MC The Ant – Found My Love (live)


I had my ups & downs as a soldier of love.
Still standing thanks to the knowledge of up above! If I gave love to someone, they didn’t had
a clue. I almost gave up… glad I didn’t do! Now I know someone who knows what to do.
Yes, I’m on his shore, lemme give it all to you. I’m still crawlin’.. cause it’s hard to believe,
got smacked down before by the hands of deceive. I see there’s such a great will to achieve.
We’re together on the go, to life of relieve. Didn’t knew it was still possible in this
life. I was being single now I wanna be your wife! It’s getting serious and it’s really close,
by the show of your love you’re the one that I chose. You give it like no other man that I’ve met,
makes me to avoid anything to get you upset. I bumped up to it and found my love,
never ever another I’m thinking off. I bumped up to it and found my love! I had nothing with love songs before,
what’s in the heart has to come out, that’s for sure. You came right on time, you’re not too late,
Finally someone who knows the meaning of faith. Teach the children, they need to know,
it ain’t ’bout attention, hate, cash & doe. You’re my living proof that I need to see,
so I would know.. I don’t need to be a G. No more time for temptations of the world,
all that since the day you made me your girl. You help me through tough times when it was hard, after so long I see signs for a new start. It’s clear that love is not supposed to be
blind, this special love is just one of a kind! Babe, I’m ready on your side to stay,
demons are shocked because we’re going God’s way. I bumped up to it and found my love,
never ever another I’m thinking off. I bumped up to it and found my love! Feels good to know you know what I know.
Precious state of mind, don’t wanna let you go. So I’ll be here where I need to be for you.
It’s getting better cause the Bible says what to do. Bin through negative influence from the hood,
we turn it in to positive to be all good. So real.. it’s almost unbelievable,
how I feel and many think it’s magical. You make me stronger, many just don’t like it, they’ve got questioning themselves who I got with. They just won’t and they don’t need to get
it, what’s going on is the question they are stuck with. Our meeting happend like it has to be,
now you’re backing me up and standing next to me. Protection is what a woman needs from her
man, can’t fall down because we’re here to stand. I bumped up to it and found my love,
never ever another I’m thinking off. I bumped up to it and found my love!
I bumped up to it and found my love!

