THERMITE: Combustion à 2200°C ! – [Science 2.0]

THERMITE: Combustion à 2200°C ! – [Science 2.0]


Hi everyone! Today, put your glasses, things are getting hot. Allons-y! What is called “Thermite” is a dark red-coloured powder, which has a melting temperature of 2200°C (4000°F). Hence its name, “Therm”-ite. You could almost roast anything you want. That’s right Jamy!
– Oh, you… But Thermite also has more common uses, in the civilian they use it weld train rails, they simply make it burn above two joining rails, and melt them together. In the military, they used it during war to destroy documents or weapons they couldn’t carry, Thermite would simply melt everything and make it unusable for the enemy. Thermite is made out of two powders, very thin aluminum powder and iron oxide III, which is pure rust. Still, it’s really hard to find and anyway too dangerous to handle, don’t try this at home. In order to obtain Thermite, you don’t just mix the powders like that, they need to be in proportions called “stoichiometric”. QUOI ?! Ok, to understand this barbarian word, let’s look at the reaction equation. Here is the equation, and what it says is that you have 1 molecule of iron oxide, reacting with 2 aluminum atoms, to create iron and aluminum oxide. So this is what we call stoichiometric proportions: twice as much aluminum as iron in terms of number of molecules, especially NOT in terms of mass, because iron oxide is much heavier than aluminum. Example: Say you have recipe with apples and strawberries. Now imagine you need twice as much strawberries as apples. Then, the recipe says you need to use 1 apple with 2 strawberries, 1 apple with 2 strawberries again and… You don’t have any apples left to react with strawberries! Though you weighed twice as much, you’re gonna have wasted strawberries. Hence the importance of stoichiometric proportions. Of course, there’s no way to count how many molecules you have in the powder. For this, you’re gonna need to know what’s called their molar mass. The molar mass is what the powder (or anything else) weighs for a precise and known amount of elements: 1 mole. In a nutshell, imagine you have 2 bags containing precisely 1 mole of molecules/atoms of iron oxide/aluminum, these bags will respectively weigh 160g for the iron, and 27g for the aluminum. Still, you have exactely the same amount of elements on each side. So we’re gonna use this to know how much powder
to weigh in order to have perfect proportions. Alright here we go, now we’re gonna make Thermite. We will mix 1 mole of iron oxide powder, with 2 moles of aluminum, so we will have the best proportions. Now that we have Thermite, I will place it in a small terracotta pot, which can resist the high melting temperature. So Vincent, tell me what kind of set-up we have here. Here we set our pot filled with Thermite, under which we made a little hole so when the powder melts, it will pour down on our target. Oh, I see we have a nice looking LCD screen, ready to serve Science, so now we’ll see if Thermite can actually burn through anything. Ok here we go! He thought so… To ignite Thermite, we’re gonna need something hotter, that’s why we’re using magnesium strap, it burns at a really high temperature and it’s what we need to start the reaction. Here we go, I’m lighting up. Oooh, I think the monitor didn’t like it! Yeah, that was hot, but still didn’t go through! Myth busted, but it was a bit thick… And look at what we have here, tiny balls… of what? Iron! Remember the equation reaction, it produces iron. If you bring a magnet, it will stick. An idea just crossed my mind… What if very hot… meets very cold? Cold like..? Like a big chunk of ice! Well, let’s test it… We have the blasting shields for this one, just in case something “unexpected” happens. Oh yeah… That’s what I call an ice cube! And I’ve got my little bowl of Thermite! We’re gonna do this quickly, the night starts falling. Let’s pour it in! How much do we have? I don’t know, I’d say… … a lot? Yeah, “a lot” seems accurate enough. I’m drilling a hole in the ice so that when the melting Thermite drops, it remains in the heart of the ice. Ok, here we go, the Thermite is ready! Allons-y! Lighting up! Wow! The ice block is still intact, but what a huge explosion! A theory says that we’re getting an explosion supposedly because the hot temperature of Thermite would decompose water in dioxygen and dihydrogen, which would explode, but I don’t really believe it for it would need to be very spontaneous. We have another theory however, which is that when the molten Thermite touches the ice, a crust will form on the drops when they cool down and leave a hot molten core of Thermite inside, and a simple air bubble trapped inside would grow until it cracks and explodes. But no one really knows, nobody has found the explanation of this incredible reaction. Still fun, though! Don’t ever try this at home.
– Yeah seriously, don’t, look at the table… Just on time, almost too dark. If you liked this video, don’t forget to give it a “thumbs up”! Also subscribe to the channel, check our other videos and follow us on social networks, Twitter/Facebook! And see you next time, for more adventures! For Science! So what do I say..? … to “procrurate” ? (You won’t have it, a**hole!) You won’t get some Jean-Kevin, go back playing with cornstarch and water! So, we were 4 in a shack this weekend… What were we doing? Oh definitely just a Science video! Here we go! (You missed it!) I love like you go “Oh what a
nice- no ok shut up, start over”. We got snow! Look at that! Heat for the whole family!

The ‘TickBot’ Takes the Bite out of Bugs

The ‘TickBot’ Takes the Bite out of Bugs


Hi, I’m Amanda DeVleeschower.
I’m an undergraduate student right now at Old Dominion University. And I helped work with Bob, the tick-killing robot, last summer here at NASA Langley. And we actually protected the CDC, the Child Development Center, from ticks. My name is Lexy White. I’m a Ph.D. student with
ODU’s Tick Research Lab. A TickBot is a tick-killing robot.
It’s semi-autonomous and follows a predetermined outline perimeter that you lay out, and it can actually protect an area, providing immediate relief from tick encounters for 24 hours.

