this looks like something
I like, a hamburger. This seems too good too be true. Oh, a kangaroo burger. That’s fine, I’ll actually
eat a kangaroo burger. I have no problem eating kangaroo. Do I wanna eat this though?
It tastes like dog food. I mean, it smells like it. I’ll just have a little bite of this. Hm, it’s fine, it just
tastes like red meat. This is good, I’ll pack this to go. The next thing is, I don’t even know, but that’s disgusting. I don’t like to eat things
out of a can, uh-uh. It says mutton, that’s a lamb. Like an old lamb, isn’t it? I literally wouldn’t care if you asked to see my butt hole. I would do it before I would eat this. This is so gross. (gagging) Smells like wet dog food. Which of your exes can
bench press the most weight? Oh, well half of these
people aren’t even my ex. I’ve never dated any of these guys. I don’t even know them, I’ve never even seen them in the street. The only person I’ve ever
dated is Playboi Carti and I don’t know anybody else, so don’t ask me about them. Next. (sighs) That looks really gross. I can tell that it’s
Vegemite, which is fine, but there seems like there’s a dead insect spider thing on it. Vegemite toast with a tarantula. I don’t really want to eat a spider, but would it make me
more a badass if I did? Would I get a point for that? I don’t know. Would you rather write
a song with Azalea Banks or go on a date with Nick
Young at Outback Steakhouse. Hmm. Suddenly, this toast isn’t looking so bad. I’m gonna smell it. I might eat this. Should I eat it? Yeah, I have to think about
this for a bit, I’m not ready. I’ve gotta work myself up. I love Vegemite, that’s the
thing, so it’s like, mm, there’s something about
this that you like! And something about this that you don’t! I’m not eating that part. The legs look a little scary. Maybe the back part? This looks like it’s just a raisin. All right, it’s a raisin. It’s just a raisin! (thunder crashes) Honestly? It just tastes like Vegemite. Mm, it has a very metallic
aftertaste that’s happening now. It tastes like I licked metal. I ate a Vegemite sandwich and
then I licked a metal pole. That’s how I’d describe that. That was fine, that was great, I’d love to have some more of that later. Oh! See, now this is like a classic dish with a twist, I see. Fairy bread for fairies! When you have a birthday
party in Australia, people always make this bread and it has butter on it and
then you dip it in sprinkles. I love fairy bread. I haven’t had it for a long time, but it seems like this fairy bread has something evil on it. I don’t know what that is. Maybe like, a worm, little worms? Fairy bread with termites. When is “Whole Lotta Red” dropping? (laughs) Do you know I get trolled with
this question all the time? I’m never gonna tell you when “Whole Lotta Red”
is dropping, you guys. Nice try. I can tell you “Whole
Lotta Red” is amazing and it’s next level and it’s way better than anything any of the other people out
here are doing, for real. It’s like (clicks tongue). But I can’t tell you when it’s coming out. And I don’t think I wanna eat this. Maybe I’ll sniff it. Hmm, what do termites do, eat wood? That’s not that bad. I’ll
just have a little bite where there’s not as many termites. For you. ‘Cause I love you. I’m lucky my boyfriend’s
not seeing me today. He’d be like, “We can’t kiss for a month”. I’ll try it. It’s already gonna be crunchy, so. (crunching) This tastes like I’m at a party, I’m having fun, I’m gonna play pass the parcel. This is fine, it just tastes like you dropped your fairy bread in dirt. (trumpet fanfare) So, my least disgusting
is kangaroo burger. This is fine. It just tastes like a regular beef patty. The most disgusting is this. Like, if you eat this,
you’re a sick individual. It’s truly evil. (slow jazz music)

Dr. Michael Greger on Pandemic Prevention | Infectious Diseases, Aids, Climate Change, Influenza


the two greatest threats facing humanity
according to the United Nations are climate change and emerging infectious
disease particularly pandemic influenza the current focus of pandemic
discussions and debate understandably centers on what we in the public health
community refer to as secondary prevention mediating the impact of the
next pandemic an intervention analogous to mammography mammograms don’t prevent
cancer but if caught early enough for example we may be able to decrease
morbidity and mortality in the same with pandemic planning but what of primary
prevention the possibility of preventing the emergence of pandemic viruses in the
first place like cancer the root cause is likely multifactorial difficult to
tease out but a question worth exploring nonetheless and the question I’d like to
address here today let’s go back a few years 1981 here in the United States
Ronald Reagan takes the oath MTV starts broadcasting Indiana Jones and pac-man
mania is all the rage in June the CDC released a tiny bulletin five men in Los
Angeles it seems were dying with a strange cluster of symptoms from humble
beginnings AIDS has since killed 25 million people now the spread certainly
of the AIDS virus has been facilitated by promiscuity blood banking IV drug use
but where did this virus come from in the first place
and of course AIDS is not our only new diseases SARS Ebola mad cow bird flu but
from where do emerging diseases emerge well let’s go back a bit further much
further human beings have been on this earth for millions of years yet
throughout most of you Lucian there were no epidemic diseases
no one ever got the measles because measles didn’t exist
no one got smallpox no one got the flu not even the common cold until about
here 10,000 years ago medical anthropologists have identified three
major periods of disease since the beginning of human evolution and the
first started just 10,000 years ago with the domestication of animals we brought
animals into the barnyard they brought their diseases with them
when we domesticated cows and sheep for example we also domesticated their
rinderpest virus which turned into human measles now thought of as relatively
benign disease over the last 150 years measles has killed 200 million people
and in a sense all those deaths can ultimately be traced back just a few
hundred generations to the taming of the first cattle smallpox likely came from
camel pox we domesticated pigs and got whooping cough we domesticated chickens