Solutions for the obesity epidemic | Liesbeth van Rossum | TEDxErasmusUniversity

Solutions for the obesity epidemic | Liesbeth van Rossum | TEDxErasmusUniversity


Translator: Gianna Carroni
Reviewer: Denise RQ At this moment, the number of obese people in the world exceeds the number of people
who are starving. Obesity is really a huge problem. It is leading to diseases
like diabetes, heart disease, some forms of cancer, depression. And why is there an obesity epidemic? The reasons are simple. We just eat too much and we exercise too little. Simple as that, right? I mean, everybody knows it, duh! Well, wrong. There are so many other factors
affecting our weight. Today, I will discuss
these factors with you. The good news here is there are so many other solutions
to have a good weight in addition to healthy diet
and exercising. Let me start with telling you
the story of John; at least, I will call him John. John was a boy who grew up
in the Netherlands. He was born in a foreigners’ family, and he seemed to be a normal baby. The only remarkable thing
was that he was always crying. He was always hungry, actually. Within five minutes after finishing
his bottle of milk, he was hungry again. And by the time he was eating solid food, he was eating night and day,
he was craving for food, always. And by the time he was three years old,
he was massively obese. At that point his mother put locks
on all the kitchen cupboards, but still, he was craving,
and he was looking in trash cans, and he was looking for
eating even frozen food. All these years, his mother sensed
there was something wrong with her boy, because her other child was thin. So she went to doctors, and she asked for advice. But they basically told her that she was
just feeding her boy too much, and she felt like being blamed
for being a bad mother. She got frustrated. And at some point, she get referred to
the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam. And she saw there my colleague,
Erica van den Akker, who is a pediatrician; and she found that John had a genetic abnormality
in his hunger hormone system, the MC4 receptor defect. What that basically means is
he had never the feeling of satiety, he was never full. This diagnosis was really important
for John’s mother, because they really suffered
from the stigma, because they were accused
of having a weak character. After that, school, social networks, they started to support
John and his mother, and actually for a while,
his weight stabilized. He’s now a young adult, and I see him
as a doctor in my outpatient clinic. And he is still struggling with obesity. Currently, medical treatments are
under development for patients like John so I hope to being able to help him
in a medical way in the near future. You would think, “Well this is rare.” That’s true, only 2% of the obese people are carrying a genetic abnormality
as the MC4 receptor like John, but there are other genetic variants
that would make you much more hungry or decrease your metabolism. So, if you see someone
eating extremely much, maybe we should think twice
before judging. So, it can be in your genes, and the genes affect your hunger hormones, but did you realize that crash diets
also affect your hunger hormones? Very low-calorie diets can also influence
your hunger hormones and increase them. In the short term, crash diets work, they reduce your weight, but the problem is that then,
your hunger hormones will increase, and also your satiety hormones
will decrease. Satiety hormones are the hormones
that make you feel full. We always think it’s stretch
on the stomach that you feel full, but that’s only part
of the story, actually. It’s your gut giving
a hormonal signal to the brain, telling it you are full, and then you stop eating. So when this signal is not adequately
being provided to the brain, you automatically eat more. So, basically, after a crash diet,
you are hungrier. And that’s even so in the long term. It has been shown
even a year after a very low-calorie diet, still the hunger hormones are higher. So, what about a conscious choice of food or having a weak character? The biology is telling you to eat more. The weird thing is your basal metabolism is also being decreased by a crash diet. So basically, you are hungrier, but you burn not that much calories
as you used to do. That’s the perfect prescription,
of course, to regain your weight, and that’s what we call the yo-yo effect; we know how it works now. So, basically, crash dieting
is another risk factor for obesity. Food can also affect your hunger hormones, but also your fat. Let’s do a small experiment here. Imagine a box in front of you. And in this box there are chocolates. There are white chocolates,
brown chocolates, they’re shiny. You smell the chocolate right now. And imagine you are taking one. You are taking one
of the chocolates right now. And you take a crunchy bite. And now you start feeling… You taste the soft, sweet praline
and chocolate in your mouth, right now. (Laughter) You are making hunger hormones
right at this moment. (Laughter) Unless you just had dinner. But that means, when
we go out now, for food, and we see sweets, we are much more likely to choose
the chocolate or sweet foods, rather that an nice green salad
or what you know is much healthier to eat. So, this choice of food is not
that conscious as we think it is. Your biology is driven by your thinking. The food industry perfectly knows this: they use advertising
and all these visual stimuli to stimulate also your hunger hormones,
making us eat differently than we maybe think it’s good for us. But you can also benefit from it. Actually, it is the solution
also for obesity, because we know that saying,
“Well, eat less,” is not working; but what is effective
is changing your thoughts by cognitive behavior therapy programs. That’s effective. I told you now about the biology
and hunger hormones. But there are other factors
in our environment which affect the amount of food we eat. For example, our social
cultural background. We know that in some cultures
eating and food is hospitality. So, imagine that your neighbor has stood
in the kitchen for three days, cooking a delicious meal for you, and invites you over. Well, it is socially not really acceptable