Recreating a Cockroach’s Natural Habitat

Recreating a Cockroach’s Natural Habitat


Over the past few months, our quest to improve
the quality of life for the millions of ants hailing from the different beloved colonies
on this channel, saw extravagant and beautiful makeovers to the worlds in which the ant colonies
live, breathe, and die. But there was still one important colony that
patiently awaited its turn for a home and lifestyle upgrade, and AC Family, this time,
it wasn’t a colony of ants. No, today, we’re going to be setting up the
stage for a very big intrusion. It’s finally time to upgrade the home, of
our ants’ livestock, and if this channel has successfully perked your intrigue for insects
and the creepy crawlies, well, brace yourselves, ’cause things are about to get encroachingly
interesting! Please subscribe to my channel, and hit the
bell icon, welcome to the AC Family. Enjoy! Now if you’ve made it this far into the video
and you’re totally put off by roaches but haven’t clicked off yet, don’t leave! Let me say this! If you’ve watched this channel and have found
ants surprisingly interesting, I think it’s amazing that you’ve given ants a chance into
your hearts, but I assure you, if you stay with us for this exclusive and intimate look
at the secret lives of these equally amazing insects, which just like ants, have gotten
such bad reps among people all around the world, you just might shock yourself by coming
to at least appreciate them, or heck, possibly even love them! OK, I hear you. Let’s not push ourselves now right? I completely understand the aversion. I too get squeamish when I see huge roaches
running close by. In Canada, where I grew up most of my life,
cockroaches in the home are a homeowner’s worst nightmare! Roaches have simply become associated with
a mal-kept place, being vectors for disease and bacteria. They are perhaps the world’s most loathed
vermin next to rats. Here in tropical Manila where I currently
live, massive roaches are seen pretty much everywhere and it’s not uncommon to see a
roach the size of a tennis ball running or even flying around! But the cockroach species that you and I see
that infest our human living spaces, only make up less than 1% of all cockroach species
we’ve ever discovered. Of the 4,600 different types of cockroaches
in existence, only 30 of them are domestic pests. This means that over 99% of all cockroach
species live away from human homes and want nothing to do with sharing your apartment
or nibbling on your toothbrush. Just kidding. So today the charming colony of cockroaches
we will be looking at belong to this greater majority of roaches that don’t live in human
homes, well not naturally anyway. These scuttling juggernauts, who live in an
enclosure in my home, are known commonly in the pet trade as Dubia roaches, scientifically
Blaptica dubia. These cockroaches are not domestic pests,
but instead are native to the tropical rainforests of Central and South America where they live
in colonies along the rainforest floor, and play an important role as decomposers of decaying
and rotting vegetation. A group or colony of cockroaches by the way
is known as an intrusion. You may have seen a previous video on this
channel where I talked about this intrusion of Dubias, but today’s episode is going to
be a bit different because I felt, in light of all of these ant habitat upgrades and ant
life improvements, the next step was to improve the living space of our roaches, which yes
may just be the ants’ food, but see, all the more reason to give the cockroach colony a
home upgrade, too. The happier and healthier the ants’ prey is,
the better food it is for our ants, kind of like the how free-range and grain-fed livestock,
nourishment and health-wise, is better for us humans. And since we here at AntsCanada love all living
things, why not give the prey animals the best possible paradise of a home they can
live in for the days that they are alive, right? They may as well crossover happy cockroaches. Which brings me to their current living conditions. This intrusion of Dubias have been living
in this plastic critter-crawler for years. Dubias are a very popular prey-insect for
keepers of reptiles, tarantulas, and other insectivorous pets, not only because of their
great nutrient content, but also because they are easy to keep, and will tolerate some of
the most basic living conditions. We’re taught in prey-insect-keeping that Dubias
can survive well in setups kept as dry as possible to minimize mold, maggots, and odour. Moreover, the cockroaches can live on egg
carton and toilet paper rolls, furnishings which are readily available and easiest to
change once they become soiled. We’re taught that the roaches could be gut-loaded
on a steady diet of orange slices for water, perhaps a carrot or other easy-to-obtain water-retaining
veggie, and some dry dog kibble for good measure, to gut-load the insects with a few vitamins. But it wasn’t until recently that I realized,
“Hey, why am I settling for the bare minimum for these cockroaches when I could go epic
and natural, just like we’ve done for our ants?” I mean, these roaches are technically by default,
also pets, so if we could upgrade our roaches’ setup and even upgrade their diet to something
a bit more varied, I bet the resulting happier and healthier cockroaches will be of greater
benefit to the ants, as each cockroach will be more nutrient-rich. Healthier and happier cockroaches may breed
more frequently and more abundantly, produce healthier and more robust offspring, which
therefore means more food for the ants. Now before we get to designing their new epic
setup, I wanted to quickly address feeding ethics. Many of you have expressed concerns that the
cockroaches look alive in these videos when fed to my ants. This is definitely not the case, as I’ve tried
that in the past, and it lead to a horrific sight! I personally prefer to freshly, pre-kill my
roaches before offering them to my ants. I usually split them with scissors at the
neck, or somewhere along the thorax, and/or down the abdomen. The reason the cockroaches still move their
legs even after dispatching them is because of the insect nervous system, which is composed
of masses of nerve cells called ganglia, which run down the center of the body. This is why, they say that even if you cut
the head off a roach, it still survives for a few days. This may not be so true, but without a head,
the roaches indeed can still move due to the ganglia which are still in tact. And the reason why I offer freshly pre-killed
prey, instead of dried insects or already dead insects, is because the ants can consume
wet insect guts much more easily than dried insect guts. It also has better nutrients. Think of fresh beef verses beef jerky! Alright, and now to do we what we love! As creators of worlds, it was time to create
a proper roach kingdom! And here lays our empty shell of field, an
empty tank, the venue from which shall spring forth a new world of natural art, the kingdom
which will be the new habitat of our Dubia roaches. I went straight to work. I had a few goals for this soon to be roach
home. I wanted to offer a territory that best duplicated
their natural habitat, but also offer a venue for the cockroaches to do what they do best,
the role which nature has chosen for them: Enablers of decomposition! You see, people often ask me, why should one
want to keep ants. It’s not like bee keeping where you have a
product like honey that humans could consume? And to that, I say, aside from the inspiration
and education ant-keeping brings, I love that ants can in some cases be used for their decomposition
capabilities. Why keep a vermiculture composter when you
could use ants to further decompose your discarded food scraps like these chicken bones? But even more effective at decomposing organic
waste than ants, are the amazing cockroaches! During an environmental studies course I took
in college, I did a project on how forest roaches could be used to speed up the decomposition
process of organic waste. They would even eat newspaper soaked in fruit
juice. Turns out, forest roaches like these Dubias
can be just as effective if not more effective at breaking down organic trash than worms. So I wanted this roach terrarium to also be
a mini-composter. Let’s coin the term now! A Blattocomposter, from Blattodea the order
of roaches! And then, the new roach territories were done! Behold, the new, soon-to-be home of our Dubia
intrusion. It was an organic playground of soil, driftwood,
and leaf cuttings from my tropical house plants, set to mimic the leaf-litter and groundscape
of a typical jungle floor. I wanted there to be various places for the
roaches to hide, which the winding driftwood certainly offered, but also, I wanted to install
what I call the Dubian Dome. A darkened rock hide with open chambers and
two floors for the roaches to occupy, but one that we could access if we wanted to take
a peek inside. You may notice that the earth towards the
back and side forms a slope. This was perfect, because I wanted to form
a sort of feeding pit for the cockroaches. In this section, I wanted to place all the