and we got typhoid fever and typhoid mary and domesticated ducks and got
influenza before the domestication of ducks likely no one ever got the flu
leprosy likely came from water buffalo and the common cold from horses how
often did wild horses have the opportunity to sneeze into humanity’s
collective face until they were broken and bridled until then the common cold
was presumably only common to them and his Pulitzer prize-winning book Guns
Germs and Steel professor diamond tried to explain why the diseases of the
landing europeans wiped out up to 95 percent of the native americans and not
the other way around why didn’t need of American plagues kill
the Europeans well because there were no plagues in his chapter lethal gift of
livestock he explains how before the Europeans arrived we had Buffalo but no
domesticated Buffalo so no measles american camels were wiped out in the
Pleistocene ice age so no smallpox no pigs and no
pertussis chicken some no typhoid so while people were dying by the millions
of killers Courage’s in Europe and Asia none were dying with diseases in the
so-called new world because there weren’t essentially form animals to
domesticate there wasn’t this spillover of animal disease the next great a
period of human disease started just a few hundred years ago with the
Industrial Revolution the 18th and 19th centuries leading to an epidemic of the
so called diseases of civilization diabetes obesity heart disease cancer
etc but by the mid 20th century the age of infectious disease at least was
thought to be over we had penicillin we conquered polio eradicated smallpox in
fact in 1968 the US Surgeon General declared the war against infectious
disease has been won in 1975 the Dean of Yale School of Medicine pronounced that
there were no new diseases to be discovered except maybe lung cancer but
even Nobel laureates were seduced in the heady optimism of the time one famous
virologist wrote in 1962 textbook to write about infectious disease is almost
to write about something that’s passed into history the most likely forecast by
the future of infectious disease he wrote is that it will be very dull but
then something changed after decades of declining infectious disease mortality
the United States the trend has reversed in recent decades this is a graph from
the CDC of infectious disease mortality over time in the last 50 years or so and
as you can see it starts declining declining declining decline but then
around 1975 it started to go back up the number of Americans dying from
infectious disease started to go back up starting around 1975 new
diseases started to emerge and reemerge at a rate unheard of in the annals of
Medicine more than 30 new diseases in 30 years mostly newly discovered viruses in
fact the whole concept of emerging infectious disease has gone from a mere
curiosity in the field of medicine now it’s an entire discipline really moved
to center stage we may soon be facing according to the US since titute of
Medicine what they call a catastrophic storm of microbial threats we are now
smack dab in the third era of human disease which seems to only start at
about 30 years ago medical historians have called this time in which we live
the age of emerging plagues almost all of which come from animals but we
domesticated animals 10,000 years ago what has changed in recent decades to
bring us to this current situation well we are changing the way animals live
take Connecticut for example where in 1975 Lyme disease was first recognized
since spread across all 50 states affecting an estimated 100,000 Americans
since its emergence Lyme disease is caused by bacteria infected deer ticks
but the primary host is actually not deer but the white-footed Mouse the
ticks themselves not quite as cute really but we’ve been sharing the woods
with these fellows forever what changed recently was suburbia the
black legged ticks live on the white-footed Mouse kept at bay by
woodland predators the Zen developers came in and chopped up America’s
woodlands into subdivisions scaring away the foxes and bobcats and now we have
more mice more ticks and more disease we are changing the way animals live going
back a little farther with the big cattle producing nations fighting during
the Second World War what Argentina did took advantage of the
situation by dramatically expanding its beef industry at the expense of its
rainforest they we discovered the deadly human virus or
rather it discovered us and the so-called hamburger ization of the
rainforest exposed hemorrhagic fever viruses all across the continent
subsequently turning to the other side of the world in cutting into Africa’s
rainforests exposed a number of other hemorrhagic fever viruses including loss
of iris Rift Valley fever and of course Ebola now the inroads into Africa’s
rainforest were logging roads cut by transnational timber corporations
hacking deep into the rainforest drag down along a hungry migrant workforce
which survived on bush meat wild animals killed for food now this includes
upwards of 26 different species of primates including a number of
endangered great ape species gorillas chimpanzees who are shot butchered
smoked and sold as food now by cannibalizing our fellow primates we may
be exposing ourselves to viruses particularly fine-tuned to our own
primate physiology in fact recent outbreaks of Ebola for example have been
traced to the exposure to the bodies of infected great apes hunted for food now
Ebola is one of our deadliest infections but not efficiently spread compared to a
virus like HIV the leading theory as to the emergence of the AIDS virus is
direct exposure to animal blood and secretions as a result of hunting
butchering and the consumption of contaminated bush meat experts believe
the most likely scenario is that each fight HIV arose from human song their
way into the jungle butchering chimpanzees for their flesh along the
way now in many countries in Africa the
prevalence of HIV exceeds 25% of the adult population leaving millions of
orphan children and its way someone butchered a chimp a few decades ago and
now 25 million people are dead but mod life has been hunted for
thousands of years yes but never before like this with a demand for wildlife
meat outstripping local supplies what countries have done is set up these
intensive captive production farms cramming wild animals in these cramped
