I Got Stung 50 Times By Bees & I’m Allergic – Story


Bees. Flying insects. Members of complex social colonies centered
around a queen. Extremely important to pollination. There are over 16,000 known species of bees. One of the species, the western or European
honey bee, makes honey and beeswax. Unfortunately honey bees are my personal life
long nemesis. I’m part of the just over 3% of American
adults who are allergic to bees. Recently, I got stung and this is what happened. Actually this is the second time in my life
I’ve been stung. When I was young, I messed with a beehive
and got stung by several bees–yeah, I was kind of a dumb kid. Researchers have determined that many people
experience cumulative bee sting sensitivity. Meaning that for many people the more times
they are stung, the stronger their body’s reaction. Death via bee sting is possible, mostly on
a second or later occurrence of being stung, but fairly rare. In the US between 2000-2017, the largest number
of fatalities from hornet, wasp, and bee stings occurred in 2017 with a high of 89 deaths. So even if you originally weren’t allergic
to bee stings, you can become allergic to bee venom. That’s right, venom. When a bee stings you, it’s actually injecting
you with a toxin. Honey bee venom is made up of toxic proteins
and peptides, the major component being a protein called melittin. It also contains 50 other identified compounds
including hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and histamine. A number of these components have significant
toxic effects on many different animals. The complex nature of venom may be due to
the wide variety of predators which might attack a bee colony. Different components of the venom seem to
be vital in repelling different species of attackers. Honey bee venom is cytotoxic and hemotoxic
meaning that it destroys cells, red blood cells in particular; large doses of venom
can disrupt blood clotting. Whether you’re allergic to bee venom or
not, when stung, chances are you’ll feel a temporary burning pain during the sting. Most people develop a local reaction, usually
swelling, soreness and redness around the sting site that will slowly dissipate within
a few hours to the next several days. Even if you’re not allergic, being stung
multiple times in a short time period can cause nausea, dizziness and even seizures
due to the quantity of venom injected. Being stung on a more sensitive part of the
body, such as the face, or neck can produce a heightened immune response rather than getting
stung on the arms and legs. While bees, yellow jackets, bumblebees and
hornets all sting, their venom is not the same. Bee stings tend to be acidic, whereas wasp
stings are alkaline, so your body’s reaction to a bee sting may be very different from
that of a wasp sting. It’s possible to be severely allergic to
the venom from a bee or even a particular species of bee and only be mildly allergic
or have just a normal local reaction to a sting from another species of bee or wasp. Adult honeybees come in 3 varieties: a queen,
drone and a worker. All worker bees are female, though they lack
reproductive capabilities. They gather pollen, feed larvae, and maintain
and defend the hive, while queens are responsible for producing new bees. The job of drones or male bees is to mate
with the queen. Only females bees are capable of stinging,
though queen bees never sting in defense of the colony. Instead, young queens will sting and fight
to the death against rival queens to ascend to rule the colony. Technically, honey bees are capable of stinging
multiple times like other winged stinging insects such as hornets. However, the honey bee’s stinger is barbed. When the victim’s skin is thick, such as
a mammal’s, the barbed stinger wedges in the victim’s skin while attached to the venom
sac which tears loose from the bee’s abdomen and leads to its death in minutes. Honey bee stings release pheromones that attract
other nearby bees to come and attack to protect the hive. The pheromones actually smell similar to bananas. For safety, researchers have suggested that
beekeepers not eat the fruit before working because the beekeepers’ banana scented breath
can rile up bees. Today I walked outside, checked the mail and
bam! some random bee let me have it in the arm. Upon penetration of the stinger in my skin,
the bee’s smooth muscle surrounding the venom sac automatically contracted, thus further
embedding the stinger. Simultaneously the bee squeezed the venom
sac injecting its contents deeper into my arm tissue due to the burrowing of the stinger. 90% of a bee’s venom is injected into the
victim during the first 20 seconds after the stinger makes contact with the victim’s
skin. Immediately, the sting site on my arm turned
red and began to swell. I removed the stinger by pinching it out with
my finger tips. I quickly began to experience immunologic
anaphylaxis or to have an acute, multiorgan system reaction caused by the release of chemical
mediators from my white blood cells to something my body determined to be an allergen agent. Externally, I began to sweat, my pulse weakened
and I got dizzy. My mouth began to itch and my chest grew tight. My throat passage swelled, becoming narrow
and making me wheeze. Internally, the bee venom interacted with
my B cells which are responsible for creating the antibodies of my immune system. Antibodies that are created in response to
an allergen, are known as immunoglobulin E or IgE. To counter the allergen, the IgE attaches
itself to mast cells. Mast cells then release immune molecules known
as cytokines. Cytokines are primarily used for cellular
communication. The cytokines communicate with other white
blood cells, recruiting them to come help combat the allergen. Those white blood cells repeat the activation
and recruitment of more white blood cells. The cycle repeats over and over. Meanwhile the activation of the mast and immune
cells has caused the release of histamine which widens my blood vessels. When blood vessels are wider, the white blood
cells can move quickly to the site of the allergy invasion. Throughout my entire body, blood vessels widen
causing a drop in blood pressure. As a result, my circulatory system began to
have trouble distributing oxygen. Also histamine causes my blood vessels to
leak, which leads to swelling throughout my body. Especially dangerous, the release of histamine
also causes bronchospasms or the main passages to my lungs to randomly, involuntary contract,
making it difficult to breathe. At the same time, the swelling in my throat
narrowed my air passages, making for a life threatening combination. So basically, the white blood cells in my
body sensed an intruder. They overreacted and call their homeboys to
defend against the invader, their homeboys called even more homeboys, on and on, thereby
accidentally disrupting my other vital body functions during the process. I immediately injected myself in the outer
thigh with a shot of epinephrine or adrenaline which constricts blood vessels, counteracting
the actions of the histamine. Epinephrine also causes bronchodilation, or
opens up the airways, making it easier to breath. The outer thigh is the best site for injection
because it’s one of the body’s biggest muscles with a large blood supply. Administration of an adrenaline shot into
the muscle provides a faster dissipation and absorption of the medication. Especially the outer thigh is optimal, because
the skin tends to be thinner there and there’s less fat on the muscle. Along with the shot, I also took an oral dosage
of diphenhydramine which is an antihistamine that neutralizes and reduces the effects of
histamine in the body. Each allergic person experiences anaphylaxis
differently, the symptoms are wide ranging from vomiting, to hives, to confusion. Anaphylaxis most commonly affects the skin,
respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The severity of the response can be affected
by the quantity and concentration of the injected bee venom. Although anyone can have an allergy, people
with asthma and eczema tend to be at an increased risk for anaphylaxis. A friend drove me to an emergency room where
I was given an IV to help restore my circulatory system. I was also monitored for the next several
hours in cause of a protracted, recurring or biphasic anaphylactic reaction. Two days later I was completely back to normal,
minus a sore chest from wheezing and some swelling at the sting site. It’s amazing how a small incident such as
bee sting can set off a life threatening situation. My doctor suggested that I do venom immunotherapy
in case of future stings. Venom immunotherapy or allergy shots usually
contain purified venom. The first few shots contain very small amounts
of venom. The amount is gradually increased until the
patient can tolerate the amount of venom in two or more stings without having the symptoms
of an allergic reaction. However, venom immunotherapy doesn’t work
for everyone. Considering all the trauma I went through,
I can’t be mad at bees. Bees are vital for a healthy environment,
produce delicious honey and help grow our crops. Do you have an allergy? What are you allergic to? Let us know in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video
Most Painful Insect Bite A Human Can Experience – Bullet Ants! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time!