roaches food, so that if the roaches wanted to feed, they would need to come out of hiding. Speaking of which, let’s add a few goodies
now before we proceed with the grand release of the Dubias, shall we? Some fish pellets, and slices of apple. Alright, and finally, it’s time to add the
roaches! Here we go AC Family! Releasing the intrusion into these virgin
lands! I carefully shook the cockroaches from the
egg cartons. It was the last time they were going to have
to live on some man-made material used to insulate chicken eggs, and instead inhabit
a more natural setup, a forest floor! I dropped in some two to three hundred cockroaches
of different sizes into the terrarium. They instantly scurried about in attempts
to find some cover. They wedged themselves into crevices within
the driftwood, and a lot of them surprisingly were able to conceal themselves by burrowing
into the soil. I was surprised by this. I never knew these roaches were capable of
burrowing, but then again, of course they could! Soil was what they were meant to live in,
not egg cartons! Some of the roaches immediately began to feed
from our goodies. Look at them just munching away at the apple! What’s neat is, these roaches can acquire
all the hydration they need from the food they eat. I was happy to see that they were settling
in nicely. Although, most of the roaches had disappeared
into the shadows of their new home land, I decided to leave them for a bit, to give them
a chance to warm up and explore the territories in the dark. Now watch what I saw one hour later, flicking
on the lights. Woah! Roaches were everywhere, but the sudden illumination
of the territories startled our nyctophilic friends. Nyctophilia is the preference for dark or
night, and it seems our roaches are ultimate shadow-lovers. It was hilarious to see that some of the roaches
were not so good at hiding, but still quite neat to know the roaches had begun to explore
their new home. But, it was time to see where the bulk of
them were hiding. I looked towards the entrance of the Dubian
Dome. I just knew they had to be in there! Removing the rock cover, and wow! There they were, a big community of them huddling
in the darkened areas of the rock hide. It was amazing to see them all snug in there. Let’s leave them in the dark. But I knew there were still many more roaches
hiding somewhere in these lands, and I had a small inkling as to where. I peeked behind this wall of driftwood and
voila, we found another big gathering of roaches! Roaches of different ages huddled together
in the comfort of each other’s presence behind this great wall of wood. It was great and satisfying to see the Dubias
in a more natural state like this. Some of them felt comfortable enough, poking
their half concealed bodies out from below some leaf cover, to continued to feast on
our apples. I loved watching the different ages coming
together to feed. Look at how cute that little baby roach is! Adorable. I left the colony to allow them to spend their
first night in their new home in peace. Lights off! By morning, I peeked into the habitat. The roaches had all retired into their darkened
spaces, and were out of sight. And AC Family, check this out! All the apples and fish pellets were fully
consumed. Checking the Dubian Dome, and yup! They were in there, enjoying all that cozy
darkness and humidity. Behind the wood wall, more roaches just snoozing
away. I even noticed this, a female cockroach giving
birth to an ootheca. An ootheca is the term for this egg sac, which
this roach is laying now but will after be reabsorbed into her body where the babies
will further develop until she is ready to give birth to them. Dubia birth is certainly an interesting thing. I sat and watched her in amazement, take in
her ootheca to completion. Soon the developed roach nymphs will be ready
to hatch, and she’ll be giving birth to up to 40 tiny white roach babies. And speaking of which, AC Family, I wasn’t
prepared to see what I saw next. A movement on the forest floor caught my eye. Upon further inspection, I was surprised to
discover that it was a nymph caught on its back, seemingly trying to right itself. Oh. How odd. Let’s help it out, AC Family. I used a barbique skewer to help the little
one onto its legs. It managed to eventually get right way up,
but as it began to walk around, I noticed something wasn’t right. The nymph had some kind of deformity on its
back half of its body, and it caused the nymph to struggle as it crawled around. It wasn’t long before it ended up once again
on its back, flailing its legs helplessly in the air. I was extremely saddened when I saw this because
I knew this newborn, still white from birth, was likely not going to make it. Its survival depended on its ability to walk
around, search for food, defend itself from the big boys of the intrusion, and just generally
carry its own within the hustle and bustle of normal cockroach life, but this deformity
meant, it would not be able to do this. Sadly, this nymph would not last the day. It made me wonder if this deformity and birth
defect was the result of roach malnutrition, or perhaps improper humidity from the old
home in the dry and mundane critter-crawler. I wondered if the mother of this little one
was truly healthy during her pregnancy within the old home. I wondered how many roach babies per batch,
born from this intrusion, end up being born with such lethal, debilitating complications. It made me feel so bad for housing my roaches
in such a bare-bones setup for so long. I feared I may have been keeping them in an
unsuitable prison all these years, forcing them to just get by on orange slices, the
random carrot, and cheap dog food. As I watched the little nymph slowly weaken,
I made a promise to myself, to never again allow my prey insects to just get by. From now on, I was going to be committed at
providing my roaches, even if they were technically just ant food, with the best, most fruitful
life possible, before they would go on to provide nourishment to my ant colonies. I continued to develop this roach habitat
into a working Blattocomposter, dumping organic waste like my leftover apple peels and cores,
and even last night’s cold french fries, into the feeding pit for the roaches to feed on. I continued to water this setup to keep the
soils moist, and to support the growth of essential bacteria, molds, fungi, and springtails
to assist at further breaking down the organics I placed inside. Turning on the lights in the middle of the
night, it was assuring to see the roaches doing what they do best, the job nature had
intended, and the very reason they were put here on this Earth. No, not to merely be prey insects for other
animals, nor to nibble on your tooth brush, but rather, to decompose. This ameliorated lifestyle would go on to
benefit my ants in the end. I wonder if the ants will be able to taste
the difference in these roaches from here on in. Whatever the case, it was an important lesson
for me to learn through this entire experience. In being the main provider of nourishment
for the millions of ant lives under my care, I realized how important it was to invest
in farming quality food, and not simply settling with rearing bulk food at minimal parameters,
because after all, you are what you eat, and what your food eats. Alright AC Family, what do you think? Did this video help you appreciate roaches
a little more? Alright! It’s OK if it didn’t. But this new roach kingdom needs a name. Leave your name suggestions for this roach
palace in the comments and I will choose my top 5 favourites for us to vote on in a future
video! But hey, AC Family, listen up, next week I
have a very important update on one of my other ant colonies that you won’t want to
miss, so hit that SUBSCRIBE button and bell icon now so you don’t miss out on this continuing
ant story within our Antiverse, and hit the LIKE button every single time, including now! AC Inner Colony, I have left a hidden cookie
for you here, if you would just like to watch extended play footage of our cockroaches having
feast! You won’t want to miss them munching down! Before we continue to AC Question of the week,
I wanted to plug my daily vlogging channel! That’s daily vlogs of my travels around the
world, which often includes lots of nature stuff! Alright and now it’s time for the AC Question
of the Week! In last week’s video, which by the way trended
at #6 in US, AC Family you did that! Thank you! We asked: Which was your favourite Ant World
created in the video and why? This question had no real right answer, but
congratulations to Hannah Fire who answered: My favourite is the Zen Jardim! The muted pinks
contrast appealingly with the dark stems and little
ants, and it is very relaxing to look at. Congratulations, Hannah Fire, you just won
a free AC Outworld 2.0 from our shop! In this week’s AC Question of the Week, we
ask: What is the term used to describe
a preference for dark or night? Leave your answer in the comments section
and you could win a free ebook handbook from our shop! Hope you can subscribe to the channel as we
upload every Saturday at 8AM EST. Please remember to LIKE, COMMENT, SHARE, & SUBSCRIBE
if you enjoyed this video to help us keep making more. It’s ant love forever!