filthy cages then smuggling them around the world this intensive commercial
bushmeat trade actually started in the live markets of Asia particularly the
Guangdong province of southern province rounding Hong Kong from which the
current bird flu threat arose the civet cat popular commodity in these Chinese
animal markets in addition to being raised for their flesh they also produce
the most expensive coffee in the world so-called fox dung coffee is produced by
feeding coffee beans to captive civets and then you guessed it recovering the
partially digested beans from their feces a musk like substance of buttery
consistency secreted by the anal glands is said to give this coffee its
distinctive flavor one might say this unique drink is good to the last drop in
this animal was blamed for the SARS epidemic cloning from the medical
journal Lancet a culinary choice in South China a culinary choice in South
China led to a fatal infection Hong Kong subsequently eight thousand cases of
thar’s you know a thousand deaths 30 countries six continents maybe they
should have just stuck the Starbucks these live animal markets took a class
of viruses which in human medicine we had only known for causing the common
cold and seemed to turn them into a killer SARS which then spread around the
world viruses can escape rainforests and animals live or dead as pets
or as meat in 2003 the exotic pet trade brought monkey pox from the jungles of
West Africa to Wisconsin bird-smuggling may have actually been what brought West
Nile virus to the Western Hemisphere here it hits New York in 99 since spread
across the country hundreds of human deaths of cases all perhaps because of a
single imported pet bird so we are changing the way animals live
contributing to the emergence of these new diseases but you know there’s one
way we have changed our relationship with animals they’re really out shadows
all the rest in response to this torrent of emerging and re-emerging infectious
diseases the world’s three leading authorities got together for a joint
consultation the World Health Organization the Food and Agriculture
Organization the United Nations and the World Organization for Animal Health the
world’s leading veterinary Authority got together to uncover the key underlying
causes of this age of emerging plagues they came up with four four main risk
four main themes of risk factors for the emergence and spread of these new
diseases yes they talked about the exotic pet trade they talked about bush
meat but number one on their list was this increasing demand for animal
protein the world over yes we domesticated animals 10,000 years ago
but never before like this especially pigs and poultry chickens used to peck
around the barnyard but now chickens raised for meat are
typically warehouse and sheds containing tens of thousands of birds about half of
the egg-laying hens on this planet are now confined what are called battery
cages the small barren wire enclosures extending down long rows and windowless
sheds can be up to a million birds on a single farm about half of the pigs on a
planet are now again crowded into these intensive confinement operations
you know old MacDonald’s farm has since been replaced by the new MacDonald’s
farm these intensive systems represent the most profound alteration of the
human animal relationship in ten thousand years and no surprise they are
breeding grounds for disease few snapshots China 2005
the largest pork producing nation suffers an unprecedented outbreak of an
emerging Pig pathogen strep suus causing meningitis and deafness and people
handling infected pork products hundreds of people infected the deadliest strain
on record why well according to the World Health Organization indeed it
seems to be these intensive confinement conditions the USDA elaborates all strep
suah starts out harmless as natural gut flora
but then the immunosuppressive effect of stress due to overcrowding inadequate
ventilation causes the bug to go invasive causing infections of the brain
blood lungs heart and death starts out harmless turns deadly that’s what these
kind of conditions seem to be able to do this is not arguably how animals were
meant to live pig factories in Malaysia birth the Nipah virus one the deadliest
of human infections a contagious respiratory ailment killing 40 percent
of those infects causing relapse and brain infections propelling it on the
official US list of bioterrorism agents and again according to one of the
leaders of the field it seems to be the way in which we now raise these animals
so the three eras of human disease can be characterized perhaps as first the
diseases of domestication then the diseases of industrialization of finally
of land-use and agricultural intensification we took natural
herbivores like cows and sheep turned them into carnivores and cannibals by
feeding them slaughterhouse waste blood and manure and then we took down animals
too sick to even walk fed them to people and now have ad cow disease
we feed antibiotics to farm animals by the truckload this is the total amount
of antimicrobials used for all of human medicine every year now contrast that
with the amount we feed to farm animals just to promote growth or prevent
disease in such a stressful on hygienic environment
millions of pounds a year and now we have these multi drug-resistant bacteria
and we as physicians are running out of good antibiotic options scientists at
NYU trace the path of some of these superbugs quote-unquote starting for
example with the mass feeding of the cipro class of antibiotics to chickens
and then we there is a fecal contamination of the carcass at
slaughter we buy chicken at the supermarket polluted with fecal material
leading to longer and more severe human infections the CDC recently really
cinched it they they spend a million dollars over three year period doing
rectal swabs newly admitted hospital patients this is what they found
essentially in they found zero growth of these antibiotic resistant bacteria
within the bodies of those that had zero contact with fresher frozen poultry but
at least he’s so-called superbugs aren’t effectively transmitted from one person
to the other with the seeming propensity of
industrial animal agriculture to churn out these novel lethal human pathogens
what if these animal factories gave rise to a virus capable of a global pandemic