Dinosaur Disappears! Giant Life Size Dinosaurs for Kids & T-Rex Ranch Dinomaster Mystery Adventure


(electric zap) (laughing) – You’re the Dino-Master!
You got a new mask! – Yes that’s right. I’m the Dino-Master. – You took Spike the Stegosaurus. – Ha-ha! You’ll never catch me! I’ve got all your dinosaurs. So long. (gasping) – I think I’m rock climbing. Action. Whoa. Okay now time to
count all the Apatosauruses. (chucking) – Those park rangers think
they’ve gotten rid of me. (dark laughter) I’ll show them. I’m going to sneak into their dinosaur park and take every one of their dinosaurs then turn them into virtual characters for my new video game. (evil laughter) Uh-oh. What’s this? Looks like some sort of of pen up fence. They think they can keep me out but they can’t. So I’ll just walk across. (electric zap) (grunting) Ow. That hurt. These park rangers think they’re clever and their pen up fence with lasers. I’ll show them what I know about lasers. I need some dust to find
where the laser beams are. (blows) Ah, yes. There it is. Now to deactivate. I need my Dino-Master case. (laughter) Yes! The laser de activator! (loud beep) Ah, yes! De activated! (beeping sound) Also de activated. Excellent. Time to test it now. No more lasers. De activated. Excellent! Now to enter T-Rex Ranch and take all their dinosaurs. (evil laughter) (intense music) Now where are those dinosaurs? Ah-ha! (dinosaur roar) There’s one over there.
Time for my Dino-Zapper. Ah, yes! Come here dinosaur. Come here. (lighting zap) (chuckling) One down. More to go. (dinosaur roar) Ah-ha! Another one. Come here dinosaur. (laughter) – Get out my handy-dandy clip board. My handy-dandy binoculars. Okay so Apatosauruses. Five of them. Okay there’s one. There’s another one and then there’s Oh? Huh? Oh no! I don’t see any more! There’s two. Wait a minute. Wait a minute. How many are there? Hmm. T-Rex, Velociraptor,
Apatosaurus. Five? Uh-oh! – Hm? I wonder why the
Dino-Master’s old mask was out in the woods?
I doubt he’s back but now what? Maybe we just google him here see if he’s in the news
lately. Dino-Master. (click) – We may have a situation here. I better call Park Ranger!
Come in Park Ranger Erin! (radio beep) – Whoa. Yeah, Park Ranger Obie. Yeah go ahead Park Ranger Obie. – Um we might have a situation. There were five Apatosauruses. But I can only find two. (radio) – What? You can’t find
all the Apatosauruses? Surely they’re there. (gasps) Paddock 17! The alarm’s
sounding for Paddock 17! Quick dude! You need to get over there and figure what’s going
on and check it out! Because it looks like
there’s been a breach in the paddock fence. (radio beep) – Oh yeah! I’ll go! Get off my jacket! This is going to be heavy duty time! Put it on my back that’s
why they call it backpack! (intense music) (motorcycle engine) – Hah! The Dino-Master’s in town! Another one! Catch me if you can! I’m the Dino-Master man! Whoo! The Dino-Master’s
large and in charge! There are more dinosaurs this way. (alarm sound) That sounds like the Park
Ranger’s panic alarm. (alarm sound) Quick! I need a disguise!
Oh this poncho should work. Ah-ha! My Dino-Zapper is in disguise. They’ll never spot me in this camouflage. Now on to find more dinosaurs. (alarm sound) (engine sound) (mysterious music) Whoa! Whoa! Whoa! Whoa! Whoa! What is that? Oh it’s a foot print of some sort. It looks awfully like a human footprint. Nah it can’t be! Why would
a human be in here in a paddock? By now they would
have been eaten anyway. Well, I better keep going. (engine sound) Another one? Yeah that’s definitely a human foot print! Maybe this has to do with
all the missing dinosaurs. Yeah it has to be. I’m on his trail. Whoa! Whoa! Whoa! Whoa! Whoa! Hey! Maybe that fellow in the green poncho can help me out and
tell me what is going on around here? I’m going to go ask him. Whoa! Uh hey fellow in the
green poncho, you can’t be out here it’s a restricted area. You’re in a dinosaur paddock. That’s what I mean to say. There’s
dinosaurs roaming around so you could get eaten by one! So are you even listening? Man, I’m going to go call security. What? (laughter) You’re the Dino-Master!
You got a new mask! (electric zap) Yes! That’s right! I’m the Dino-Master. You took Spike the Stegosaurus! You’re taking all of the dinosaurs! (laughter) Yes, I’m taking all of your dinosaurs and I’m going to make them virtual characters in my new video game. – No you’re not! Cause
we’re going to blast you! (laughter) (pop sound) (shouting) (evil laughter) – Catch me if you can! – Come back here! – Hah. You’ll never catch me! I’ve got all your dinosaurs. So long. (intense music) – Oh! Oh no! Awe man he got away! Got to go back to Dino HQ. Awe man! Oh my hat! And helmet. – Where’s Park Ranger
Obie? Park Ranger Obie! Where are you? Oh there he is right there! Hey Park Ranger Obie! What happened? What happened? Where have you been man? – The Dino-Master is back! – He’s back? What’s he doing in here? – He’s taking all of our dinosaurs! – Why is he taking our dinosaurs now? – Because he wants to turn them into virtual video game characters! – He’s taking all of our dinosaurs! That’s terrible! He could
get rid of all of them. We wouldn’t have dinosaurs left would we? That would be really bad. All right well we need to come up with a plan to stop the Dino-Master before he
takes all of our dinosaurs. Okay? Oh did you hurt yourself? – Yeah I hurt my leg on
that turn because he took my ATV and I was trying
to get it back and it went – He took your ATV? – Yeah! – This is terrible man!
What are we going to Okay we got to get you back to Dino HQ. Get you all bandaged up
and we’ll make a plan okay? – Yeah! He has a new mask and everything. – Oh wow a new mask?
I think I got an idea. Come on. Take it easy on
that leg there, let’s go. – Hey Park Rangers! If you like this video please subscribe to our channel and give us a big thumbs up. (intense music)