Connecting with Tiny Insect Brains through Virtual Reality | Dr. Shannon Olsson | TEDxChennai

Connecting with Tiny Insect Brains through Virtual Reality | Dr. Shannon Olsson | TEDxChennai


Translator: Suyeon Ji
Reviewer: Peter van de Ven I’d like to start by having
everyone close their eyes and think about all the decisions
that you’ve made so far today. Now, I suppose the first decision
you must have made is to get out of bed, and I’m hoping that the last decision
you’ve made is to start listening to me. Please open your eyes. We’re constantly making decisions, even the path that you took to get
to where you are at this very moment was an entire series of decisions: if you should move,
when you should move, even how you should move. Now, what if you’re a fly? Insects also have to make decisions about if, when,
and how they should do things. Should they fly or should they walk? Should they eat, should they wait? And where should they go
to find their food? And just like us, insects have to take
information from the world around them as well as internal information –
hunger, thirst, hot, and cold – and then decide. Why should we even care
about the decisions of a tiny fly? It seems so inconsequential to our lives. In fact, insects are some of the very
first animals to emerge on this planet. They are nearly half a billion years old. If you add up all the species of insects
that exist on this planet today, it is nearly equal to all other
forms of life put together, all species of bacteria, fungi –
even you and me. While we often think of insects as pests
that bring disease or destroy our crops, they also serve incredibly important
ecosystem services, such as pollination and reducing waste,
like these termite mounds do. They have survived mass extinctions,
and we cannot survive without them. And I believe that understanding
the decisions that these tiny animals make is not only essential
for the future of this planet but can also teach us about ourselves
and our own decision making. And that is important
for treating neurological disorders, improving education,
predicting financial trends, even generating artificial intelligence. But the fact of the matter is we don’t even know
how the tiny brain of an insect, with only 100,000 neurons, makes decisions. So how can we possibly
comprehend the human mind, when we have 80 billion neurons. To start, maybe we should think
about the decisions themselves. We humans understand
each other’s decisions by making a connection with each other
through an emotion called empathy. Now, this photograph was taken
after I’d had a very horrible day at work. And I’m sure you’ve all
had days liked these, and I’m sure you all know what you
feel like at the end of those days. And my then five-year-old daughter,
Grace, noticed how I was feeling, and she came up to me, and she gave me
what I most needed at that very moment, which was a warm embrace. See, Grace was practicing empathy. It’s perhaps the most profound
of human emotions, and it’s often confused with sympathy. But sympathy is when you
feel bad for someone, or you’re thinking about another person,
but empathy is very different. It’s feeling along
with another individual. It’s connecting with them
on such a deep level that you share their experiences
as if they were your own. Now how can you possibly empathize
with a fly, to understand their decisions. You can’t talk to them, and they’re too small and too quick
for you to follow them around and observe their decisions
as they make them. You simply can’t put yourself
into their world. Perhaps, instead,
you can put them into our world, into a world that we create just for them, so we can give them choices and observe the decisions
that they make in real time, exactly as they make those decisions. But now, if you’re going
to build a world for a fly, you’d better have an architect. Pavan, could you please say hello? Pavan Cowshick: Hello. Shannon Olsson: This is Pavan Cowshick. (Applause) He’s a graduate student in the lab, and when Pavan joined the lab
three years ago, I asked him to do nearly the impossible – I asked him to build a universe
for an insect. And that’s exactly what Pavan has done. So here’s the world
that we’ve created for a fly. It’s an artificial world,
so it’s a virtual reality arena. And the most important part of this arena
is, of course, the fly itself, which you see here right in the middle. And it can fly, and it can move its legs, but it’s held in place
so it doesn’t fly out of the world. We have a camera that can film
the fly’s behaviors as it moves, and we have a panoramic display. Many insects have very large eyes so they can literally see
in the back of their heads. So our display also has to wrap
around the insect in 360 degrees. The last two components are actually
what sets our arena apart from virtual reality that you might have
for humans or for other animals. And that’s that we give our fly
both a wind direction and also an odor. In the real world, when insects
are flying to objects at a distance, it often can’t see them. So it uses its sense of smell
to locate plants or fruits or flowers or whatever are the objects
of its affection. This is not unlike
if you’ve ever lost your cell phone, and you call it up, and you follow the ring tone
until you can locate where that phone is. Insects do a similar thing, but instead
of using sound, they use smell. And the wind direction
is actually what tells them where the smell is coming from
and where they can locate the object. So this is, right here – I will show you – part of the arena. And you can see how tiny it actually is. And that’s because it’s actually
made for a fly and not for us. And I’m going to show you also a fly. So, this fly is balancing
on a ball right now. Now you can see that it’s flying. If you zoom in on it – there you go. This fly is actually flying in this world,
but in this world – there you go again. In this world, it’s actually
looking at me right now. And it’s not getting any wind and odor other than what it’s getting
from the air around it. In the real world, when this insect
is flying around and making its decisions, it will move within the world
when it makes its choices. But I’m holding it in place,
which means instead of the world moving while the insect flies, we have to move the world
around the insect. This is how we do it. This is the cockpit
of a virtual reality arena. So this is what the visual part
of our arena looks like. You see two trees on it,
and it looks a bit distorted because, as I said,
in reality it’s wrapped in 360 degrees, so this is what it looks like
when it’s unwrapped. And you can see the fly
down there at the bottom. This is a still frame,
so it’s not yet moving. When a fly wants to move left or right,
it changes how it beats its wings. If it wants to move left,
it beats its wings very hard on its right. If it wants to move right,
it beats its wings hard on its left, and that’s how it turns. So in our world, we pay attention
to those wing beats, and we turn the world
in response to those wings, so the fly is actually driving the world. Now, in the video, you’ll see,
when we start on the right, you’ll see the trajectory
that the fly would be making if it were actually flying in this world. So you can see this fly
is making a choice to go to this tree. This is an apple fly,
and these are apple trees, so it really likes them. If you observe
the trajectory on the right, you’ll see that it’s gone to the tree, and it’s actually flying
in and around the branches of the tree and circling them. And now we’ll give it
the same choice again, and it will actually fly
to the trees with apples. And if you watch very closely, you’ll notice that as it gets very
close to these objects, very close to the leaves of the apples, it actually will throw its legs out. And in the real world,
it does this for two reasons: either it’s about to crash into something,
or it wants to land on it. And this is how we truly know
that this fly is making decisions because it actually is detecting these
virtual objects as if they were real. So we’re using the power
of this technology as a way to present
these animals with choices and observe through their eyes, through their antenna,
and through their behavior how they make decisions, and how these tiny brains can make
such complex choices in the world. And we feel that this
is extremely important, not only for understanding
decision making in general but for a much bigger reason. So often, in today’s digital
and urban world, we forget our connection with nature. We forget how important the plants
and animals around us are for the food we eat, the water we drink,
and the very land that we live on. So I hope that when you leave today,
go home, go outside in your garden or even inside your house
and try to find an insect – an ant, a grasshopper, maybe even a fly – and try to watch it for a little bit, and think about all the decisions that it must have made to get to the exact
place that you are right then. And also realize
that many of those decisions are not all that different than the kind
of decisions that you might make. Because we’re all connected
on this planet. And in the end, our two worlds are exactly the same. Thank you. (Applause)