of disease let me put these new animal disease threats in perspective SARS
infected thousands of human beings killed hundreds niba infected hundreds
killed scores strep suus infected scores killed dozens now AIDS has infected
millions but there’s only one virus on the planet that can rapidly infect
billions and that’s influenza influenza the so called last great plague of
humankind is the only known past and capable of truly global catastrophe
these days unlike many other important diseases like malaria which are largely
confined at the equator or a virus like HIV which is only fluid borne the
influenza virus is considered the only passed and capable of literally
infecting half of humanity within a matter of months now in the 4,500 years
that we as species have had influenza since the
first domestication of birds influenza has always been one of our most
contagious known diseases but only since the emergence of this highly pathogenic
highly disease causing strain h5n1 as the influenza virus also emerged as one
of our deadliest h5n1 spreading out of Asia 2004 2005 2006 and continuing to
this day has only killed about a hundred few hundred people and not to minimize
each death is a terrible tragedy but in a world in which millions of people
continue to die of diseases like AIDS Tuberculosis why is there so much
concern about the so called bird flu because it’s happened before because the
last time a bird flu virus adapted to human beings it triggered the worst
plague in human history the influenza pandemic of 1918 modern flu strains tend
to spare young healthy adults but the 1918 virus killed people in the prime of
life in 1918 a quarter of all Americans fell ill this is a chart of percent of
population die humanity’s greatest mass murderer eluded scientists for nearly a
century before a mass grave in Alaska was unearthed victims of the pandemic
frozen in the permafrost for 80 years traces of virus in her lungs allowed
scientists to piece together letter by letter the genetic code of the 1918
virus solving perhaps the greatest medical detective story of all time
humanity’s greatest killer was bird flu for
civilian casualty in the u.s. was September 11th ironically 1918 and then
in a single month this was week one week two week three week four and this is
1918 we’re talking steam locomotive here scientists at the Imperial College of
London ran a simulation to see how a pandemic might spread today in the UK scientists at Los Alamos ran a
simulation through their supercomputers to see how a pandemic might spread in
the day of commercial airline travel here at hits LA in this simulation and
in a few weeks the entire country is blanketed in 1918 between 50 and 100
million people lost their lives a similar virus today could kill many many
more what started out for millions as muscle aches and a fever ended days or
even hours later with many people bleeding from their eyes from their
nostrils from their ears into their lungs homeless orphans their parents
dead wandered the empty streets one agonized official in the stricken East
sent an urgent warning West quote hunt up your woodworkers and set them making
coffins then take your street laborers and set them to digging graves this is a
clipping from the New York Times at the time victims of plague everywhere great
pyres of bodies consumed by the flames many victims strangled and their own
bloody fluids their corpses tinged blue from suffocation were said to have been
stacked like cordwood outside of morgues as cities ran out of coffins so they dug
mass graves that bird flu originating virus killed more people in 25 weeks
than AIDS is killed in 25 years no war no plague no
famine has ever killed so many people and so short a time as the 1918 pandemic
yet in 1918 the mortality rate of this disease was less than 5% this estimate
here potentially tens of millions of people dead in the next pandemic is
based on that same two to three percent mortality rate what the CDC is now
calling a category five pandemic around two percent mortality around two million
Americans dying so that’s two percent currently h5n1 is officially killing
over half of its human victims don’t even seem to get a coin toss as to
whether or not one lives through this disease dr. Robert Webster the world’s
leading authority on bird flu we go back to 1918 2.5 percent of people died how
many people are dying with bird flu 50 percent we’ve never seen such an event
since the time of the plagues up to 60 million Americans come down with the flu
every year what if it suddenly turned deadly that’s what keeps everyone up at
night the possibility however slight that a virus like h5n1 could trigger a
human pandemic that’d be like combining one of the most contagious known
diseases influenza with one of the deadliest like crossing a disease like
Ebola with the common cold where did this virus come from well the current
dialog surrounding avian influenza speaks of potential h5n1 pandemic as if
we’re a natural disaster hurricane earthquake of which we couldn’t possibly
have control the reality though is that the next pandemic maybe more of an
unnatural disaster of our own making in poultry bird flu has gone from an
exceedingly rare disease to one which now pops up every year the number of
outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in the first few years of this
century have already exceeded the total number of outbreaks recorded for the
entire 20th century you’ll note that these are five-year
intervals on just the first five months of 2006 we were already up to here
without breaks continuing to this day if one looks at the number of birds
involved the escalation is even more dramatic at this scale not even a blip
until the 1980s bird flu seems to be undergoing evolution in fast forward as
one leading flu expert told science we’ve gone from a few snowflakes to an
avalanche and the increase in chicken outbreaks has gone hand in hand with
increased transmission to humans a little over 10 years ago essentially no
known people not a single person known to get sick directly from bird flu but
since h5n1 rose in 1997 for other chicken flu viruses have affected people
from Hong Kong to New York City we can add another pink ring for the four cases
in England and Wales last year in the Netherlands outbreak there’s evidence
from a government investigation of a thousand people infected with