not to eat all of it, and just take a tiny bit. So also your cultural background may
determine the amount of food you eat. Things have changed in the last decade. In the past decade,
we became much more stressed. If you are stressed, we know
your body is producing more stress hormones than usual. In particular,
the stress hormone cortisol, if you are stressed for
a prolonged period of time. We know that if you have
high levels of stress hormone, that makes you fat. Abdominal fat mass will increase. But that will also increase your appetite. In particular, your appetite
for calorie-rich foods. So, that’s maybe why we grab a candy bar
when we are stressed. We don’t know exactly
what’s causing what, actually, because this sugar rich food seem
also to stimulate our stress hormones. So we found – our team and also others
found that obese people have higher levels of this stress hormone. So maybe when you’re obese,
you get into a vicious circle of having elevated stress hormone cortisol
stimulating the calorie-rich food, and that in its turn, stimulates
again your stress hormones. So, psychological stress
can stimulate your cortisol, but also specific foods, and in particular,
also drinks like alcohol. We know alcohol’s inducing
an increase of your stress hormones, increasing your abdominal fat mass. But there’s more which is affecting
your stress hormones, and that’s sleep. In the past decades,
with increase of obesity, we also reduced the number
of hours we sleep. The lack of sleep is also activating
our stress system, increasing our cortisol, but also
deregulating other appetite hormones. So the net effect of a reduced
number of hours of sleep is weight gain leading to obesity. So, the solution here for obesity
– additional solutions – may be to reduce your stress level and also to improve your sleep hours. And there’s more. In this world, nowadays,
we take a lot of medication. I will tell you the story of Mary. Mary was a 20-year-old young woman who came to my outpatient clinic,
because she gained weight. She gained actually a lot of weight,
20 pounds within ten weeks, and she did not understand why. She entered my room, sit down,
and she started crying. Because she was eating very healthy, and she was exercising every day. And the reason she was so sad was actually because she was
a life-style coach herself. She was actually telling people how to eat healthy, how to exercise well; and now she felt that her clients
didn’t trust her anymore as being a good life-style coach,
because she was gaining weight herself. And after some testing – she had received corticosteroid
injections in her knee – she had a knee problem
because she was exercising very actively. We know that corticosteroids
are an artificial version of your stress hormones. And remember, your stress hormones
increase your abdominal fat. And may also increase your appetite. So, she suffered from a really extreme
side-effect of medication. And actually this is rare. I see only a few patients
like this a year. But on the other hand, we use a lot of medication; some of the medication have
as a side-effect also weight gain, maybe in a more subtle way
than in this case. But still, particularly,
obese people use more medication. So, if you are obese,
and you want to lose weight and you are just about to enter
a treatment program for your obesity, and you use medication, it may be worthwhile
to discuss with your doctor whether that medication indeed
have weight gaining side-effects. And then to discuss whether
the dose can be reduced or the medication can maybe even stopped to make your treatment
much more effective. The last topic in our environment
I will discuss is brown fat. Who of you ever heard of brown fat? Please, raise your hand. Well, some of you, but most of you not. So well, actually, brown fat
is the good fat. We all know the white fat, that’s
what’s on your hips, and your belly, and that’s unhealthy fat,
which is making you sick. But the good fat literally converts
calories into heat. It burns your calories. Well, that’s fantastic! That’s the Holy Grail! We all know these people
who can eat a lot, and they never gain weight. They have a good chance
of having a lot of brown fat there. In the past, we actually thought
that only babies had it, and we would lose it in adulthood. But it has been discovered
a couple of years ago that as adults, we also have brown fat. It’s color brown because
the little energy factories in the cells color the cells brown;
therefore, it’s called brown fat. And it’s located around the neck,
the spine, between the shoulder blades, and around your kidneys. But obese people
have less of this brown fat. So they, basically, cannot burn
that much calories as slim people do. But there is good news, because it has been shown
that also people with obesity can actually stimulate
their brown fat tissue. You can do it either by exercise, which is hard if you are really
massively obese, but you can also do it by cold; by cold temperature. You don’t need to worry, you don’t have
to sit in a freezer for a day. (Laughter) But actually already is enough
– it has been shown – that if you spend for a couple of weeks,
for six weeks for example, two hours a day at 17°C, which is 62°F, just below room temperature, then you already activate your brown fat, and you will lose some kilograms
of your white adipose tissue. So you lose the bad fat. So, maybe in the past decades, we were spending
too much time in the heat, and we have not enough cold exposure – maybe due to our convenient winter
clothing and our well insulated houses, and driving around in well heated cars. Maybe we should just go out more often
and take our coats off, and tell our kids to play outside
without their jackets. Looking at all these factors: stress, and sleep, and medication,
and thoughts, and crash dieting – I think the problem of obesity,
and of the obesity epidemic, is that we think too simply. The solution here is look
at all these factors and change them where possible. It is now time to not longer judge
people with obesity but to start supporting them. And that’s the way we will combat obesity
much more effectively. Thank you. (Applause)