A Tiny Wasp, with a Big Evolutionary Secret to Tell

A Tiny Wasp, with a Big Evolutionary Secret to Tell


[Ellen Martinson] So, our study was done with the jewel
wasp, nasonia vitripennis, which is a parasitoid wasp and that means that
they inject venom into other organisms that changes the metabolism of that
organism so that it becomes a good environment for their young to be raised in. [Jack Werren] Parasitoids are a vast group of insects. Estimates of the number of species in the world range from 100,000 to up as
high as 600,000 and they play a very important role in keeping other insect
populations in check. [Ellen] You don’t actually know the function of venom until it’s injected into another organism and how it changes that organism and so when we
study wasp venom we can see these very close knit interactions of two different
species and see how those interactions evolve over time. In the past, most people
have attributed new gene functions to duplication and neofunctionalization
and that simply means that you have a gene and a gene has a function and then
the genes duplicates it changes into a new function. But the problem with that
theory is that it’s very slow and then if we’re looking at the time scale
we see with this wasp venom we’re seeing that that is happening much, much, much
faster. For example, to two of the species that we looked at are relatively closely
related. So they separated from each other only about 1 million years ago and
40% of their venom repertoire has changed in just that relatively short
period of time and when we saw that we realized that it couldn’t possibly be
described by duplication and neofunctionalization [Jack] Primarily what happens is a non-venom single-copy gene gets recruited and evolves the new function. It’s sort of
like it’s taking on a new job. it’s like they’re moonlighting. They have a day job
and now they’ve got a night job and the night job is being a venom and then the
question is what then happens next? Maybe the night job is more lucrative
and the gene evolves to become a venom specialist. Some of these genes actually
maintain both functions and then we even found that in some cases when a venom
gene stopped being a venom gene it appears to be going back to its day job.
This co-option method because it’s exploiting an existing gene can in
principle happen more quickly and therefore we think that this may be a
common process when organisms are subject to strong selection in a
changing environment. [Ellen] Venom research has important implications in medical research because venom is basically composed of metabolically active
compounds so these are things that will go into another organism and change a
gene or metabolite and venom in the past has actually been developed into new
pharmaceuticals and drugs [Jack] It has a vast potential resource for new drug discovery, which basically has not been explored at all. So I think
going forward that’s probably the largest implication of venoms and
parasitoids to medicine

How to Remove a Wasp Nest – Extended Cut – Orkin Pest Control


ok ok the any okay let’s say you’re smokin up
some tasty rips the closure smoker in what is that sound is that the neighbor trying to show you
up with his grilling skills know my friends that’s the sound of a
wasp nest and when you’ve got ones think okay but what if you did have a wasp nest I
mean sure this is my daughter’s pin yacht her birthday is coming up but what if
instead of tasty treats this thing was chock-full of long legged long body paper wasps not so much fun first of all I wouldn’t recommend removing these bad
boys on your own but if you’re feeling rambunctious let’s
start with what you need garden gloves a hoodie long pants work boots goggles a garbage bag a flashlight a red filter all any histamine in case things get hairy
in the last thing we’re gonna need is cold soda and now we week hope top on hot good nighttime while we wait till night you ask glad
you est watch for much less active at night and
early in the morning so this is the time we want to go after
that nest now because it’s dark you’re gonna need something to see with
problem is if you point this at that someone like poking a bear with
a hot stick sure it might be fun but you’re probably gonna get ma of
thing is wasps can’t see on the yellow lights pack so we take a
piece a red filter just like this put it across the south
are light I’m just gonna steal this of with a
rubber band now you’ve got night vision and you’re on a
night mission with a cool piece technology that you
made for yourself okay we’ve got our red filtered light in we’ve got our trash bag let’s go know
when you’re approaching a las mas you don’t want to make any sudden moves and you don’t want to make any loud
noises I’m gonna position my life here so I can see it when the wasp nest is
low like this you don’t really need pests final trash bag did what you wanna do
you want to get right up into it that making any sudden movements slowly get that all
the way up all the way to the top like that now if you don’t have centers on a trash bag
you can add to it by hand just like that think it’s gonna pop it
off like a peach good job okay let’s get ready this bad boy now wherever you do decide to dispose at
this thing make sure that it’s well away from kids animals and you know crazy people who
like to dig through the trash yeah path hi due to do do do do 22 June 50-50 yes than and better safe then suck awesome now if the nest is too high or you’re
worried about running into the wrong end of a loss for
10 feel free to give me a call ok