symptomatic poultry workers passing the virus on to whopping 59% of household
family members human-to-human transmission at a rate of seasonal flu
so ten years ago the dozen years ago essentially no one was getting infected
with bird flu and now there’s been over a thousand cases in continents around
the world now the Netherlands outbreak 30 million chickens died but only one
person one of the attending veterinarians tragically died so the
Netherlands virus was good at spreading but not a killing h5n1 is kind of the
opposite for h5n1 isn’t even good at spreading from birds to people look it’s
been around 10 years over ten years only a handful of people a few hundred people
have become infected and currently certainly not good it’s spreading from
person to person but the human lethality of the strain is ferocious of ten times
deadlier than the worst flu virus on record that which triggered the pandemic
of 1918 so what the Netherlands outbreak shows us is that this virus can evolve
to go directly human to human what h5n1 shows us is that this virus
can evolve into an efficient human killer if this trend is allowed to
continue our nightmare may one day be realized the worst of both worlds
contagious end deadly so to slow down or stop this rapid recent emergence of
highly pathogenic flu viruses one must first ask well what triggered this
avalanche in the first place what has changed in recent decades to bring this
all upon us the emergence of h5n1 has been blamed on free-ranging flocks wild
birds but people keeping chickens in backyards for thousands of years and
birds have been migrating for millions bird flu has been around forever what
turned bird flu into a killer well the senior correspondent news hour with Jim
Lehrer posed that question to dr. Webster the so called godfather of flu
research was there something qualitatively different about this last
decade made it possible for this disease to do something has never done before
some kind of changing conditions that suddenly lit a match to the tinder
Webster reply he said farming practices have changed she talks about growing up
on a farm but now we put millions of chickens into a chicken factory next
door to a pig factory and this virus has the opportunity to get one of these
chicken factories and make billions and billions of these mutations continuously
and so what we’ve changed is the way we raise animals and our interaction with
those animals then he talks about how the virus is escaping from the factories
infecting wild birds he says that’s what’s changed we’ve changed the way we
raise animals but we’re changed the way we raise handled by the billions the
number of chickens we slaughter every day spread wing to wing would wrap more
than twice around the world’s equator the big shift in the ecology of avian
influenza has been the intensification of the global poultry sector
the developing world meet Meg consumption has exploded leading to
these industrial scale commercial chicken facilities arguably the perfect
storm environment for the emergence and spread the so called super strains of
influenza in the early 1980s nearly all the chickens in China were raised in
tiny backyard outdoor flocks but now there are 63,000 Kay foes and China
concentrated animal feeding operations with a few of these so-called factory
farms confining 10 million birds on a single form the World Health
Organization blames emergence of h5n1 SARS Nipah virus all these new deadly
emerging Asian viruses in part what they call the over consumption of animal
products in this intensive animal agriculture the Food and Agriculture
Organization the United Nations starts up there seems to be an acceleration of
human influenza problems in recent years this is what they mean this from the
World Health Organization these are all the new influenza viruses infecting
human beings over the last century or so now turn your attention to just 1995 on
seems to be kind of snowflakes to an avalanche in people too but why well
according to the world’s leading agricultural thority this is expected to
largely relate to the intensification of poultry production and possibly pig
production as well they elaborate an internal FAO document chicken – chicken
spread particularly where assisted by this intensive husbandry conditions
causes the virus to shift adapt to a more severe highly pathogenic type of
infection intensive production favors the rapid spread of the viruses in the
so called hotting up of the virus from low pathogenicity to highly pathogenic
types factory farms it seems can be thought of as the incubators for the
emergence of highly disease-causing strains of this virus in this diagram
here they actually trace the path of a human pandemic starting with increased
demand for poultry products and ending up with a virus capable of
human-to-human transmission the United Nations in fact is called on all
governments to fight the role of what they call factory farming quoting from a
UN press release governments local authorities international agencies need
to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory farming
which combined with these live bird markets provide ideal conditions for the
virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form let me show you how it
works all bird flu viruses start out harmless to both birds and people very
important to understand they start out harmless avian influenza
has existed for millions of years as an harmless intestinal virus of aquatic
birds like ducks waterborne virus I said well how does in a duck’s intestinal bug
end up in a human cloth well in people the virus must make us sick in order to
spread must make us coffee in order to shoot fires from one person to the next
when the viruses natural reservoir Quantic birds like ducks the virus
doesn’t need to make the Ducks sick in order to spread in facts in the viruses
evolutionary best interest not to make the Ducks sick is dead ducks don’t fly
very far so the virus silently multiplies and the intestinal lining of
the duck is secreted out into the pond water is swallowed up by another duck
and the cycle continues as it has for millions of years and no one gets hurt
but if an infected duck is dragged to a live bird market for example crammed in
cages high enough to spot a virus infected feces on land bass birds
terrestrial birds like chickens well then the virus has a problem if the
