I Ate Worms! Trying a Thanksgiving Feast Made from Bugs

I Ate Worms! Trying a Thanksgiving Feast Made from Bugs


– Never been more excited to
do anything in my whole life. Okay. Head first, that’s the
way they say to do it. Oh, that head’s coming off. (crunching) I just ate a bug head. It’s too crunchy. (crunching) It’s nutty, very chewy. Yep, got that exoskeleton. Bottoms up, literally. (laughs) I can’t. (inquisitive music) Hey, smart people, Joe here. Bugs! When I say that word, what comes to mind? Probably not restaurants or
your next home cooked meal. When most people think
about bugs and food, they think about, I don’t know, health code violations.
(cat screeching) Certainly not eating them. But there are some people out
there trying to change that for some really good reasons. I recently flew to Long Beach
to attend a big bug banquet where a bunch of talented chefs are turning insects into fine dining. I’ve heard that insects
are the food of the future, but I wanted to know
why and maybe try some, which is why I am at a feast
where every dish on the menu features edible insects and since it’s a holiday feast, I invited a couple of my friends. I’ve got Kyle Hill from the
YouTube channel Because Science. – Hey Joe, thanks for having me. – Excited to eat some bugs? – Oh (gags). – Okay. And she literally wrote the
book about edible insects and human evolution. Julie Lesnik, Anthropologist
from Wayne State. – Hello. – Bring on the first dish. Oh, okay, what’s in this? – [Alex] You got a cornflower tostada that’s made with about
20% grasshopper flower. A little bit of a black ant
as a citrus salt component. – That’s gonna add a zing. Why do these ants have
this zingy citrus flavor? – It’s a chemical defense mechanism, so they actually have formic acid and they’ll spit the formic acid and it – Fantastic.
– throws off their enemies. And it thrusts–
– Didn’t work too well for me. (laughing) – All right, let’s try it.
– Let’s do it. – I see what you did with the shrimp. They’re arthropods just like insects. (crunching) It’s awesome. – It’s really good. – I love this. – I’m getting some of that zing now. – Yeah, the formic acid
is different from citrus. It’s a little pop. – None this is screaming insect to me. It’s all used really
well and really smartly. – It definitely has one
of the strongest flavors in all the bugs we’re gonna try. – For being so small and being so potent, well done ants and chef. (upbeat music) Aly, you have a kitchen full of bugs. How did you get into
having bugs in the kitchen, eating bugs, getting
other people to eat bugs? – I was in Mexico for
a public health project and I had a taco with (speaks
Spanish), or grasshoppers, and that was delicious. I started blogging, met
bug people, fell in love, and took off from their. – Is there a scientific
reason people don’t eat bugs? – People all over the world do eat bugs. I think from our viewpoint we
think eating bugs is weird, but we’re actually the odd ones. – Is there something that
let’s you predict whether or not some part of the world will or won’t have bugs as part of their diet? – The number one predictor is latitude, how close you are to the equator. Part of the reason we don’t like seeing bugs in our kitchen is
that we seal off our homes. But when you live in the tropics, you have a very different
relationship with bugs. What you see is that people have the bugs that they know are harmful, the ones that are helpful, and
the ones that are delicious. It is a natural found source that gives you so many nutrients it’s almost silly to ignore it. – People have these innate reactions when they see creepy crawly things. Is that any influence on whether people will choose to eat this stuff? – The disgust reaction,
the churning stomach, the gag reflex, it’s
real, it’s a real emotion. But the emotion is learned. – This is not an innate
biological fear of bugs. – It’s a neophobia. – But we’ve changed that
one crunchy bite at a time. Actually, surprisingly delicious. (upbeat music) What delicious dishes do you have for us? – I have sauteed green beans with garlic and mealworms. Then on the platter here, I have mini pecan tarts with crickets. – I can see the crickets. – [Kyle] It’s gonna be in my body soon. – It’s not a meal
– Try and (speaks softly) – without a mealworm.
– everything. (smooth jazz music) – That’s amazing. – Huh. If you didn’t tell me
that bugs were in it, I wouldn’t have known. Which I guess is a compliment? – That is amazing. So good.
– This one looks really good. – You said this one was mine. – That’s the one that was (speaks softly)
– That one has a lot of visible crickets – I know.
– happening on this one. Okay, going in. Are you sure there’s crickets in here? – The other flavors work really well. The sweetness mixes with the nuttiness. – They blend so well
with the other flavors. – It’s really jumping into my mouth here. – I wouldn’t more acts of that thorax. – I give that a two out of 10. – Come on.
– But I give this another 10 out of 10. (upbeat music) How many people on
Earth, around the world, regularly consume bugs? – I think the estimate is
at least 1 billion people are eating bugs today, right now. – [Joe] Is that changing? – We have such a negative
attitude about eating bugs and it’s actually permeating
in globalized society. So people who rely on eating bugs as a very important
part of their nutrition, if they start looking at what we do, and then they feel stigmatized
if they eat those bugs, our negative reactions are harming them. – That’s the thing that
makes me the most sad is I do this on Instagram
and different platforms and I get asked, “How many times were you
dropped on your head?” This is presented in a nice way and we’re working on educating folks, but I do see that same phenomenon. – It’s amazing how our opinions
about what progress is, it starts painting bugs
and savage and primitive and that goes all the way
back to a colonial history. So Columbus, when he encountered people, they were eating bugs. These people were painted
as primitive and savage and animal-like. Then the entire European continent’s like, “I don’t wanna be thought
of as primitive or savage” and so then eating bugs was just – Taboo.
– was disgusting, taboo. If we here can get on
board with eating bugs, then the world can go back
to their natural resources. (upbeat music) – Oh! – This is loaded potato. There is a grasshopper butter, which I cooked the potatoes in. Also with furikake and spiced grasshopper. – Here.
– Give me one. – This one’s for you.
– Thank you. – I just wanna pop the whole
thing in my mouth at once. – That’s what I’m doing.
– Okay. I mean, the bug is perfectly executed. I can have a little crunch
from the worm on top. It’s not jumping out and
going, “I’m a worm potato.” – I like grasshopper butter, which I didn’t know I would say. – Yeah, how do you milk them? – Well anything with, anyway. – Bug eating doesn’t
quite have the right ring. Is there a technical term for this? – Entomophagy. – I got an exoskeleton in my teeth. – Bring on the next course. Oh! – There’s a lot going on here.
– There’s a lot going on. We have several dishes to choose from. – [Ofelia] The first one is mashed garlic and cauliflower with mealworms. – What’s in the cookies? – They are crickets. – We call those chocolate chirp cookies. – Chocolate chirp cookies. – Oh, it’s so good! – Thought you’d like. – Try the mashed potato first?
– Mm-hm. Textural mix is wonderful. – Very good. The nuttiness of the
mealworm adds really nicely to the cauliflower. – Everything else is very
smooshy and then you add that, you get that crunch. – Just like with the other ants, I’m getting a little bit of citrus pop. – Which is perfect with the avocado. – It is just providing that
texture, that additional flavor, like any other ingredient and you can start to retrain your brain to associate this not as
something that’s disgusting, nothing like that, but
something that’s food food. – It’s funny because when we
talk about edible insects, people think of it like
eating it raw off the ground or something and that’s not how people around the world eat it. It’s an ingredient. – [Kyle] Wanna try the cookie? – Wow, this is a delicious cookie. – Really good. – That’s chirpin’ delicious. That’s amazing, 10 out of 10. You know what this just needs is a little bit of cold cricket milk. – You can’t milk a
cricket, Joe, stop trying. – Cockroach milk is a thing, though. – No.
– Wait a second. (upbeat music) We have established
that bugs are delicious, but are they nutritious? – Yeah, they’re basically little vitamins and they contain a bunch of
macro and micro nutrients that you wouldn’t get from