The Cruel Fate of the Zombie Spider

The Cruel Fate of the Zombie Spider


hi and welcome to facts in motion Human zombies are still a thing of fiction, but in the animal world, mind control is actually more common than you might think. But unlike in movies where it’s usually a virus that turns people into the walking dead, in the real world parasites are the most common cause for this phenomenon one example of this parasitic mind control is found in spiders, more specificaly in orb weaving spiders of the genus Cyclosa one of the biggest threats these spiders face is a wasp species of the family of scorpion wasps a parasitoid wasp family that has adopted a very special strategy for reproduction while most wasps practice either mass provisioning, where all the necessary food for each of the offspring is stocked with the eggs in a small chamber, or a progressive provisioning where the larves are fed directly and continually during their development scorpion wasps instead inject the eggs into or on the bodies of living hosts this provides the larvae with a continuous supply of food until they’re big enough to pupate a few weeks later at this point, the hosts usually die and the larvae emerge, and begin their metamorphosis into adult wasps While each species of these wasps are usually specialised on a specific host, collectively, scorpion wasps use a diversity of different hosts with the most common being the larvae and pupae of butterflies, beetles, flies, and other flying insects. But what’s so special about the case of Cyclosa it’s not that the host is a spider, but how the spider is manipulated by the wasp larva and turned into a mind-controlled worker. After the larva spends a few weeks living and growing on the spider’s body and using its teeth-like structure to suck the spider’s blood, it is ready to pupate. At this point, the larva injects a substance into the spider’s body. What exactly the substance is and how it works is still unknown, but its effects on the spider are drastic. After the injection, the spider exhibits a significantly-altered behaviour. Instead of going about spider business, it starts to completely rebuild its web for the wasp like a mindless zombie. First, it removes all spiraling threads that makes the webs of orb weavers so appealing and are normally used to catch the spider’s prey. They won’t be of any use for the larva. The (?) of the webs, however, remain, and even get reinforced with additional strings and then decorated with special-fabric silk that reflects ultraviolet light. This warns away birds and some large insects from accidently flying into the web and destroying it. The improved visibility and increased strength of the web are very important to keep it intact during the larva’s two-week metamorphosis. When the spider’s finished building the perfect nest for the larva, it returns to the center of the web and sits inert, patiently waiting for its own death. With no further use for it, the larva kills the spider and sucks it out completely before throwing its empty shell off the web. Then, it settles down in the center of the web to spin itself a cocoon in which it will transform itself into a wasp within the next 10 to 15 days. The spider’s bespoke creations are, like researchers from Japan found out, not a completely new design by the parasites. Instead, the larvae were corrupting a natural behaviour of the spiders. Spiders which are about to moult bear a very similar one, called the “resting web” that is used as a temporary hangout during its two-day moulting process. But a web that lasts only two days isn’t going to cut it for the larvae, which explains why the threads the spider uses to construct the larvae webs were significantly thicker and tougher, requiring 2.7 to 40 times the breaking force to snap than the threads of a normal web. From an evolutionary standpoint, this makes it relatively easier for the larva. Instead of having to mind-control every step of modifying the sticky web for its needs, it just has to turn on an already existing behaviour program and slightly alter a few variables. How exactly the larva does this is, however, still a mystery. One theory is that the chemicals injected by the larva are similar to the hormones the spider produces naturally before moulting. And that this is what motivates the spider to start building the nest for the larva.