virus finds itself in the gut of a chicken no longer has the luxury of easy
waterborne spread chickens aren’t paddling around in the pond so the virus
must mutate or die unfortunately for us mutating is what influenza viruses seem
to do best so in its natural reservoir it’s been described as being in total
evolutionary stasis harmless but when thrown to a new host like land-based
birds it quickly starts mutating acquiring mutations
adapt to its new host in the open air must resist dehydration for example and
it may have to spread to different organs to find a new way to travel the
intestines ain’t going to work anymore and they may find the lungs and become
an airborne pathogen which is bad news for terrestrial mammals such as
ourselves goes into chickens as an aquatic virus but may come out as the
flu in its new host the more virulent the more violent this virus becomes the
quicker may be able to overwhelm the immune system of its new host but if the
virus becomes too deadly though it may not spread as form in an outdoor setting
at least if the virus kills its host too quickly
the animal may be dead before it’s a chance to spread to too many others so
when nature is kind of a natural limit on how virulent these viruses can get or
at least there was until now enter intensive poultry production when
the next beak is just instant inches away there may be no limit how nasty
these viruses can get evolutionary biologists believe that this is the key
to the emergence of hyper virulent predator type viruses like h5n1 disease
transmission from immobilized hosts see when you have a situation where the
healthy cannot escape the disease where the virus can knock you flat and still
transmit disgust you’re so crowded then there may be no stopping rapidly
mutating viruses from becoming truly ferocious and this may explain the virus
of 1918 rising out of the trenches of World War 1 there were these crowded
troop transports boxcars were labeled 8 horses or 40 men so when this harmless
virus found itself in these kind of conditions that turned deadly millions
forced together into clamp cramped quarters no escaping a sick comrade this
is thought to be where the virus of 1918 gained its virulence from the viruses
point of view though these same trench warfare conditions
exist today in every industrial chicken shed every industrial egg operation can
find crowded stress but by the billions not just millions the industry is slowly
waking up to this growing realization that viruses previously innocuous to
natural host species have an all probability become more virulent by
passes to these large commercial populations is from an industry rate
Journal starts out harmless turns deadly that’s what these conditions may be able
to do this is not arguably how animals were meant to live so how does the
poultry industry feel about the possibility that its own animal
factories may produce a virus capable of killing millions of people around the
world well the executive editor of poultry magazine wrote an editorial on
just that topic she wrote the prospect of a virulent
flute which we have absolutely no resistance is frightening however to me
the threat is much greater to the poultry industry I’m not as worried
about the US human population dying from bird flu as I am that there will be no
chicken to eat this is this is how the Department of Interior puts it
domesticated poultry as the necessary stepping stone to create a pandemic
strain of influenza now we used to think pigs were an important link in this
chain so this probably not a good idea h5n1 found a way it seems not only to
kill people directly but seems to have gone full circle reinfecting its natural
hosts migratory aquatic species who can potentially fly this factory farm virus
to continents around the world now unfortunately for us there’s there’s
some quirk of evolution the respiratory tract of a chicken seems to bear
striking resemblance to our own primate respiratory tract on a molecular level
on a virus receptor level so as the virus gets better at infecting killing
chickens the virus may be getting better at infecting and killing us
viral gist Earl Brown specialists in the evolution of influenza viruses you have
to say dr. Brown concluded again this high-intensity chicken rearing whether
the perfect environment for the evolution for generating virulent avian
flu virus now in contrast there has never been a single recorded emergence
of a highly pathogenic flu virus ever from an outdoor chicken flock never once
has dangerous deadly virus ever arisen that we know of in chickens kept outside
you can breed a deadly virus here it can escape in fact backyard birds
free-ranging flocks even wild birds but that transition from harmless the deadly
always seems to happen in these kind of conditions because of the overcrowding
remember transmission from immobilized host because the sheer numbers because
of the inadequate ventilation the dankness helps keep the virus alive
because of the stress crippling their immune systems because of the filth the
virus is in the feces that they’re lying in which decomposing releasing ammonia
burning the respiratory tracts predisposing to respiratory infection in
the first place and because there may be no sunlight the UV rays and sunlight are
actually quite effective in destroying the influenza virus 30 minutes of direct
sunlight completely inactivates h5n1 but it can last for days in the shade and
weeks in moist manure so you put all these
factors together when you have this kind of perfect storm environment for the
emergence and spread of new super strains of influenza but what about
biosecurity don’t we want all the birds confined indoors away from waterfowl I
mean does it matter if these kind of conditions can turn a harmless virus
into a deadly virus if the harmless virus can’t get inside in the first
place well an FAO research report addressed this very question they in
their evidence-based analysis they looked at the best data set available a
massive survey of flocks in Thailand in which over a million birds were tested
for h5n1 in factory farms and backyard flocks and what they expected to find
was that backyard flocks would be at higher risk for infection because
they’re just out there in the open what they found was exactly the opposite they
found a backyard flocks are at significantly lower risk of infection