just eating the rib of a cow. You’re eating the whole thing of the bug and you’re getting all those healthy fats. So where you would eat
avocados or almonds or salmon, you could eat a mopane worm and get those really good healthy fats. – That is the most
millennial food in the world. Mopane worm toast, can you imagine? – Everything’s very bio available, too. That means your stomach
can absorb it more. – These sound in a lotta ways like nature’s perfect multivitamin. They even come in pill form. – One thing with the bugs,
depending on which bug you eat, you get a different nutrient profile. With chimpanzees, who are
our closest living relative, they have fashioned these tools to extract termites from the mound, and the termites they’re
getting are the soldiers and they’re really protein-rich. And if–
– Are they doing that on purpose? – Yeah, chimpanzees are frugivores. Most of their diet comes from fruit and so for a large-bodied chimp, they have to supplement
some protein in their diet. – That’s amazing that they’re using this like an actual literal vitamin
shop out there in nature. – When we go down the
branches on human evolution to about 2 million years ago, we’re working with the
genus Australopithecus, and we actually have evidence that they were also eating termites. The Australopithecines were likely doing with these bone tools is
digging into the termite mound to access fatty-rich
termites instead of the protein-rich termites.
– Like larva. – Larva, yes. I call it a pat Of butter. – Delicious insect butter.
– It is just straight up fat. – Why would they be after fat? Australopithecine brains are about 20% bigger than chimpanzees
and our brains run on fat. All the fatty acids are so important for developing our brains and for keeping them functioning properly. – I can go and find basically
any restaurant in America and I’m gonna find
plenty of fat in my diet. But if you’re walking around in Africa and you’re an early human, you just don’t have these sources of fat. – Right. – So this would’ve been a key nutrient that they can’t get anywhere else. – When we think about humans
and what makes us so unique is how large our brains are. So over the millions of years of evolution since our last common ancestor, our brains have been getting
gradually bigger and bigger. One thing we know that must mean is that they must’ve been
getting fat in their diet. But when you hunt
animals on the landscape, they’re very lean. Anybody who hunts deer knows that venison’s a very lean meat. – Having a source of fat in their diet could have provided enough of a surplus so that brains could get bigger back in our human evolution.
– Yeah. (upbeat music) – What do you call this? – [Renate] It’s cricket sourdough. – It’s bread, it’s bread. – It’s bread.
– It’s bread, okay. – [Julie] That we we got? Okay it’s bread.
– Okay, okay. – This loaf was about 10%
ground-up crickets into this replaced from the flour. – That smells amazing. – [Renate] The other one is cricket salt with chili powder and honey. – [Julie] That’s one I can smell. I need to try that. – That’s amazing. I wanna eat this every
morning, ants and all. The ants with the herbs and the butter, again that formic acid zip. The zing, the zest. – I see what anteaters are raving about. – I always think about with bears. Bears have giant claws and giant teeth, but what they do is they go
dig for termites and ants. – I know.
– They could kill anything, but they after bugs.
– All bark, no bite. Actually, they bite very
hard, don’t play with bears. – This is definitely high-end bug gourmet. – [Joe] Next dish, please. Oh, a pie! – [Waitress] We have a
mushroom chickpea pecan and herb cricket tart. – Why don’t you give me – Just a sliver?
– one of the smaller slice? – You just want a sliver? – Not for the bug reason, just I’m watch– – [Julie] ‘Cause we’re all very full. – Yes, I’m full of a lot
of bug bread and legs and wings and compound eyes. – Do you think this could
go the way of sushi? Just imagine what sushi must’ve been like a couple generations ago
when it was so weird. Like, “Oh my god, raw fish?” Now you can but them at gas stations. – Everywhere. – For dishes like this, you really don’t realize bugs are in it and that’s the point. The only real way we’re
gonna get people in mass to take up this kind of diet choice is if it is as close
to normal as possible. – But here we’re getting
all the same nutrients, it’s delicious, crickets are
far less smart than pigs, and so you feel a lot
better about eating it. (upbeat music) – Lotta people talk about
sustainability, as well. Bugs are so good on a
variety of envirometrics. They take less space than
traditional livestock. Great for indoor vertical farming. Think future food like space travel. They can reduce our
reliance on anti-biotics and livestock rearing. They also are wonderful for biodiversity and for regenerative soil health, but the two main ones the we
always hit on are emissions and water use. – The same amount of crickets,
the same amount of beef, it takes 1,000 or so times less water to make the crickets as the beef? – [Aly] Yeah. – Okay, but emissions are
a huge part of that, too. We know that agricultural emissions are a big part of our
greenhouse gas problem. – You can trace emissions
to a lotta different things from food transport and insects are great for local agriculture. They have a very effective
feed to body mass conversion ratio, too. All that feed that you’re giving the cows and the pigs and everything
else, a lot of it’s wasted. Some of it in terms of body
heat since they’re warm-blooded but insects are cold-blooded so you have just extremely
efficient little systems here turning input to output
that’s very nutritious. – Environmental reasons
aren’t the only thing people think about when they’re like, “What am I gonna eat?” Are there other reasons to eat bugs that are not just purely
about climate change? – A lot of people are
making their dietary choices based on impact on the
animals we’ve been eating. We don’t treat them very well. Some vegetarians actually really think that insects are a great alternative because crickets like
dark, cramped spaces. To put them in a bin and raise them, it’s not nearly the shock to their system than what we’re doing to the mammals. From an animal welfare standpoint, eating insects is a much
more appealing option for a lot of peoples than eating mammals. – Delicious, nutritious,
environmentally sustainableicious. Is that a word? – Now it is.
– I think that’s a word. (upbeat music) – Final thoughts, what do ya thinK? – This is definitely my best experience with this kind of dish I’ve ever head. My previous experiences have just been, “Hey, try this novelty.” When you’re actually
using it intelligently, I think it can be as
good as anything else. I’m still eating it. – As someone who really never
ate bugs in almost any form that I knew about before
tonight, I am blown away. The way these were worked in, it’s both so artful and just so natural. Bug eating is not weird. It’s totally awesome. – I’ve had lot of bug
banquets, but this was superb. – Guys, thanks for coming to this awesome Thanksgiving dinner with me. I’m thankful for crickets,
mealworms, and all the rest. It turns out eating
insects isn’t that weird for humans after all. We’ve been doing it for a long time. Like most things that you eat, you don’t know if you’re gonna
like it until you try it. As for me, well, I’m a bug eater now. These chips are made from crickets. (crickets chirping) – [Group] Stay curious! – And just one more thing. I wanna send a huge thank
you to my friend Kyle Hill from the channel Because Science
for joining me at dinner. He makes great stuff,
definitely go check it out. And my friend Emily Graslie
from “The Brain Scoop” also has a really cool
video about entomophagy, eating insects, over on her channel. Links to all of that
down in the description and as always, thank you to our patrons for making videos like this possible. As far as I’m concerned, you’re guests at our family
dinner table every day. We have great perks over
on our Patreon page. Definitely go check them out and you can even join the ranks of these Galaxy Brain patrons. And pass the cricket quiche. – No, I have all the
cricket butter to myself. – Yeah, where’s that butter? – Yeah, more cricket butter.
– Share. – Give me the cricket, you have to share. – No! – Pass the cricket butter, Kyle. – No, you have to come visit me more often if you want things from me.
– Any pecan pies left? Any of those tarts? – Yeah, I want one of those pecan pies. – Happy Thanksgiving! – Happy Thanksgiving to you, too. – Thanks.