8 Awe-Inspiring Spiders

8 Awe-Inspiring Spiders


[♪ INTRO] When you hear the word spider, you might immediately
think venomous, terrifying, or just… nope. Or you could be like me, and think they’re
amazing! Very few spiders are actually harmful
to people, while lots of spiders, pretty much all of them, in fact,
are helpful to us in some way. When you look at spiders more closely, you
realize they have some amazing abilities that may lead to really useful things like tougher
fabrics or stickier glues. So in honour of these eight-legged creatures, here are eight spiders that
push the limits of biology. Net casting spiders in the family Deinopidae
are sometimes called ogre-faced spiders because of their two huge forward-facing eyes. In one species, these eyes can reach 1.4 millimetres
in diameter. And while might not sound big, that’s the
largest eye relative to body size found in spiders, about a tenth the length of their entire body. It would be like you having eyes bigger than
cantaloupes. These eyes give the spiders a wide but shallow view of the world, kind of like looking through a fisheye lens. They also contain lots of light receptor cells,
allowing them to pick up around 2000 times more light than the eyes of day-dwelling spiders
or humans. But seeing that much light during the day
is problematic, so they actually destroy parts of their retinas every day and rebuild them
again just before nightfall. These special eyes are what allow net-casting
spiders to, well, cast nets. Though they technically build webs, they don’t
use them like other web-builders do. Instead of making a big mesh net for a bug
to run into, they spin a small web between their legs. Then, in the dark of night, they drop down
on their prey from above and envelop them with their sticky net. Scientists think the spiders’ net casting
hunting technique, along with those massive eyes, evolved during the Cretaceous period
as a way to get prey that could now run. And now, they’re inspiring sensor designs. Since the spiders’ eyes are so good at picking
out targets and detecting motion in low light, engineers are hoping understanding
how they work can help develop sensors that do better in complex, dark environments. Pelican spiders are pretty easy to identify
even if you’re not an arachnologist. That’s because attached to their weird ballooning
heads are two menacing claws which, at rest, look kind of like
the bill of a certain water bird. Now, all spiders have these mouth-related
appendages, called chelicerae. They’re the parts tipped with fangs. But pelican spiders have evolved the
longest chelicerae of any spider, and they use them to ruthlessly
hunt their 8-legged cousins. First, a pelican spider has to find and creep
up on its target. So, it uses its legs to feel for web trails,
the long strands of silk that spiders leave to find their way back to their web, or draglines,
the stronger, outer edges of the web. This stalking process can take several hours. Then, when a tasty spider is within arms reach,
the pelican spider juts out its chelicerae at a 90 degree angle, impaling its victim
and delivering a fatal dose of venom. And that’s not the most gruesome part. The pelican spider will usually just
leave their prey hanging there, struggling around, for half a minute
or so until the venom has done its job. Despite their unique look, not a lot was known
about these spiders until recently. In January 2018, a biologist from
the Smithsonian Museum described 26 species of this spider,
including 18 new ones. And that’s helping scientists figure out
how pelican spiders’ unusual traits evolved and diversified over time. Darwin’s Bark Spiders spin webs that hold
not one, but two official Guinness World Records. They’ve got the largest webs because their
webs can be up to 2.8 metres across. And they’re the longest webs, too, because
their bridge lines, the tough strands which form the basis of the webs,
can be up to 25 metres long. Such uniquely big webs are
thanks to a special silk that’s the perfect combination of
strength and stretchiness. All spiders make the structural part of their
web from what’s called dragline silk, which has a protein core covered with a thin
sugary protein layer and a fatty outer coating. But the dragline silk from a Darwin’s Bark
Spider is two times more elastic than other spider silks and 10 times stronger than Kevlar. And that allows them to spin webs where other
spiders can’t: across rivers. Their oversized cobwebs span
waterways and grant them access to a bunch of flying insects
that other spiders can’t reach. And because of the strength of their webs,
they can even catch small vertebrates. Their super strong and stretchy silk may even
save human lives one day. Scientists are currently trying to figure
out exactly how the spiders make it in the hopes of creating a synthetic version, which
could lead to better bullet proof vests or other high-performance materials. The Mygalomorphae infraorder of spiders, which
includes tarantulas and trapdoor spiders, may have found the secret to a long life:
stay indoors and never change. Other spiders rarely make it more than a few years. But tarantulas can make it into their 20s, and Number
16, an unceremoniously named trapdoor spider, made it to the ripe old age of 43
before she died in October of 2016. Scientists think they live so long
because they spend their lives in stillness and solitude in underground burrows. Trapdoor spiders even seal themselves in with a
well-camouflaged door made of a cork-like material. And that means, a lot of the time, they just
kind of hang out in their home while they wait for a meal to come along. Staying in keeps them safe from most predators
and other threats, like dehydration. Their restful hunting style also means they
need to have a low resting metabolic rate. Their basic cellular workings need to be pretty
energy-efficient so they don’t burn through all of their fuel reserves before they can
stock up again. And there’s a theory that a low resting
metabolic rate means a longer life because using up energy creates damaging molecules called free radicals, so less energy use overall means
less damage to cells over time. Biologists don’t think that that’s the
whole story to their longevity, though. They’re still figuring out how metabolic rate,
free radicals, body size and aging all fit together. And that information could help them unlock
the secrets to longevity in people, too. This next spider takes prey capture to a whole
new level of weird. The spider family Scytodidae spit to immobilize
their meals. Most spiders make silk in glands at the rear
of their abdomens. But, when their prey is 2 centimeters or less
away, a spitting spider unleashes a spray of liquid silk from the
venom glands in its chelicerae. The spit is forced out thanks to a buildup
of pressure that comes from having large venom glands and a tiny muscle at the base of those
glands that squeezes when it’s time to fire. While spitting, the spider wiggles its chelicerae
from side to side at a rate of 1700 times a second
to spray a zig-zag pattern. And the silk becomes sticky when it comes
in contact with the air, pinning the prey down. This whole spit attack happens in
one seven-hundredth of a second. The spider can even regulate how much spit
it sprays depending on the prey’s size and how much its likely to struggle. Once its meal is firmly glued down, it will
sidle up and inject its prey with venom to fully immobilize it before actually eating
its meal. Scientists are still debating about whether
that initial spit contains venom that immobilizes the prey or if it’s just a kind of glue. On the one hand, the spit is made in venom
glands which have the ability to make both venom and sticky silk. But prey don’t look like poisoned when they
get shot, so the glands could be making silk
and venom at different times. And research to settle this debate isn’t
just to prove who’s right. Figuring out what’s actually in their sticky spray
could help engineers develop better adhesives. As you’ve probably heard before, brain size
isn’t everything when it comes to intelligence. That’s particularly true for the fringed
jumping spider, a spider with a brain the size of a sesame seed that plans and fine
tunes its strategy with every hunt. They’re found in parts of Australia and
Southeast Asia, and they have to use their smarts
to catch their prey, other spiders. They use what’s called aggressive mimicry,
kind of a wolf in sheep’s clothing approach. A fringed jumping spider might pluck the edge
of a spider’s web to create the exact same vibrations as a caught insect, for example. Or, it might hide itself in a leaf and vibrate
its body to mimic other species’ courtship displays. And which approach it takes doesn’t come
down to chance. The spiders can plan ahead
and change their strategy if an approach doesn’t work
the first time around. Scientists have shown their smarts in the lab too. These spiders can navigate and plan
routes through mazes, and they can find their way to a tasty snack after
only seeing the path briefly. They’ve also been known to use trial and
error to escape from a platform surrounded by water, rather than just using the same,
failing method each time. Some scientists think they developed such
smarts as a part of an evolutionary arms race between them and the spiders they eat. But the piece of the puzzle that’s missing is an
understanding of just how these clever spiders are able to do the things they can. Researchers are now studying their teeny brains in the hopes of learning more about
the neural basis for intelligence. Ponds and streams contain a lot of potential prey, if a spider if is willing to get their feet,
or rather their whole body, wet. And that’s why some spider species will
venture into the water on occasion, but there’s only one that lives almost exclusively underwater:
the diving bell spider. They can be found in slow moving streams, ponds
and swamps from Europe through central Asia. And they spend almost all of their lives below the surface, even though they can’t actually breathe water. Instead, they spin a special web between underwater
plants with three different types of silk fibers, and then drag air from the surface
to fill the space underneath it. Diving bells do all sorts of things in their
web-bubbles. They eat, sleep, and mate. And when they’re hungry, they can actually
swim around for a little bit in search of prey thanks to the fine, water repellent hairs
on their bodies. These hairs hold onto a little bit of air,
which acts like a scuba tank of sorts. You see, spiders breathe through small holes called spiracles on the underside of their
abdomens that connect to their lungs. As long as these holes are covered with air,
they can breathe, even if the rest of their body is submerged. And diving bells can tolerate lower levels
of oxygen than their kin, so they can swim out of their bubble homes
to grab a quick bite to eat without drowning. In fact, they’d probably live their entire
lives underwater, except the bubbles in their webs slowly shrink. So, once a day or so, they have to surface
and bring down a few batches of fresh air. And understanding how they create their little
bubble homes could lead to better materials for underwater use. Scientists are hoping analyzing the structure
of the different threads they use can help us make things that
stay glued when they get wet. You might have seen this last spider lurking
around your home, but you probably didn’t know it was
also an official world record holder. The giant house spider held the Guinness World
Record for fastest spider until 1987 when it was replaced by members of the arachnid
order Solifugae, and those aren’t true spiders, so I think it should have kept its title. Giant house spiders can run as fast as half
a meter per second, or 1.8 kilometers per hour. Which, OK, means it’s only about a tenth
as fast you are, but proportional to its size, that’s the same as you running 55 meters
a second. Giant house spiders run by alternating the
movement of their pairs of legs, two pairs stay on the ground and support
the body while the other two move forward. And their super fast speed largely comes from
having really long legs. Their leg span can reach as much as 10 centimeters. They likely developed such speed because they
don’t rely on sticky webs. Like other funnel-web spiders, giant house
spider webs are relatively flat with a funnel at one end that the spider hides in. And they aren’t sticky, so they just trip
things up a bit, and send vibrations to the spider
that alert them to a potential meal. The spiders then rush out to attack, using
venom to subdue their prey. Before you get too worried: that venom, while
deadly to bugs, is basically harmless to people. And try to keep in mind: if you see one of
these spiders running, it’s probably running away from you. In their eyes, you’re the scary creature. Since their legs are so important
for running to catch their food, house spiders can actually regrow them
if they get chopped off. And studying how they do that
could help us figure out how to grow our own organs or
limbs in the lab one day. Whether it’s building bridges across rivers
or solving puzzles, spiders are so much more than just annoying or spooky
creatures on the ceiling of your room. Many have smart or elaborate features that
allow them to do some pretty extraordinary things like spend a day underwater or destroy
and regrow their retinas. And by studying them, we might just learn
a few new tricks, too. Thanks for watching! If you liked this
episode on incredible arachnid abilities, you might like our list of 7 unbelievably hardcore ants. [♪ OUTRO]