The Loudest Bugs in the World

The Loudest Bugs in the World


[ INTRO [ How many different animal sounds can you make? I like to quack like a duck, or moo like a
cow. And Squeaks is really good at … [Squeaks squeaks] Squeaking like a rat! Lots of animals make noises, and in the summer,
I like to listen for one of my favorite animal sounds. Can you guess what animal it comes from? [Cicada Call ] This noise does sound loud, so I can see why
you would think it comes from a big animal. But this animal tricked you, Squeaks! The animal that makes this noise is smaller
than my hand. It’s a cicada. Cicadas are a type of insect that live all
over the world, and they’re famous for the noises they make when it’s hot out. A lot of people only hear the cicadas, though,
and never actually see them. They’re not very big insects, and many cicadas use camouflage
to blend in with trees and plants. But you can recognize them by their big eyes
and clear wings that lie across their back. Cicadas may be small compared to humans, or
even Squeaks, but they still make some of the loudest animal sounds in the world. [Squeaks is impressed] And there’s a very good reason why! Those cicadas we see in the trees? They’re
actually pretty old for insects, but they’ve spent almost all of their lives underground. It takes a baby cicada either 13 or 17 years
to grow up, and while they’re growing, they stay underground where it’s safe from predators
that might want to eat them. Then, when they’re old enough and it gets
warm outside, they fiiiinally crawl up out of the ground. Can you imagine seeing the world for the first
time after years underground in the dark? The thing is, once they come up above the
ground, cicadas don’t live for very long — usually just a few weeks. They really
want to find another cicada to have more cicada babies with, but they have to do it quickly! So, the male, or boy cicadas make a REALLY
loud noise so the female, or girl cicadas will know they’re there. But cicadas make noises a bit differently
from how other animals do. For example, if I wanted to make a loud noise,
I could use my voice and shout — although I won’t, since we only use our inside voices
in the Fort. But cicadas can’t make noises with their
mouths the way we do. Instead, they use a special body part, called
a tymbal, to make their sound. Cicadas have two tymbals, one on each side
of their body. Each tymbal is made of a a very thin material
called a membrane. Along the tymbal, there are stripes of thicker
membrane, creating what look like ribs down the cicada’s side. When the cicada wants to make noise, they
pull the ribs of their tymbal close together very quickly, creating clicking sounds as
each rib hits the one next to it. It’s a lot like how you can make sounds
with a bendy straw. When you move the bendy bits together and
apart really fast… It makes a noise. Cicadas can pull apart the ribs on their tymbals
and then click them together again so quickly that each clicking sound runs into the next,
creating one big, loud sound. Can you hear each click in the cicada song,
Squeaks? [Squeaks listens, then shakes his head] Neither can I! They’re so fast that it becomes
almost impossible to tell each click apart. Not to mention almost painfully loud. Some cicadas can be as loud as a motorcycle
engine! One of the loudest cicadas in the world is
the Walker’s Cicada, which lives in North America. Walker’s cicadas can be as loud as a honking
car horn, and the sound can hurt your ears after a while. But if there’s a female cicada around, she’ll
definitely hear it! Then she can fly over to find the cicada making that sound. So if you hear that loud buzzing sound in
the trees this summer, now you’ll know where it’s coming from. It means there’s a cicada
nearby! [Squeaks squeaks a warning] You’re going to make a loud sound, too? [Squeaks makes a loud squeak]. That’s one loud squeak! You’d make a pretty good cicada. Have you ever heard any cicadas in your neighborhood? What’s the loudest sound you’ve ever heard? Let us know by having a grown-up help you
to leave a comment below, or send us an email at [email protected] We’ll see you next time, here at the Fort! [ OUTRO ]