The Curious Webspinner Insect Knits a Cozy Home | Deep Look

The Curious Webspinner Insect Knits a Cozy Home | Deep Look


Ok, under a log, you uncover a wispy white web. You’re thinking: spider. Not so fast. This maze of woven silk has nothing to do
with arachnids. It’s actually created by a kind of insect
called a webspinner. They’re related to stick insects and praying
mantises. Never heard of ’em? Not surprised. They give spiders a run for their money. Their handiwork is a tent … umbrella … and
invisibility cloak all-in-one. But while spiders produce silk from their
backends, a webspinner’s silk comes from her feet. Yep, her front feet. She intertwines the strands, waving back and
forth, back and forth. She has tiny hair-like ejectors on the bottom
of each foot, which shoot out the silk. It’s the thinnest silk of any animal. The work is painstaking. But the result is pretty cozy – kinda like
a quilted roof. Their home – also known as a gallery – is their
only defense, hiding their soft bodies from predators. There’s also plenty of moss and lichen to
eat inside. So why leave? And if they need to do some housekeeping,
it’s easy to take out the trash. They just stick it to the roof … and forget
about it. The silk also keeps out something they really
like to avoid: rain. Webspinners can easily drown if a downpour
floods their gallery. Luckily, they’ve got exceptional weather-proofing. Water just beads up on the silk’s surface,
like on a rose petal. And that water actually changes the silk,
making the surface more slippery by transforming the proteins. So it becomes extra waterproof. But having silk-slinging front feet has a
downside. Say an unwanted visitor comes along. If they want to get away, webspinners have
to tiptoe to avoid triggering their silk ejectors. Not exactly the fastest runner. So to get away, webspinners dart … backwards,
to avoid getting tangled up. They’re much faster in reverse. Small price to pay for the ability to weave
an entire hidden world. One that will keep the webspinners – and
their young – safe … for generations to come. Hi, it’s Lauren. Music fans – here’s a special playlist for
ya of Deep Look creatures that make music of their own. Also, check out Sound Field, a new show from
PBS Digital Studios that breaks down our favorite songs and artists from all genres … from
Bach to Beyonce. It’s hosted by two amazing musicians, Nahre
Soul and LA Buckner, who even come up with an original song in every episode. Link is in the description. Thanks.