Crazy Ants Invade – Texas Parks & Wildlife [Official]

Crazy Ants Invade – Texas Parks & Wildlife [Official]


– ED LEBRUN: Sweeping up
dead ants every day. Millions of ants inside
their house. Ants getting into the
electrical equipment and then the electric circuit
shorts out– Just much, much worse.– NARRATOR: The script
is familiar.
An exotic ant invades,wreaking havoc.But these are not fire ants,and this is not a horror film.– FILM NARRATOR: There is
no word to describe THEM! [scream]– NARRATOR: Yet like the
movies, native species
battle for survival.There is public alarm.– FILM NARRATOR:
Stay in your homes!– NARRATOR: And scientists
race to combat the menace.
This is one crazy ant.– FILM NARRATOR: I tell you
gentlemen, science has agreed–– NARRATOR: The tawny
crazy ant,
native to South America,was first documented near
Houston and in Florida
in the early 2000s.Since then, it has invaded
around the Gulf Coast.
– They are found in a
variety of habitats– urban, suburban and also in
natural environments. In Texas, we know that when you
get an invasion of crazy ants, you lose lots and lots
of insects, and you also lose all the ants
except for a few small species.– NARRATOR: Researchers, like
Ed LeBrun, are concerned by
the impacts of crazy ants
on natural systems,
even in the suburbs.– ED: Yeah, they are
very active today. They cause a lot of damage
to the native ecosystems by greatly reducing
abundance and diversity of other insects in the system.– NARRATOR: And some natural
places are especially fragile.
– ED: This many ants in any
environment will have negative consequences,
typically, but there’s a lot of endangered
species in these caves, right Todd? – Yeah.– NARRATOR: At the entrance
of a protected cave on the
outskirts of Austin,LeBrun and Natural Resource
Specialist, Todd Bayless,
know swarms of crazy ants on
the surface are bad news
for rare cave bugs below.– We got a call from Texas
Cave Management Association to tell us that there was a
major infestation of ants that they’d never seen
before in their cave, and sure enough, found this
tawny crazy ant in huge numbers inside the cave itself. That was a concern to us because
this is one of the caves we hope to protect for some
species of concern. We knew that they had the
potential of being found in other endangered species
caves nearby. [cave crawling] – Onward and inward! My name is Travis Clark, I’m a
Natural Resources Specialist for Travis County at the
Balcones Canyonlands Preserve. The BCP was created to
provide protections for eight endangered species, six of those are karst
invertebrates. We’re at a cave in South
Austin that’s been impacted by tawny crazy ants. And the reason we’re entering
today is to do one of our quarterly karst faunal
surveys to assess impacts by tawny crazy ants. There he is right there. – MARK SANDERS: This is one of
the species of concern that we’re trying to protect. The species name is
Rhadine Austinica. – TRAVIS: The species are
essentially canaries in a coal mine, and so they’re going
to be indicative of cave health. These cave systems are
important because they’re recharge features. People benefit through drinking
water, through recreation where this comes out in springs. – MARK: Cicurina Bandida. – And that was two? – One. That’s it. – TRAVIS: So essentially what
we’re charged with is providing all the safeguards we
can for these caves. – TODD: The underground
ecosystem is very unique, not just in North America
but all over the world. Knowing we had a problem,
we looked for experts in the ant community that could
possibly help us out and we found Ed LeBrun over at
UT’s Brackenridge Field Lab. – ED: This is the invasive
species research group at the University of Texas at Austin. And we are working on a lot of
invasive species problems in the state of Texas. Most people in Texas,
when you’re talking about invasive ants are thinking
about red imported fire ants. They actually do less harm to
the native Texas ecosystems than these crazy ants do.– NARRATOR: Crazy ants,
so named for their
erratic movements, eat or
outcompete most of the spiders
and insects around them,including the
formidable fire ant.
– Fire ants are very tough. They have this extremely
toxic venom. She actually goes up and
literally takes the venom droplet off the end
of the fire ant stinger. And crazy ants, they go, they
fight, they get hit with fire ant venom, they just
keep fighting, they keep charging in and they
should all be dying. And so then here’s the crazy
ant detoxing from the venom. People when you tell them
they displace fire ants, it’s like, “Yea!” But the net effect
if very negative. Insects are the base of the
terrestrial food web, so if you knock out the
base of the food web, those impacts then
spread throughout the rest of the system, like birds and reptiles that feed directly
on the insects, which plants proliferate
and which plants don’t, so you can really change
the whole system by altering the
arthropod community. Here’s a trap.– NARRATOR: Such threats have
biologists searching for ways
to control crazy ants.Texas Parks and Wildlife
contributed funding to an
early investigation of
boric acid bait stations
in the field.– Unfortunately, it’s
not very promising. – We discovered that, although
the crazy ants loved the bait, brought the poison
back to their nests, that it just didn’t reduce
the densities of the ants that we were hoping for.– NARRATOR: In the lab,
there is now hope for a
natural enemy that some
crazy ants already carry.
– ED: These are uninfected ants,
so these were our control ants in that experiment. The microsporidian that
we’re working on is showing quite a bit of promise.– NARRATOR: A fungal parasite
specific to these ants
could help keep them in check.– The development of larvae to
workers is greatly reduced by infection, and the life span
of workers is reduced by about a quarter. There are these phydolese,
solonopsis, dipoloptrims, they are very tiny. And most of your ant diversity
is down at this kind of size. Tawny crazy ants are just a
very small component of the overall ant assemblage
down in Argentina.– NARRATOR: The world
of ants…
– ED: Leaf-cutting ants…
– NARRATOR: …is complex.
– ED: …we have here in Texas
as well, we haveAtta texana.– NARRATOR: So further studies
of ant interactions,
where crazy ants are native,
and where they are not,
may provide more ways to
minimize their impacts.
– FILM NARRATOR: The
subterranean nest, where the beast spawns its
terrible progeny.– NARRATOR: Meanwhile, we
should remember that the
very best solution to
invasive species problems
is to avoid creating them
in the first place.
– ED: Crazy ant queens
don’t fly. What that means is they don’t
have a way to infest new areas except for people moving them. And that’s unfortunately what’s
happening all over the state. So, people move them when they
take a potted plant somewhere that has ants in it. When you go to a garden store
to buy something, it’s important to look for ants. I mean you don’t have to
be an ant biologist, just look for ants and if
they’re covered in ants, don’t buy it. Recreational vehicles are
a problem as well. Being sure that there aren’t
any ants in your vehicle when you go to visit
a new place. [door slam] [intriguing music] Species invasion, it’s a natural process, right? Species have been moving
around the planet since there’s been a planet. The problem is, humans with our
commerce and everything we do, elevated the rate at which
these invasions happen by many orders of magnitude. And so the natural system
doesn’t have time to adjust before the next invader comes. The natural systems
are very resilient. If you can give them
time to adjust, they will. We should be paying attention, and we should be
investing resources in offsetting the impact. That’s why I work here. That’s what we’re about is
trying to change the dynamic so that we can preserve the
natural systems that we all grew up with. [intriguing music]