Amazing Insect Camouflage in Nature | Bugs, Insects & Spiders | Love Nature

Amazing Insect Camouflage in Nature | Bugs, Insects & Spiders | Love Nature


To avoid the keen eyes of predators these wonderbugs have
become masters of disguise. (gentle music) A six inch stick insect
gingerly makes its way to the end of a twig. If it weren’t for its movement, it would be almost impossible to discern. Made of chitin, insect
exoskeletons can take on any shape, color, or texture. Looking like a dead stick is apparently a very successful option. There are more than 3,000 different kinds of stick insects in the world. Each with a slightly different
interpretation of a stick. (dramatic music) Just another stick in the forest? No, it’s a grasshopper. When not feeding, this
four inch South American horsehead grasshopper
stands absolutely still. Like stick insects, it’s
opted for the stick disguise. A case of convergent evolution. There are nearly 200 species
of these stick grasshoppers in South America that
look almost identical to the unrelated stick insects. It’s bizarrely elongated
head adds to the disguise and helps confuse predators. When is a leaf not a leaf? When it’s a katydid. Invisible when still. When it does have to
move it tries its best to look just life a leaf
blowing in the wind. In the dense undergrowth of the jungle, there are just so many
options for camouflage. Leaves, twigs, and flowers abound, of all shapes and sizes. But don’t be fooled,
this too is an insect, hiding in plain sight. It’s a leaf insect, one of
elite masters of disguise. Covered in the same intricate pattern of veins as real leaves. It’s another example
of convergent evolution with the leaf-like katydid. Eventually real leaves shrivel and die. But this just adds to
the options for mimicry. A dead leaf mantis wafts
gently in the breeze. To complete the disguise
the bug’s flattened thorax looks like a leaf that’s going moldy. And that’s even been nibbled on. It’s wing cases look
like curled up leaves, complete with veins. This extraordinary
deception enables the mantis to hide from those that would eat it. But it too is a predator, all mantids are, and their disguise sets them
up for the perfect ambush. (dramatic music) Here an orchid mantis sits exposed, looking like a flower. And rocks in the breeze
to complete its disguise. Evolution has perfected this
mimicry to such a degree the mantis even reflects
ultraviolet light. Copying the way real
flowers attract insects to feed on their nectar. But lurking beneath this cloak of deceit is a ruthless hunter licking its chops. (dramatic music) When it’s finished there’s
not a scrap of evidence left to betray this lethal bloom. We know there are millions
of species of bugs out there. But how many more are
waiting to be discovered, hiding in plain sight?

Sweet Candy Ants – Honeypot Ants | Ant Love Contest 2017

Sweet Candy Ants – Honeypot Ants | Ant Love Contest 2017


Welcome everyone, to the amazing world of ants. On this channel, we continued to discover how epic the lives of these small insects truly are. The ant world is full of wonder, terror, adventure, kindness, and surprise. With over six hundred thousand subscribers now – and counting – composed of you, new and old AC family members It is evident that ant love has and continues to swell to global proportions. And so, with it being Love Month, and just a few more days until Valentine’s Day, here on the Ants Canada channel we wanted to feature the lives of an ant which we had gotten so many requests to cover. With their huge swollen gasters full of food, these ants, by far, are among the most peculiar, interesting, and loved ants in the entire world. You won’t want to miss all the sweet discovery ahead… so keep watching until the end, where we also announce our annual Ant Love Contest… where we give away a full ant setup! Are sweets the way into a lady’s heart? Well… perhaps in this case, yes. Welcome everyone, to the marvellous world of honey pot ants. here on the AntsCanada ant channel. WHISPERED: Please subscribe to my channel, WHISPERED: and hit the bell icon, WHISPERED: Welcome to the AC Family. WHISPERED: Enjoy. If you haven’t seen them yet, These ants are the famous honey pot ants. Native to western U.S and Mexico, indigenous people of these areas have eaten these honey pot ants for centuries. Could you imagine popping one of these juice-filled ants into your mouth? So what do these balloon-looking ants do anyway? What are they for? In honey pot ant colonies, some workers become what are called “Repletes” – living storage receptacles – That get fed so much food They completely balloon up; and do nothing but hang from the walls and ceiling of their nest! Though they are called honeypot ants, those gasters do not contain any bee honey. The fluid inside these honeypot ants consists rather of simple sugars, unmodified from their original state. Usually nectar from flowering plants, exudates from gulls, and the secretion of aphids and other plant insects. In this particular video however, these ants appear green, because they have been fed sugar water with green dye. This particular colony of honey pot ants of the species Myrmecocystus mexicanus belongs to a friend of mine name Drew; one of our GAN farmers in LA, California. He houses this awesome honey pot ant colony in a simple plastic dirt container, with a smaller dirt container placed inside forming a 1cm space between the containers for the ants to dig; and then peat moss placed inside the smaller container to make it look like a natural wall. Don’t the ants look beautiful? Wow! There you’ll see the queen, who is larger than all her workers and does not do any replete work. She’s normal shaped, just larger. Here you will see ordinary workers tending to the brood, making sure they’re all well fed, and cared for. Here are the pupae, the cocoons, and you want to hear something pretty crazy? You might have noticed that each cocoon here has a green dot. Usually these dots are black in the wild. The black dot on ant cocoons are called the “meconium”, the fecal pellet, So get this, when ants are larvae, their baby stage, they eat and eat and eat and continued to grow; however they never poop! Everything remains inside them, up until right before they pupate, to become these cocoons when they spin the cocoons the final step is to poop out this meconium, meaning all the food waste they build up during the course of their entire larval stage! It therefore appear on every cocoon as a tiny dot. That’s why the meconia on these on these cocoons are green, because they were fed green sugar water growing up. It made their meconia green. Isn’t that amazing guys? Imagine having a baby and it only pooping once in its entire life, right before teenagehood, and get this: what is even more fascinating, is that this meconium is expelled inside the cocoon and this lifestyle is perfect for them, because pooping only once and inside the cocoon means their entire colony can remain as sterile and clean as possible; which is super important in an underground community of animals where it is moist. You see, in these environments, bacteria, fungi and disease can thrive, so the cleaner the ants can be, the better. Less poop around means a cleaner home. This also applies to the repletes; having repletes means that you don’t have to have food laying around and getting mouldy – which can endanger a colony, all food get stored inside the repletes bodies. and anytime a member of the colony needs to eat, they simply touch mouths; a process called trophallaxis and the replete regurgitate some of its yummy contents. Ants don’t need fridges. They have it all figured out. Honey pot ants are from arid regions, where they experience long periods of drought, and lack of food and water resources; which is why evolution has formed these ants into these perfect storage units. According to myrmecologists, nectar and honeydew are not the only fluids which these ants store. apparently there are also workers that are called aquapletes, which store water; and even a third type of repletes that has been thought to contain body fluids of insect prey. So where can one find these ants? Luckily, they are native to U.S states like California. So if you are from there, you’re in luck! You can find the queen alates from late winter to late summer, in open dirt areas in the desert, foothills, and even arid mountain habitats. In most if not all species of honey pot ants, mating flight occurs following light rain. A favorite time seems to be late afternoon or early evening. In arid habitats with their unpredictable rainfall, the honey pot alates wait until suitable rainfall occurs. And once it does, the males and the females swarm from the nest and fly forth. Good luck for those of you who plan to look for these queens this year. There is also another type of ant called the false honey pot ant (Latin name) Prenolepis imparis which also have repletes but they aren’t as pronounced as the Myrmecocystus. Still really cool though. The good news about these false honeypot ants, is that they are found throughout North America, and actually have their mating flights soon… within a few weeks. They’re also called winter ants, because they fly so early in the year in North America sometimes when there’s still frost on the ground, so keep your eyes open for them soon. Australia also have ants that are commonly called honeypot ants and they belong to a completely different genus Camponotus. The genus of carpenter ants. You can find these ants in arid regions. Drew keeps these honeypot ants in media that is relatively dry, but moistens it periodically; and feeds them a diet of both protein through insects and sweet liquids like sugar water. They can also be kept in a dirtless setup, as seen here. It is amazing, how specialized and perfectly tailored their evolutionary design can be in order to deal with living in places that they exist. These ants are so well loved by ant enthusiasts around the world, and I’m happy to have presented them to you for our Valentine’s Day episode. I wish you and your loved ones a happy Valentine’s Day, and thank you for watching. It’s Ant Love Forever! AC Family, what do you think of these honeypot ants, huh? Are they cool or what? Of course for you Inner Colony members, I placed a hidden cookie for you here: if you would just like to watch these honeypot ants doing their thing along to some relaxing music… and it’s time for the AC Question of the Week! Last week, we asked: Congratulations to… DM Salma, who correctly answered: *reading* Congratulations, DM Salma. You won a twenty-five dollar gift card to our shop! and for this week’s AC Question of the Week, We ask… leave your answer in the comment section and you can win an ebook handbook from our shop. And now it’s time for an announcement. Every year in February, We at antscanada.com, hold a fun Ant Love contest, to celebrate the love of ants also partly celebratory of the birthday month of antscanada.com So this year, we are giving away a FREE all-you-need omni gear pack, containing all you need at every stage of ant keeping, from a moment you catch a queen, to the point your colony is 2 to 3 years old… and huge! Here’s how to win: This year, we are holding are holding our Ant Love contest over on our official Facebook page I placed the link to our Facebook page in the description box. First, like our Facebook page and then look for the Ant Love contest post with this video pinned to the top of the page. and in the comment section of that post, tell us We will choose 1 lucky winner to win the all-you-need omni gear pack, and make the announcement in next week’s video. So go ahead, take part in our Ant Love contest. Go over to our Facebook page, and give it a shot! Remember we give extra points for creativity, and often give out honorary prizes for runners up. Good luck AC Family, and we’ll see you next week. It’s ant love forever. [OUTRO MUSIC]