Bushbaby Snacks on Insects

Bushbaby Snacks on Insects


(hooting of nocturnal animals) – [Narrator] But the flood
also creates problems. As it arrives, it isolates one
kind of small primitive ape on whatever termite island
they happen to be on. These temporary prisoners
rely almost entirely on the insects that the flood
forces to the high ground, and they do that with special adaptations. They have huge eyes that
are locked in position, so big, in fact, that to move its eyes, it has to move its entire head. (slurping, smacking) It’s effective, they can see and leap around a very complex
world in the high trees, and to help, they urinate on their hands for that extra stickiness. (chirping of nocturnal animals) Their tools work well for them as they navigate their
isolated tree-top realm. (very light eerie music)

AIDS: From Ryan White to Today’s Silent Epidemic | Retro Report on PBS

AIDS: From Ryan White to Today’s Silent Epidemic | Retro Report on PBS


♪♪ Jupiter Adams is part
of a silent epidemic. -My very first HIV test
came back positive. It was hell. Like, the first two months, I couldn’t talk to nobody. I couldn’t do anything. I didn’t hear about HIV. First time I heard about it
was in a history class where they were talking
about the ACT UP movement, so I told everybody I thought
it was like the Bubonic Plague. I thought it came, it left,
so I didn’t worry about it. -“Public awareness
about HIV has faded, and that’s contributing
to a health crisis today,” says Dr. Larry Mass, an AIDS activist
for nearly four decades. -I wish they could go on
indefinitely, thinking, “Oh, those old guys
and then all that old stuff, we don’t have to deal
with that.” This history
is not just history. It’s them, and it’s situations
that they’re facing today. -That history goes back to
the early days of the epidemic in the 1980s, when the public often
reacted with prejudice, if they acknowledged
the disease at all. -The setup was that this
disease was something striking almost totally undesirables. -It appeared a year ago
in New York’s gay community. -Investigators have examined
the habits of homosexuals for clues. -To some traditionalists,
AIDS is a gay plague. -Gays, drug addicts, injection,
heroin addicts… -At the very least,
there should be a quarantine of all homosexuals,
drug abusers, and prostitutes. -This is their disease. Ordinary, everyday
heterosexuals, normal people, have nothing to worry about. -Scientists believe AIDS
is not likely to spread beyond these groups, but it is still
a deadly epidemic. -It was the dark years.
It was terrible. People were dying
at a very high rate. The hospice facilities
were filled with people. We had no therapy at all,
so it was, like, unfortunately, putting Band-Aids
on hemorrhages. -More than 1,500 cases
have been discovered so far, and most experts believe
there will be more than 3,000 by the end of the year. -People were very secretive because it was
extremely stigmatizing. -I’ve had friends tell me
to go and die, “Just get away and go and die.” -Although federal health
authorities found no evidence
of transmission through casual contact, public concern remained high. And as the epidemic spread,
so did the fear. -40,000 Americans will get AIDS
this year and next. -One out of seven people
polled said they would favor
tattooing all AIDS victims, better than half said
they should be quarantined, and nearly as many would require
anyone who tests positive for AIDS antibodies
to carry an ID card. -Then in 1985, AIDS came to a small
Indiana town. -It was last Christmas
that Ryan White, a hemophiliac, learned that because
of a blood transfusion, he had contracted AIDS. -Ryan was just playful,
silly, loved skateboarding
and pretty carefree, and he was very well aware that his life was going
to be cut short. He just wanted to attend school
and be with his friends like everybody else does. -But local school officials
barred the 13-year-old from returning to middle school, and some concerned parents
fought to keep him out. Lawyer David Rosselot
represented them. -People were very panicked. We don’t know anything
about this disease. The only thing we know
that if you have it, you’re gonna die.
-I think we have to prove that there’s beyond a shadow
of a doubt that my child is not gonna be
infected with this. -Ryan had no control
over getting AIDS, and we’ve just had to fight
for it seems like everything, and now we’ll just have
to keep on fighting. -When a court eventually ruled
in Ryan’s favor, some protests turned ugly. -There were, like,
a picket line at school — It’s the only way
I can describe it — of people in scrubs and Halloween masks and signs, like, telling him to die. Just hurling insults, screaming at him and his family. -But the coverage of his story
turned Ryan White into a symbol of resilience. -And finally this evening,
our Person of the Week — the young boy who learned,
when he was 13, that he had a terminal illness. -Ryan was singled out
by the governor of the state as a model of courage
and inner strength. -Every time you’d turn
on the TV, you turn the news on,
there’s a picture Ryan. It just seemed like everywhere
you looked, there were celebrities
that were speaking out. -I don’t think he wanted
the role that he was put in, but at the same time that he saw how much people
needed to be educated. -Ryan’s success at reaching
the public highlighted how much
other voices had been ignored. -Ryan White was a figure who,
in fairly short order, began to elicit public sympathy. It was difficult to just say,
“Those nasty faggots.” Ryan White was
the innocent victim. Well, does that imply that
the others were the guilty, deserving recipients? -Hey, hey! Ho, ho! Ronald Reagan’s got to go!
Hey, hey! -Activists from the gay
community, including members
of the ACT UP movement, had been pressing
the Reagan administration to help those
with the disease. -The fact that it has taken
the president five years to begin to even address this
problem publicly demonstrates that this
administration hasn’t given it the level of commitment
that it deserves. -As more people went public
with their stories of contracting AIDS, Americans’ understanding
of the crisis was broadening, a door Ryan White
had helped open. -You know, people just
aren’t listening, and we have to make them listen. -You had a young boy
who turned the knob a bit to get people to say,
“The enemy here is the virus. The enemy is not the person
who has been infected.” -When Ryan died in 1990, more than 1,500 mourners
attended his funeral, including David Rosselot, the lawyer who had fought
to keep him out of school. -I knew I had to say goodbye, if for no other reason than to be able to say,
you know, “This wasn’t about you.
I hope you forgive me.” -The story of AIDS
began to change. Congress pushed through
the Ryan White Care Act, bipartisan legislation aimed
at providing care for people with HIV and AIDS, and soon, new drug regimens
offered a sense of hope. -It was when we got
the effective drugs that it was really
a transformation — I mean, completely
a transformation in how we looked at HIV. -People are gonna live
longer, healthier, more productive lives and be able to live with HIV. -As the years went by, we had better and better drugs. We have now drugs
which will bring the virus down to below detectable level, which not only saves
the life of the person, but makes it
essentially impossible for that person to transmit
the virus to a sexual partner. -And for those at risk
of getting HIV, there’s a daily medication
called “Pre-exposure Prophylaxis,” or “PrEP.” -PrEP has been clearly shown, if you take a single pill
once a day, you decrease the likelihood that
you would acquire HIV infection. So if you put those two things
together, you could theoretically essentially end
the epidemic quickly. -But despite these
medical advances, HIV infections have
continued to spread. -The fact is that HIV is not
an equal-opportunity virus. Everyone can get infected, but everyone
is not getting infected. -Just like in the early days
of the epidemic, it’s striking populations
who are often overlooked, this time —
communities of color, particularly across
the Deep South. “And once again,” Dr. Mass says, “the public
isn’t paying attention.” -There’s a tendency to look
at these Black and Hispanic rural communities
in the South as marginal. It’s the same kind of thinking
that we had early on. The thing is when you don’t deal with marginalized communities
or issues, they have a way
of becoming forefront. -The places where the epidemic
is growing are in those communities where people of color
typically have not had access to resources,
where poverty sits. -Cindy Watson works
with LBGTQ Youth in Jacksonville, Florida, which has one of the highest
rates of new HIV diagnoses in the country. -We have these pills, but if people can’t get
access to them, if their lives are not stable
and in a place where they can continue
to take them over time, they don’t have the benefit
of the medication and of living
with a chronic illness. And they’re also infectious. -Watson and colleagues
help young people navigate the medical system and get access to costly drugs for HIV treatment
and prevention. -Given my own identity
as a queer person of color, I know the turbulence
that comes with people trying to navigate systems,
so many systems. -While access the testing
and medication is vital, Jackson says continued education
is also needed to counteract deep-seated stigma
and misinformation. -I just think what’s passed
down for generations what’s passed down from,
like, stereotypes and myths. That has a more
lasting effect, unfortunately. But the more education
that we push, the more that we’re able
to flip the script and change the narrative. -We have the tools to do things that we never imagined
we could do before. Are we implementing
these tools to the maximum? We’ve gone from being
in the dark and a terrible,
terrible disease to now being
able to not only save lives, but to actually end
this terrible scourge. -Like it’s never really
a wrong time to have the conversation…
-“Ending the epidemic,” Dr. Fauci says,
“will also require a new generation of activists.” People like Jupiter Adams. -I was once inside of that
position, where I didn’t know — where I didn’t know
it was an epidemic. The only thing I can do
is do what I would have wanted someone to do with me. I want to save as many people
as I can. Me and my status, we have
an understanding that we are going
to go very far together. ♪♪