Crazy Ants Invade – Texas Parks & Wildlife [Official]


– ED LEBRUN: Sweeping up
dead ants every day. Millions of ants inside
their house. Ants getting into the
electrical equipment and then the electric circuit
shorts out– Just much, much worse.– NARRATOR: The script
is familiar.
An exotic ant invades,wreaking havoc.But these are not fire ants,and this is not a horror film.– FILM NARRATOR: There is
no word to describe THEM! [scream]– NARRATOR: Yet like the
movies, native species
battle for survival.There is public alarm.– FILM NARRATOR:
Stay in your homes!– NARRATOR: And scientists
race to combat the menace.
This is one crazy ant.– FILM NARRATOR: I tell you
gentlemen, science has agreed–– NARRATOR: The tawny
crazy ant,
native to South America,was first documented near
Houston and in Florida
in the early 2000s.Since then, it has invaded
around the Gulf Coast.
– They are found in a
variety of habitats– urban, suburban and also in
natural environments. In Texas, we know that when you
get an invasion of crazy ants, you lose lots and lots
of insects, and you also lose all the ants
except for a few small species.– NARRATOR: Researchers, like
Ed LeBrun, are concerned by
the impacts of crazy ants
on natural systems,
even in the suburbs.– ED: Yeah, they are
very active today. They cause a lot of damage
to the native ecosystems by greatly reducing
abundance and diversity of other insects in the system.– NARRATOR: And some natural
places are especially fragile.
– ED: This many ants in any
environment will have negative consequences,
typically, but there’s a lot of endangered
species in these caves, right Todd? – Yeah.– NARRATOR: At the entrance
of a protected cave on the
outskirts of Austin,LeBrun and Natural Resource
Specialist, Todd Bayless,
know swarms of crazy ants on
the surface are bad news
for rare cave bugs below.– We got a call from Texas
Cave Management Association to tell us that there was a
major infestation of ants that they’d never seen
before in their cave, and sure enough, found this
tawny crazy ant in huge numbers inside the cave itself. That was a concern to us because
this is one of the caves we hope to protect for some
species of concern. We knew that they had the
potential of being found in other endangered species
caves nearby. [cave crawling] – Onward and inward! My name is Travis Clark, I’m a
Natural Resources Specialist for Travis County at the
Balcones Canyonlands Preserve. The BCP was created to
provide protections for eight endangered species, six of those are karst
invertebrates. We’re at a cave in South
Austin that’s been impacted by tawny crazy ants. And the reason we’re entering
today is to do one of our quarterly karst faunal
surveys to assess impacts by tawny crazy ants. There he is right there. – MARK SANDERS: This is one of
the species of concern that we’re trying to protect. The species name is
Rhadine Austinica. – TRAVIS: The species are
essentially canaries in a coal mine, and so they’re going
to be indicative of cave health. These cave systems are
important because they’re recharge features. People benefit through drinking
water, through recreation where this comes out in springs. – MARK: Cicurina Bandida. – And that was two? – One. That’s it. – TRAVIS: So essentially what
we’re charged with is providing all the safeguards we
can for these caves. – TODD: The underground
ecosystem is very unique, not just in North America
but all over the world. Knowing we had a problem,
we looked for experts in the ant community that could
possibly help us out and we found Ed LeBrun over at
UT’s Brackenridge Field Lab. – ED: This is the invasive
species research group at the University of Texas at Austin. And we are working on a lot of
invasive species problems in the state of Texas. Most people in Texas,
when you’re talking about invasive ants are thinking
about red imported fire ants. They actually do less harm to
the native Texas ecosystems than these crazy ants do.– NARRATOR: Crazy ants,
so named for their
erratic movements, eat or
outcompete most of the spiders
and insects around them,including the
formidable fire ant.
– Fire ants are very tough. They have this extremely
toxic venom. She actually goes up and
literally takes the venom droplet off the end
of the fire ant stinger. And crazy ants, they go, they
fight, they get hit with fire ant venom, they just
keep fighting, they keep charging in and they
should all be dying. And so then here’s the crazy
ant detoxing from the venom. People when you tell them
they displace fire ants, it’s like, “Yea!” But the net effect
if very negative. Insects are the base of the
terrestrial food web, so if you knock out the
base of the food web, those impacts then
spread throughout the rest of the system, like birds and reptiles that feed directly
on the insects, which plants proliferate
and which plants don’t, so you can really change
the whole system by altering the
arthropod community. Here’s a trap.– NARRATOR: Such threats have
biologists searching for ways
to control crazy ants.Texas Parks and Wildlife
contributed funding to an
early investigation of
boric acid bait stations
in the field.– Unfortunately, it’s
not very promising. – We discovered that, although
the crazy ants loved the bait, brought the poison
back to their nests, that it just didn’t reduce
the densities of the ants that we were hoping for.– NARRATOR: In the lab,
there is now hope for a
natural enemy that some
crazy ants already carry.
– ED: These are uninfected ants,
so these were our control ants in that experiment. The microsporidian that
we’re working on is showing quite a bit of promise.– NARRATOR: A fungal parasite
specific to these ants
could help keep them in check.– The development of larvae to
workers is greatly reduced by infection, and the life span
of workers is reduced by about a quarter. There are these phydolese,
solonopsis, dipoloptrims, they are very tiny. And most of your ant diversity
is down at this kind of size. Tawny crazy ants are just a
very small component of the overall ant assemblage
down in Argentina.– NARRATOR: The world
of ants…
– ED: Leaf-cutting ants…
– NARRATOR: …is complex.
– ED: …we have here in Texas
as well, we haveAtta texana.– NARRATOR: So further studies
of ant interactions,
where crazy ants are native,
and where they are not,
may provide more ways to
minimize their impacts.
– FILM NARRATOR: The
subterranean nest, where the beast spawns its
terrible progeny.– NARRATOR: Meanwhile, we
should remember that the
very best solution to
invasive species problems
is to avoid creating them
in the first place.
– ED: Crazy ant queens
don’t fly. What that means is they don’t
have a way to infest new areas except for people moving them. And that’s unfortunately what’s
happening all over the state. So, people move them when they
take a potted plant somewhere that has ants in it. When you go to a garden store
to buy something, it’s important to look for ants. I mean you don’t have to
be an ant biologist, just look for ants and if
they’re covered in ants, don’t buy it. Recreational vehicles are
a problem as well. Being sure that there aren’t
any ants in your vehicle when you go to visit
a new place. [door slam] [intriguing music] Species invasion, it’s a natural process, right? Species have been moving
around the planet since there’s been a planet. The problem is, humans with our
commerce and everything we do, elevated the rate at which
these invasions happen by many orders of magnitude. And so the natural system
doesn’t have time to adjust before the next invader comes. The natural systems
are very resilient. If you can give them
time to adjust, they will. We should be paying attention, and we should be
investing resources in offsetting the impact. That’s why I work here. That’s what we’re about is
trying to change the dynamic so that we can preserve the
natural systems that we all grew up with. [intriguing music]