compared to commercial scale operations industrial quail and chicken operations
were at least four times more likely to become infected than backyard flocks so
not only may factory farms be the incubators for the original emergence of
high path strains based on the best science available they may also play a
role in the spread the subsequent spread of the virus as well in part because of
the massive inputs and outputs required for this industrial style of animal
agriculture tons of feed and water go in tons of waste comes out tens of
thousands of flies buzzing around and these these high volume ventilation fans
blowing dust and waste out into the countryside potentially contaminating
the air soil insects rodents transport industrial-style production can lead to
industrial style contamination of the environment
researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health I look back and
realize that their conclusions were actually consistent with other high path
outbreaks whether in the Netherlands Canada Italy other diseases factory
farms consistently at higher risk they concluded them there’s no empirical
evidence to support this myth that backyard flocks or somehow the crux of
the problem and again people been raising birds in their backyards for
about four thousand years before this disease erupted out of control on other
factors the studies have uncovered widespread disregard for biosecurity
even in developed countries which claim to have the best biosecurity in the
world according to North Carolina University poultry health management
high biosecurity is still wishful thinking in many areas of intensive
poultry production a bird flu outbreak in Virginia in 2002 led to the deaths of
four million birds found its way inside 200 factory farms highlighting just how
wishful the thinking is that industrial poultry populations are somehow
completely protected against this kind of infection based on the rapid spread
of avian influenza in Virginia recently this decade USDA poultry virologist
conclude the obvious that biosecurity on many farms is simply inadequate
investigators from the University of Maryland surveyed chicken facilities
throughout the delaware maryland virginia peninsula perhaps the most
concentrated density of chickens in the world and concluded that us chicken
flocks constantly at risk for infection triggered by these poor biosecurity
practices but even if the industry had perfect compliance with these guidelines
even if everyone going in and out stepped in antiseptic foot baths scrub
their boots wash their hands even with perfect compliance it likely would not
be enough we now know that h5n1 can be carried by flies you cannot keep
flies out of a poultry shed see h5n1 is a biosafety level 3 plus pathogen that
means in a laboratory setting this virus must only be handled in unique high
containment buildings specially engineered with airlocks double-door
access shower in shower out of floors walls ceiling sealed waterproof all
electric outlets phone cords cocked collared sealed to prevent any air leaks
all surfaces decontaminated daily all solid waste incinerated that is supposed
to handle this virus that’s biosecurity in contrast to this the global
industrial poultry industry seems to be breeding viruses like h5n1 and
essentially biosafety level zero so the poultry industry may not only be playing
with fire with no way to put it out there may be Fanning the flames and
firewalls to contain this virus do not yet exist
unfortunately leading USDA poultry viral just told an international gathering of
bird flu scientist unfortunately this level of biosecurity just doesn’t exist
in the United States and doubts really it exists anywhere in the world and
according to Merida’s poultry professor author of handbook on livestock diseases
standards of biosecurity may actually be in decline in an attempt for the
industry to cut costs now biosecurity measures is there currently practiced
certainly better nothing but may not be something we want to stake the lives of
millions of people upon for the sake of cheaper chicken a pandemic caused by
h5n1 or some comparable future bird flu virus has the capacity to trigger one of
the greatest catastrophes of all time so to decrease the risk of generate
increasing ly dangerous bird flu viruses the global poultry industry must reverse
course away from greater intensification by for example here in the annals of New
York Academy of Sciences replacing these large industrial units with smaller
farms with lower stock densities of animals which could
potentially result in less stress less disease susceptibility less intense
infectious contents and lower infectious loads across the board in 2007 the
Journal of the American Public Health Association published an editorial that
went beyond just calling for D intensification of the poultry industry
they questioned the prudence of raising so many chickens in the first place in
their editorial chickens come home to roost it is curious that changing the
way humans treat animals most basically ceasing to eat them are the very less
radically limiting the quantity of them that is eaten is largely off the radar
as a significant preventive measure such a change if sufficiently adopted or
enforced however even at this late stage could still reduce the likelihood of the
much-feared influenza pandemic it would even more likely prevent unknown future
diseases that in the absence of the change may result from farming animals
intensively and killing them for food yet humanity does not even seem to
consider this option we don’t tend to shore up the levees until after the
disaster hopefully won’t take a pandemic before we take these recommendations
into account the editorial concludes those who consume animals not only harm
those animals and endanger themselves but they also threaten the well-being of
future generations on this planet to switch avian images it is time for
humans to remove their heads from the sand and recognize the risk to
themselves that can arise from their maltreatment of other species how we
treat animals can have global public health implications it’s not surprising
then that the American Public Health Association the largest Association of
public health professionals in the world has called for a moratorium on factory
farms urging all federal state local authorities to impose a ban on the