Magnetic Termites: Leading You Out of the Australian Outback

Magnetic Termites: Leading You Out of the Australian Outback


Hi Guys. I am Trisha with Insectopia here to talk to
you about magnetic termites. These termites build tall mounds that some
people say bear a resemblance to headstones. They build them in plains and they all face
the same direction. Mostly North-South, which is where they get
the name magnetic. But why in the world would they build a mound
that is 9-12 feet high with a North/South axis of 7 feet, and an East/West axis of only
3 feet? The leading hypothesis for their North/South
orientation is, temperature control. In the early morning the termites spend their
time on the east wall to warm up. By noon, when the day is hottest and the sun
is directly overhead in the Australian Outback, the termite mound is thin so the mound does
not have a large amount of surface area that the sun can heat. As the day is ending, the mound can pick up
enough heat to make it through the night. How does this help you? Well, now with the knowledge that the termite
mounds are built North to South. The next time that you are lost and wandering
around the Australian Outback and you run into one of these mounds, you will have a
50/50 shot at picking North instead of walking around completely lost. Before we dive into this mound, I want to
clear up a common misconception. Termites are eusocial cockroaches. Let’s try to clear this up a little, termites
are a kind of cockroach and are closer related to grasshoppers, praying mantids, and walking
sticks than they are to ants. This has to do with termites having an incomplete
metamorphosis and ants having a complete metamorphosis. Now, let’s look inside of this mound. In each mound there are varying ages of individuals
from eggs to adults and the individuals are specialized for different jobs. These special groups of individuals are called
castes. The 5 castes are: queen, king, soldier, worker,
and reproductive. The life cycle of a termite mound goes something
like this: The queen lays every egg in the colony and
is the mother to every individual in the colony other than the king. The eggs are cared for by the workers. In fact, the workers do all of the hard work
in the colony. They clean and repair the nest, gather food
and water, care for the young, construct the tunnels and galleries, and control the numbers
of soldiers and reproductives by killing and eating them based on chemical cues. The workers are very busy. Every single worker in the termite mound is
a nymph and most of them will stay nymphs for their entire life. These insects never molt into adulthood! It is as if most termites live in Peter Pan’s
Neverland. The lucky few individuals that come into adulthood
turn into either soldiers or reproductives. The soldiers have large mandibles and it is
their job to protect the colony. The reproductives gain wings and will wait
around in the colony until the external conditions are right so that they can go on a mating
flight. On a mating flight, a reproductive female
and a reproductive male will mate and become a king and queen. They will land on the ground and shed their
wings. The queen will find an ideal location to start
a colony. At that point, it is the king’s job to tend
for the colony and the eggs until there are workers to do these jobs. The king will stay by the side of the queen
in her chamber for the rest of his life. The queen will become as large as a human
index finger and lay an egg every 3 seconds. She actually becomes so large that she is
no longer able to move or leave the chamber that she is in. The workers will carry the eggs to another
chamber and care for them. This is how the cycle starts anew. These are real life pictures of the magnetic
termite’s mounds. This is what a termite looks like in real
life. On the left you can see an egg on the right
you can see a worker. On the left you can see a soldier and on the
right you can see a reproductive. On this final slide you can see a queen. Thank you for listening! If you have any questions about magnetic termites
or a thought on which caste you would be if you were a termite, let us know in the comment
section below! Make sure to like, comment, and subscribe
for more videos like this one. I will be posting videos frequently. Come and check out our next epic insect tale.