4 DEADLY Carnivorous Plants

4 DEADLY Carnivorous Plants


Anna: They snap, they trap, they stick, and
they suck. This is the bizarre world of carnivorous plants—leafy
creatures that eat everything from insects, to crustaceans, to mammals. I’m Anna, and this is Gross Science. The vast majority of plants only require a
few things to survive: sunlight, water, air, and mineral nutrients, which they typically
get from the soil or pond water they’re growing in. These nutrients are elements like nitrogen
and phosphorus, which are building blocks for things like DNA and proteins. But most carnivorous plants live in places
without a lot of nutrients, like peat bogs. So to really thrive, they draw extra nutrition
from the bodies of unsuspecting prey. Now, carnivory has actually evolved multiple
times in plants all over the world, giving rise to some wildly diverse and morbidly beautiful
methods for catching food. So, Vanessa from BrainCraft and I bought a
few carnivorous plants! Vanessa: They’re so beautiful. Anna: They really are. Vanessa: Yeah. Anna: And I’m going to show you some of
my favorites. You ready, Vanessa? Vanessa: I’m scared and kind of excited
all at once. Anna: Me too! Ok, so first, this is the bladderwort. These guys live in watery environments, but
they have these small, empty chambers growing from their stems. When a tiny creature—like a crustacean—passes
by, it brushes against these things called trigger hairs. The hairs make the door to the chamber pop
open, and as water rushes in to fill the empty space inside, the tiny crustacean gets sucked
in, too. This entire process happens in less than a
thousandth of a second—the video you’re watching here has been slowed way down. Then the bladderwort releases digestive enzymes
into the chamber to break down the insect’s body and lap up its nutrients. After its meal, the chamber squeezes out all
the water, closes the door, and is ready to catch more prey. Vanessa: Wow. Anna: But that’s only one variety of carnivorous
plant. Other types of carnivorous plants act totally
differently. For example, the leaves of sundews are covered
in delicate, wispy hairs, each with a teeny drop of liquid at the end. Thinking the liquid is actually delicious
nectar, insects fly in to grab a tasty drink. But those dewdrops are actually sticky and
trap the bug. The wispy tentacles curl around the insect,
holding it tightly and maximizing the number of hairs it touches, which speeds up digestion. Vanessa: What I find so cool is the way sundews
operate is like a botanical version of brains and muscles . So, while they don’t have
brain cells they do have chemical signals to move which kind of acts as a brain. Anna: That’s so amazing, it’s a really
good analogy. The other really cool thing is that there
are actually some carnivorous plants that actually capture prey without moving at all. So, pitcher plants have deep basins filled
with digestive enzymes. Insects venture in looking for food, but then
they can’t get back out. There are tons of different varieties of these
plants, but in this species, called Sarracenia flava, the inside of the pitcher is slippery,
so bugs fall in and then can’t crawl up the walls. They also have downward pointing hairs at
the bottom of the pitcher that make climbing out even more difficult for the insects. And some species of pitcher plant can catch
more than just bugs. Certain tropical pitcher plants are so large
that they’ve been known to trap small rodents, like mice and rats. Vanessa: That’s scary. That’s very scary. Anna: It absolutely is. But, next is a type of plant that might be
a little bit more familiar. Vanessa: It is more familiar. Anna: This is the Venus flytrap. These plants have book-like leaves, which
emit a sweet smell that attracts insects, like flies. When a fly lands on the leaf, it brushes against
trigger hairs. Touching the hair sends a little electric
charge through the leaf. And each charge stimulates pores to open,
which allow water to move from one part of the leaf to another. The changes in water pressure make the book
snap shut in under a second. However, the plant will only close if at least
two hairs are touched in under about 20 seconds—or if the same hair is triggered twice in the
same amount of time. Then, the struggling prey needs to touch more
hairs before the flow of digestive juices begins. This keeps the plant from wasting precious
resources on a false alarm—like a floating speck of dirt or a curious human setting off
the snare for fun. Vanessa: So, when you’re talking about these
electrical charges, you’re really referring to something called action potentials. And these are signals our own brains’ neurons
use to pass on information to each other. So, we don’t tend to think about it, but
it’s kind of amazing how similar we are to plants. Anna: Yeah, we don’t tend to think about
it and that is really amazing. And Vanessa actually has a whole video about
this over on her channel, and I’ll put a link to it somewhere on this screen. Definitely go check it out. It’s so cool. Vanessa: Thank you. Anna: Anyway, these were just a few examples
of the diversity of these deadly traps. But the variety out there is really quite
extraordinary—in fact, there are over 750 individual species of carnivorous plants worldwide. And by the way, many of them are easy to find
and to care for. So if you have some of these plants at home,
let me know. I’d love to see your gruesomely beautiful
garden grow. Vanessa: This one’s really sticky. Anna: Ewww!