What if all the Bees Die? | #aumsum

What if all the Bees Die? | #aumsum


It’s AumSum Time. What if all the Bees die? No ways. I will sell all my burgers and create a safe
house for them. That’s so cute Aumsum. There are more than 16,000 species of bees. Bees generally collect pollen and nectar from
flowers for their survival. In this process they help pollinate majority
of the fruits. And vegetable crops which are consumed in
the world today. Some studies reveal that more than 90% production
of cherries, blueberries. And almonds is a direct result of the pollination
efforts of bees. Also, certain bees have evolved as per the
size and structure of specific flowers. Hence if there are no bees, these plants would
definitely go extinct. This will also have a catastrophic effect
on the food chain. As the animals eating those plants will slowly
but surely perish. Finally, because of the absence of natural
sweetener like honey. Many people may switch over to an unhealthy
artificial sweetener like sugar. What if the earth was Cube-Shaped? Holy Moly. Will my cute chubby round face also turn into
a cube? Oh AumSum. Earth is spherical in shape because of Gravity. Earth’s gravity pulls everything equally towards
its center. And thus gives it a spherical shape. Now, if the earth was Cube-shaped. Firstly, it would look weird, right. Secondly, just like gravity. Our weight would be different at different
places on earth. This is because the 8 corners of the cube. Would be much further away from the cube’s
center. As compared to the rest of the cube. But this would be good news for people who
are over-weight and lazy. Now they can just go to the corners and voilaaa,
their weight gets reduced. Thirdly, due to low gravitational force. The cube corners would have very less atmospheric
cover & almost no water. Thus rendering them inhospitable. What if the Earth had 2 Moons? So What. Even I have my 2 lollipops, I lick them every
day. That’s gross AumSum. The most obvious effect of 2 moons would be
that. Our nights would be much much brighter. That would certainly be bad news for stargazers
and astronomers. Also, as you all know that tides on earth
are a result of the moon. So, 2 moons would either amplify this effect
or cancel out each other. If they were to amplify then we could have
huge tides. Effectively making living near shorelines
almost impossible. But it will definitely be good news for all
the surfers. Finally, as the number of moons increases,
so will the number of solar eclipses. Also, hypothetically, if they were to ever
collide with each other. Then the amount of debris coming out of such
collision. Would make living on earth almost impossible. What if Earth Stopped Spinning? It would gain weight. No AumSum. The Earth spins at a speed of 1000 miles-per-hour. Its atmosphere also moves along with it at
a constant speed. If the earth stops spinning suddenly, the
atmosphere would still be in motion. Sending everything on the earth’s surface,
flying into the atmosphere. Now, earth’s spinning generates a centrifugal
force. Which is responsible for the huge bulge of
water around the equator. No spinning means no centrifugal force. This water would migrate towards the poles,
where gravity is the strongest. Leaving behind a giant landmass. Also, remember that, even though the earth
stops spinning. It is still revolving around the sun. This means, we would experience a 6-month
day, followed by 6-month night. Some experts also believe that earth’s rotation
generates its magnetic field. Without rotation, there would be no magnetic
field. To protect us from the harmful solar winds. Making it extremely difficult to survive.