From the Headlines: Bed Bugs with Louis Sorkin

From the Headlines: Bed Bugs with Louis Sorkin


When I feed them, sometimes it’s once a month,
or sometimes longer, usually, there’s a little bump that starts, it swells within an hour
it’s totally gone and then maybe six hours or more is when the little red marks show
up. I got more interested in bed bugs back in the late eighties when someone actually
brought one in to look at. Now again, there are more people in the world who are interested
in this insect and trying to learn more about it, too. How to get rid of it and how to manage
it and just to learn more about its biology. I’m looking at the behavior because trying
to find a chink it its armor is actually trying to find out something that can be manipulated
in its behavior to assist you in either monitoring or removing the insect from the environment.
Media coverage online or on television, explains about searching the bed, searching the mattress,
searching behind the walls, look in the walls, look behind pictures, picture frames, and
the problem is that most of the media then doesn’t show you what bed bugs really look
like, so you really don’t have any idea of what you’re looking for. They only show adult
bed bugs and that one-sixth of the population is a quarter-inch long or less than a quarter-inch
long, but reddish-brown, and that’s an adult bed bug. But the youngest bed bugs are about
a millimeter when they’re born and they’re pale white, and they blend in with the background.
Well, a small infestation could actually be just one female who has mated and then she’s,
you know, in your home, on a package you brought in, or clothing, or something, and that’s
all it needs, ’cause then she produces a few hundred eggs in her lifetime, but she’ll probably,
in the first month, lay five to ten eggs, and then she’ll have to mate again in order
to have sperm to produce more eggs, then she’ll have to feed to make more eggs and also nourish
the sperm she would have inside her. You wait too long to get rid of an infestation, your
population of bed bugs really increase and you have them in so many more places of your
home than you have started months before. There is no magic bullet to get rid of bed
bug infestations. If there were one product that worked that way, then we wouldn’t have
a problem anymore.

Where do bugs go in winter?

Where do bugs go in winter?


(phone rings) – Hi, it’s Doug. What’s the most colorful
insect you’ve ever seen? Well, a couple of years ago I
visited the state of Florida and I was amazed to see these things. They’re some of the most
colorful grasshoppers I’ve ever seen. It’s called a lubber and
what was strangest of all it was the middle of
December when I saw them. Florida doesn’t ever get
very cold in the wintertime so you can see lots of
insects there all year. Someone named Kylie has
a question about insects. Let’s give her a call now. (phone rings) – Hi Doug. – Hi Kylie. – I have a question for you. Where do bugs go in winter? – That’s a great question. If you live somewhere
with cold, snowy winters you might have noticed this too. Just a few months earlier in the year you could find all kinds
of insects around you. Butterflies, ants, bees and lots more. But then winter comes
and they’re just gone and it’s weird too. I mean it’s not like there
are no animals out in winter. For example you might still
see deer or squirrels. Even a few birds like if you get a chance to watch a bird feeder. So, where do all the insects go? What do you think? Now would be a good time to
pause the video and discuss. Well, I grew up somewhere cold and snowy and I used to wonder this myself. But before I tell you about
where insects go in winter let me give you a clue
involving a very different kind of animal. These, frogs. You see, I’m kind of obsessed with frogs and one of my favorite places
to visit when I was younger was this pond that was near where I lived. I’d look for frogs there. I actually got to be pretty
good at catching the frogs, showing them to my friends and family and then releasing them
again into the pond. But every winter the
pond would freeze over and the frogs would disappear. It wasn’t just the frogs either. I stared to notice there’d
never be any turtles in winter and never any snakes too. It was kind of sad for me actually. I missed seeing all these creatures I would find in the summer. One winter while walking around the edge of the frozen pond I was bored. I saw this rotten log sitting
there, nothing too unusual. But since I was bored I
decided to flip it over. As I flipped it over I was
totally shocked by what I saw. There, under the log, nestled
into the freezing cold mud was this frog in the middle of winter. It was just laying there barely moving. Whoa, wait a second. The frogs were there the whole time? That’s when I learned
that frogs do something kind of like hibernation. They go into a long sleep in winter burring themselves in the mud when it first starts to
get cold in the fall. I’d heard of hibernation before
but thought it was something that only bears did and it
turns out it’s not just frogs and bears, but turtles do
this as well, and snakes. In fact some snakes like
these will actually all gather in a big pile like in a cave underground which helps them to stay warm. Oh yeah, I’d never thought
about where the snakes went. So now, what about insects? Could it be that they hibernate
during the winter too? I’ll be honest with you. When I first heard this question, where do bugs go in winter? I thought you might be really
disappointed by the answer because the first thing I thought of were insects like these, praying mantises. Praying mantises are one of many insects that well, the answer is they don’t survive the winter, they die. While it’s sad it’s
part of their lifecycle. Every fall preying mantises
and lots of other insects too will lay eggs that do survive. So even though the adults
don’t survive the winter by spring babies will be born and their lifecycle will go on. But as I started to research
more about this question I was pleasantly surprised to find out that not all insects die in the winter. Now, I’d known that some
insects like monarch butterflies will actually escape the cold
by flying thousands of miles farther south to reach warmer places. They migrate just like many birds do. But what about hibernation? Are there any insects that
can do something similar to what frogs, turtles and bears do? Where they stay alive all winter but just aren’t very active. In fact there are, like these. Ladybugs are a good example and just like the snakes you saw earlier ladybugs will often gather
together in a big pile in a warm place. Sometimes they even try to stay warm by sneaking their way
into people’s houses. If you live somewhere cold in winter you might be able to notice
ladybugs doing this too. So in summary insects and other bugs have different ways of
surviving cold snowy winters. Some of them fly south to warmer places. Others die but lay eggs
and still others are able to survive all winter. They do something similar to hibernation. That’s all for this week’s question. Thanks Kylie for asking it. Now, for the next episode I
reached into my question jar and chose three questions submitted to me that I’m thinking about answering. When this video is done playing
you’ll get to vote on one. You can choose from, why
do people throw confetti? Who invented the alphabet? Or, how is glass made? So submit your vote when the video’s over. I want to hear from all of you watching. There are mysteries all around us. Stay curious and see you next week.