This Killer Fungus Turns Flies into Zombies | Deep Look


We like to think we’re in control … that
our minds are our own. But that’s not true for this fruit fly. Its brain has been hijacked by another organism
and it’s not going to end well. It all starts when the fly is innocently walking
around, sipping on overripe fruit. It picks up an invisible fungus spore, which
bores under its skin. For a few days, everything seems normal. But inside, the fungus is growing, feeding
on the fly’s fat … and infiltrating its mind. At dusk on the fourth or fifth day, the fly
gets a little erratic, wandering around. It climbs to a high place. Scientists call this behavior “summiting.” Then it starts twitching. The fungus is in control. The fly sticks out its mouthpart and spits
out a tiny drop of sticky liquid. That glues the fly down, sealing its fate. A few minutes later, its wings shoot up. And it dies. Now that the fungus has forced the fly into
this death pose … wings out of the way … nothing can stop it. It emerges. Tiny spore launchers burst out of the fly’s
skin. Hundreds of spores shoot out at high speed,
catching a breeze if the fly climbed high enough. They’re the next generation of killer fungus. It continues for hours, spores flying out. These flies are in the wrong place at the
wrong time. And if spores land on a wing, which they can’t
bore into, they shoot out a secondary spore to increase their chances of spreading. So how does a fungus take control of a brain? At Harvard, Carolyn Elya is trying to understand
that. She thinks the fungus secretes chemicals to
manipulate the fly’s neurons, maybe stimulating the ones that make flies climb. But don’t worry: The fungus can’t hurt
humans. Scientists have tried to harness its power
for our benefit, to kill flies in our kitchens and farms. They haven’t had any luck though. The deadly spores are actually pretty fragile
and short-lived. It turns out, this lethal puppet master does
only what it needs to for its *own* survival. Hi, it’s Lauren again. If you love Deep Look, why not help us grow
on Patreon? We’re raising funds to go on a filming expedition
to Oaxaca, Mexico. And for a limited time, we’re sweetening the
deal with a special gift. Link is in the description. And if you’re craving more spooky videos,
here’s a playlist of our scariest episodes. Don’t watch ‘em after midnight. See you soon.

We’ve Got Ants In Our Plants!

We’ve Got Ants In Our Plants!