building of new in of livestock operations to protect the
health of the local communities in terms of air water land contamination
pollution the prudence of this measure certainly grows with our increasing
understanding of the role that these operations play in emerging infectious
disease I’m often asked how the industry responds to this kind of sentiment from
the scientific community well last summer the United Nations
released yet another report on the global health risks of intensive animal
agriculture let me show you that how US agribusiness responded to this report
feedstuffs is America’s leading agribusiness publication and init Oriole
responded this way to the FAO research report FAO claims to you scientists to
generate as reports but I wonder if those scientists don’t resemble a
bearded guy living in a cave in Pakistan who wants the US on its knees all too
typical of the kind of year with us or against us industry attitude
unfortunately now this is an extreme example there are those within industry
who can take a step back and look at the longer term view avian health expert in
longtime industry insider Ken Rudd wrote a really candid article and poultry
Digest called poultry reality check needed drawing on his 37 years
experience from within the poultry industry he concluded with these
prophetic words he said now is the time to decide we can go on with business as
usual charging headlong towards lower costs or
we can begin making a prudent moves necessary to restore balance between
economics and long-range avian health we can pay now or we can pay later but it
should be known and it must be said one way or another we will pay so cutting
down our consumption of chickens and fighting the role of factory farming as
the United Nations has called for mainly prevent emergence of future viruses but
h5n1 has already been hatched already spread and
mutated into a more dangerous form and now that it is endemic in poultry
populations across two continents eradication is unlikely dr. Michael Haas
her home is the director of the u.s. Center for infectious disease research
policy a associate director with the department of homeland security he tried
to describe what an h5n1 pandemic could look like in one of the u.s. leading
Public Policy journals called foreign affairs he asked policymakers to
consider the devastation of the 2004 tsunami in South Asia
he said duplicate the tsunami in every major urban center rural community
around the planet simultaneously add in the paralyzing
fear and panic of contagion and we begin to get some sense of the potential of
pandemic influenza that’s what he thinks it could be like a tsunami in every city
every town everywhere people drowning in their own bodily fluids or we could
imagine Katrina imagine every city New Orleans around
the world at the same time all perhaps because people insisted on eating
cheaper chicken the next pandemic maybe more of an unnatural disaster of our own
making a pandemic of even moderate impact may result in a single biggest
human disaster ever far greater than AIDS 9/11 all the Wars of the 20th
century and the tsunami combined has the potential to redirect world history as
the Black Death redirected European history in the 14th century
hopefully the direction world history will take is away from raising birds by
the billions under intensive confinement so as to potentially lower our risk of
us ever being in this precarious place ever again my intention on today was
just to focus on primary prevention getting to the root cause but with the
unprecedented spread of this truly precedented virus it is important that
everyone be prepared for the next influenza pandemic so let me just throw
out some resources the CDC has set up an excellent pandemic preparedness website
pandemic flu gov if you click across here you will find pandemic preparedness
checklist for businesses schools communities face base faith-based groups
all the way down to individual and family preparation which really focuses
on getting everyone right now to stockpile weeks of essential supplies to
shelter in place during a pandemic isolating ourselves and our families in
our homes until the danger passes the u.s. department of homeland security is
now using as a key planning assumption that the US population may be directed
to remain in their homes under self quarantine for up to 90 days per wave of
the pandemic to support social distancing kind of like a snow emergency
where you just told to stay inside don’t go out and let’s emergency but instead
of lasting a day or two last weeks or even months everyone ready to stay in
their homes for three months if we have to go out to the corner store during a
pandemic to buy toilet paper or something we be maybe bringing back to
our family more than just groceries this is important topic I wrote three I have
six chapters on preparing for and surviving the next pandemic in my book
on the subject all the proceeds I received from the sale book go to
charity to address the problem and the entire contents of the book is now
available free full-text online at bird flu book dot org the goal is to be
prepared not scared this presentation by design given the time constraints is an
oversimplification of a serious public health issue so I encourage people to go
to the website learn more about the topic all the citations are hyperlink
clickable all 3168 of them this is a lay publication
for those interest in the technical science the underlying evolutionary
biological theory allow me to refer you to an invited review that I wrote for
the last issue of critical reviews of microbiology anyone interested in a
reprint copy be happy to send you one if you just email me at M G re ger at
Humane Society org let me end with a quote from the World Health Organization
the bottom line the bottom line is that humans have to think about how they
treat their animals how they form them how they market the basically the whole
relationship between the animal kingdom the human kingdom is coming under stress
in this age of emerging plagues we now have billions of feathered and curly
tailed test tubes for viruses to incubate and mutate within billions more
spins at pandemic roulette along with human culpability though comes hope if
changes in human behavior can cause new plagues
well then changes in human behavior may prevent them in the future thank you you