[MUSIC] If this is your first time in the rainforest,
I get it. All the trees pretty much look alike. Maybe you’re at the end of a long hike,
you wanna take a little break, have a drink of water. So you pick a tree to rest up against and
relax. Well, this would be a very bad tree to pick. It’s full of ants. We’ve got ants in our plants! [MUSIC] Flowering plants first sprouted onto the scene
about 160 million years ago, and they’ve been locked in a dance with insects ever since…
sometimes they give food, sometimes they are food, their evolution’s always been intertwined. But the most complex insect/plant relationships
don’t involve butterflies, beetles, or bees. They belong to the ants. Locals call this the “novice tree” because
there’s a painful lesson waiting for anyone who leans up against it. It’s full of ants. A whole colony lives inside, spread from the
roots up through the highest branches. But inside of a tree is kind of a weird place
to find ants. If only there was somebody around who could
teach me more about this crazy ant/tree relationship! Oh! Oh, look at that! It’s Aaron Pomerantz! Here in the rainforest. How’s it going, Joe? It’s going pretty well, but I’m kind of
curious why ants would want to live inside a tree? Where we’re from ants live in little mounds,
and that’s just how it goes Yeah, this tree can host thousands of ants,
and this is not a short term relationship. The ants can live inside as a colony for years,
for decades even, and their tree grows as the colony grows. You can see that they’re sort of coming out
of these little pits, right? Yeah, there’s holes all up and down this
tree where the ants coming in and out. Yeah and if you were to cut this open or one
of the stems, they would actually be hollow, the ants live inside. That’s right. To these ants, this tree is home. And the ants didn’t tunnel it out themselves. It grew that way. A tree built for a queen and a few hundred
thousand of her children. Inside, the ants not only get a safe place
to raise their young, the tree is also their food source. Tiny scale insects live alongside the ants. In return for free room and board, those bugs
digest tree sap and secrete a nutrient-rich liquid, full of the good stuff ants need. They’re kind of farming them like little
mini insect cows. That’s an adorable… they milk them? Little udders! Yeah! But you have to wonder: what’s in it for
the tree? Why spend all that energy building tunnels
and doors so a bunch of insects can move in and suck out your precious bodily fluids? Because ants are very protective of their
home. It’s really interesting to note we’re
in this barren spot right now. You notice there’s no other plants around
us. And this is caused by the ants, they actually
clear out parts of the rainforest because they want their tree to get more sunlight
so that it can grow. Think about that. If a branch or vine from another plant touches
their tree, they’ll sting it, bite it, and cut it out of the way, like tiny gardeners. Both species put in work, both species get
something in return. Good old mutualism! Plants that house ants are called myrmecophytes. But not all plant/ant relationships are so
evenly balanced. Acacia trees house ant bodyguards that are
so aggressive they can repel an elephant, and in return, they get nectar. But the tree laces that meal with an ingredient
that keeps the ants from digesting nectar from any other plant. They’re chemical slaves to their host. Now one tree of ants is cool, but we found
another species that takes treehouses to the next level. Aaron this is weird over here, we’ve been
walking through dense rainforest all day long, but we’re in a clearing, we’re not dodging
branches, there’s sun above us, what’s happening here? Yeah, this is a really strange part of the
forest that we’re in right now, and this is called the Devil’s Garden. The Devil’s Garden, like did people come
through and clear this out? Is this clear-cutting in the forest? It’s actually entirely caused by ants that
live with this plant. What they’re doing is they’re clearing out
all the space around it and only letting their home plant survive These plants grow little bulbs called domatia,
little ant houses! To keep the ants happy, the plant pumps out
pre-packaged meals called food bodies. And in return, the ants offer protection. Just like tiny Ant-ony Sopranos. Think about how weird that is. This plant grew these hollow bulbs seemingly
for those ants without even knowing that ants exist. And in return that plant gets protection from
things like caterpillars that might want to eat its leaves and those ants get protection
by being up off the rainforest floor, where there’s things like spiders and flies that
want to lay eggs so maggots can eat their brains. It’s a real “you scratch my back, I live inside
your hollow bulbs” relationship/ And they’re clearly very successful at it,
because the ants will climb out of their little homes, onto the ground and just destroy any
other competing plants in the area. They’re really active, they’re out all
over this right now, I think they think we’re plants that are trying to come in here and
grow. So they come down onto the forest floor, do
they like eat, do they chop them down like leafcutters? How do they control that growth? So it’s really cool, they’ll actually
inject, with their stinger, formic acid into the plant, which sort of melts it away kind
of like this herbicide. Yeah, all along this root I see those little
black ants from the tree. They’ve wiped out this little seedling here. It’s dry and crackly and dead, they’re doing
forest control right before my eyes. The line between cooperating and being a parasite
is like this thin. If these yellow Allomerus ants move in, they
castrate the fruits, so instead of devoting energy to reproduction, the plant produces
more food and shelter for the ants. Fun fact: this plant is also known as “huevo
de gato”, which I’ll let you translate yourself. Adios huevos. That’s so awesome that some of the rainforest’s
smallest residents can shape it in such incredible ways. Yeah, the ants are the dominant life force
out here in the rainforest, it’s incredible. Yeah, I found that out the hard way, but man
thanks for showing us that, that is so cool. Alright, stay curious! Um, I thought of a joke. What did the Pink Panther say when he stepped
on an ant mound? What’s that, Joe? Dead ant, dead ant, dead ant dead ant dead
ant! There are so many cool insect plant relationships
in the rainforest. Our friends from Deep Look joined us in Peru
and they made a video about ant/plant betrayal. Head over to their channel to check it out. Alright, we have a tradition on this show. Whenever we make an ant video, I’ve gotta
get stung, so let’s see what happens. Oh that sucks. No that does not feel good. Oh, that’s… it’s different than a fire ant,
it’s not as hot, but it’s definitely a little more needle-like. And piercing. I don’t like it very much. Aw she’s really going to town. Look at that. Ooh, it’s very sharp, ahh, we’re done with
this idea, I think we’re finished. Oh it hurts so much worse afterwards. That’s the last time I mess with this tree. Stay curious! I’m getting away from this thing.

The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look

The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look


The Peruvian Amazon rainforest is bursting
with life, but it’s a hard place to make a living,
especially when you’re small. Competition… is fierce. Violence and betrayal are everywhere. Up here, in the canopy? These trees have made it. Lots of leaves. Plenty of sunlight. But down here, on the forest floor, it’s
another story. This sapling desperately needs to grow, to
get more sun. And in the meantime, it’s vulnerable. It doesn’t have many leaves yet. Each one is valuable. Losing just a few could be its demise. So this young tree, it’s called an Inga,
enlists bodyguards.. hundreds of them. These big-headed ants swarm over the sapling,
fighting off any leaf-eating intruders, like this caterpillar. The price of protection: a meal: sugary nectar. The tree serves it up in ant-sized dishes
called nectaries. Both the ant and the tree have something to
gain from the deal. This is called “mutualism.” But that only works when both sides play by
the rules. Here’s another intruder. See how the ants rush to meet it? But they aren’t biting or stinging it. They don’t attack it like they’re supposed
to. Instead the ants just… watch… as the caterpillar gorges on the fresh leaves. They’re just letting it happen. Why? Because they found a better deal. See how the ants tap on the caterpillar’s
rear with their antennae? Those two little pits on the caterpillar’s
back are called tentacle nectaries. When the ants tap, the nectaries secrete drops
of nectar. It’s made of sugar that the caterpillar
drained out of the leaf. In exchange for the payoff, the ants give
the caterpillars free access to their so-called partner, the Inga tree. They’ve been bribed. As for the tree? It’s left weaker, a little less likely to
make it up to the canopy. And that’s the sad story of the young Inga. Sold out for a drop of sugar water by a fairweather
friend. You like ants? We got ants. Lots of ants. Winter ants battle Argentine ants with weapons caught on film for the very first time! Leafcutter ants that have been farming since
before we humans walked the earth. All that and more on Deep Look. So subscribe… And thanks for watching.

You’re Not Hallucinating. That’s Just Squid Skin. | Deep Look

You’re Not Hallucinating. That’s Just Squid Skin. | Deep Look


Cuttlefish… octopuses… and squid have
an almost otherworldly ability to control their appearance. What makes it possible are these spots. They’re called chromatophores. They’re
like tiny water balloons, filled with colored pigment. When the balloons expand, you see more pigment,
more color… When they contract, the color shrinks to a
tiny dot. The overall effect can be really dramatic. And for good reason. These animals don’t have protective external
shells. They’re unarmored. Naked. And they aren’t great swimmers, either. Camouflage is their best defense. They have
to be good at it. Octopuses can change their body position and
the pattern on their skin to match rock or coral. Octopuses and cuttlefish can even change the
texture of their skin to throw off predators. Become bumpier and more rock-like. But squid often live in the open ocean. How
do you blend in when there’s nothing — except water — to blend into? They do it by changing the way light bounces
off their their skin — actually adjust how iridescent their skin is using light reflecting
cells called iridophores. They can mimic the way sunlight filters down
from the surface. Hide in plain sight. So how do they control all this color change? Is it voluntary or some kind of built in reflex? That’s what researchers at Stanford University
wanted to know. So…they anesthetized the squid and then
snipped the nerve from the the brain that controls the chromatophores, but only on one
side of the animal. The brain essentially couldn’t send messages
to the tiny muscles that control those chromatophores anymore. … almost like turning off a light switch. But after a few days, then they noticed something
strange. The chromatophores began blinking again…
even though they were no longer getting signals from the brain. So what does this mean? Well, what it suggests is that color change
might be a bit like breathing is for humans. Something we can either choose to do… or
do automatically. Only… even cooler — because unlike breathing,
color change requires an awareness of your surroundings. And in these animals, that awareness is spread
throughout the skin… as if the skin itself could see. It would be as if your skin knew what color
the walls were, even with your eyes closed. For a soft and squishy creature trying to
stay alive in a very big ocean — it’s a pretty spectacular defense.

Why Do These Deadly Insects Look Like Flowers?

Why Do These Deadly Insects Look Like Flowers?


In 1879, when James Hingsley returned to Australia
from Indonesia he brought back tales of an orchid that engulfed butterflies in its petals
and devoured them alive. A carnivorous plant more beautiful and ravenous
than any other. But that fantastical creature was no plant
– it was a predator… dressed to kill. [OPEN] Blending in is a great way to stay alive,
but it can be just as useful for the hunter as the hunted. That butterfly-eating beast from Indonesia? That isn’t an orchid at all. It’s an orchid mantis, an insect native
to the rainforests of Southeast Asia. These beautiful bugs exhibit a behavior called
aggressive mimicry: that’s using a disguise not to hide, but to stand out. It’s counterintuitive, but you’ve probably
come across one such creature before. Nope, not waldo. Like a snapping turtle’s wriggly worm-tongue,
or an Angler fish’s luminous bait, some animals use the promise of food to conceal
more deadly intentions. Some parasites even mimic their hosts’ prey
to get swallowed. Other mimics rely on smellovision to do the
trick. One spider attracts prey by sending out a
chemical signal that female moths usually use to attract mates. Like the plants they’re named after, these
mantises use their looks to flirt. Orchids display beautiful patterns to attract
their favorite pollinators: bees and flies. And with their petaled legs wrapped in pinks
and yellows, orchid mantises can disappear amongst those forests of flowers. They wear such a good disguise, that every
so often an insect *looking* for dinner *becomes* dinner. At least, that’s what scientists thought…
until one noticed something weird: orchid mantises don’t actually need any flowers
around for their disguises to work. They attract prey even *better* than the real
thing. To understand why, we have to think – and
see – like a flying insect. That means looking beyond our human senses. It would be hard for you or I to pluck an
orchid mantis from a flowery background. Our visual system picks up on the shapes,
edges and finer details of the mantis’s disguise. Our brains see petals, and think “flower”. On the other hand, bees, flies – even beetles
and butterflies see the floral fatales completely differently. Pollinator eyes and brains don’t pick up
on the fine details, but the bigger picture comes in loud and clear. To these prey animals, an orchid mantis doesn’t
just look like a flower, it looks bigger and brighter than a flower – and there lies
the trick. Some flowering plants “get it on” with
anything willing to stop by, but orchids are exclusive with their pollinators. One type only attracts male bees from a single
species. If an orchid mantis’ disguise was too particular,
it would limit the number of animals it might fool. Instead, by looking a little like every flower,
they can attract even more prey. These animal liars *fool* our brains too,
but orchid mantises didn’t *evolve* to fool human brains. In fact, the way they deceive us falls into
a totally different camouflage category: cryptic mimicry. Like their close kin, orchid mantises will
even rock back and forth like a flower swaying in the breeze. We don’t know for sure, but scientists think
looking like an orchid could also help conceal them from predators like birds, lizards, and
monkeys in the same way. Pinning down how these predators and parasites
evolved their deadly strategies of disguise has been almost impossible until recently. And we’re still figuring them out. Some disguises are so good, their true purpose
can be hard to see. Stay curious.