The Rise of Psychedelic Truffles in Amsterdam

The Rise of Psychedelic Truffles in Amsterdam


[MUSIC PLAYING] HAMILTON MORRIS: Today is
Queen’s Day in Amsterdam, and I have three containers of psilocybin-containing truffles. I’m going to start by taking
8 grams of this 15-gram container, because that’s what
the man at the smart shop advised me to do. And then I suppose I’m going to
go out and walk around on Queen’s Day, which is incredibly
chaotic and disgusting. And probably the worst possible
place to take them. [SIGHING] This is the first time
I’ve ever consumed a psychedelic truffle. You can’t really get
these in the United States as far as I know. It’s actually much less
of a mushroom. It doesn’t seem like
very much at all. OK. Yesterday, I arrived in
Amsterdam, doubtlessly one of the sickest places on Earth to
get blazed on dank nugs. But my interest is not solely
confined to blazing dank nugs. Amsterdam is fertile ground
for all manner of psychoactive substance. I came here to find the
psilocybe tampanensis sclerotium, or philosopher’s
stone truffle. It was not until the infamous
mushroom ban of 2008 that the psychedelic sclerotium gained
widespread popularity, due to the fact that its effects and
chemical composition are almost indistinguishable from
the psilocybin mushroom. Mushrooms were once
completely legal. And since the early ’90s, the
Netherlands led the world in the development of commercial
psychedelic mushroom-growing techniques. But everything changed in
2008, when the Dutch government banned
psilocybin-containing mushrooms, responding to a
number of highly publicized deaths misguidedly blamed
on the innocent fungus. Truffles escaped the ban
unscathed and hold a place inside the hearts of
all true Dutch. I am here to learn about how
these strange protuberances are cultivated and why they
have not been banned. There are no better people to
consult than the Truffle Brothers, two of the world’s
leading experts in the mass production of psychedelic
sclerotia. I visited the brothers’ farm in
Hazerwoude-Dorp, formerly the second-largest mushroom
farm in the Netherlands. Having survived the mushroom
ban, the Truffle Brothers now dominate the psilocybin-containing fungus industry. I sat down with Murat and Ali to
discuss the secrets of the philosopher’s stone. ALI: First of all,
my name is Ali. Next to me is sitting
my brother, Murat. We are, in fact, known as
the Truffle Brothers. You are here at the farm
of magictruffles.com. We produce sclerotia, also
known as magic truffles. HAMILTON MORRIS: And how did
this company get started? ALI: Interesting story. Long story that started
somewhere around 1993, ’94, I guess. I learned mushroom growing
in Belgium. Mushrooms for eating– normal,
white button mushrooms. That was my occupation before I started with these mushrooms. And so I had quite a great
network in that area, in that field. And one day, a friend of mine
comes up to me and says, look what I found. He shows me a Petri
dish with spores. That’s interesting, what
kind of mushroom is it? He said, well, it’s
a magic mushroom. And I’d never heard of it. So I took a closer look. I went to a friend of mine
who owned a laboratory, a mycological laboratory, and
asked him, can we do something with these spores? He says, well, let’s
give it a try. And after two weeks, there was
one mushroom in the aquarium. But it was a giant mushroom. It was about [INAUDIBLE] this tall. And we were looking at it. I said, OK, let’s harvest it. HAMILTON MORRIS: And you were
operating a pizza restaurant beforehand, you said? MURAT: At that time, yes. HAMILTON MORRIS: The life cycle
of a mushroom begins when two spores of opposite
mating types germinate in a growth substrate and send out
threads called “hyphae.” The hyphae form a clamp connection
where genetic information is exchanged and then expand into
a web of undifferentiated threads called “mycelium.” If
the conditions are right, the mycelium organizes itself into
a mushroom with special reproductive cells called
basidia, which catapult spores into the air and give rise
to new mushrooms. And you bought this property? MURAT: Not in the first place. ALI: First of all,
we were in the– MURAT: We started in my place,
in the bedroom of my daughter. With several aquaria
this time. After the one aquarium, I
started to get our aquariums. ALI: Start searching on the
street at night and people were throwing out their
old aquariums. Yeah, there’s one. Let’s take it. MURAT: My daughter’s room was
filled with, I think, about 12 aquaria ALI: Something like that. MURAT: Or something. And we started to grow
mushrooms in there. Then we rented our first
place, in a town called Leiderdorp, not far from here. We made some sheds out
of plastic foil with shelves in it. And there we started our first
professional growth. ALI: Yeah, yeah. Right after that, we moved to
a bigger plays with ten growing houses. MURAT: But it wasn’t enough. The demand was so high that we couldn’t make enough mushrooms. ALI: And then we saw this,
which was far more ideal. HAMILTON MORRIS: And what
were you growing– What sorts of mushrooms were
you growing before the mushroom ban? MURAT: We had several species
of the psilocybe cubensis. And the panaeolus cyanescens. HAMILTON MORRIS: And
that was what you sold more than anything? More than the truffles
you sold? MURAT: Yes. Truffles were just for
the connoisseur. It was a side project
in that time. HAMILTON MORRIS: To better
understand the prohibition of the sacred mushroom, I go to
meet criminal lawyer Karem Canatan, who explained the
nuances of Dutch drug law. KAREM CANATAN: OK. Well, first of all, like many
countries, we have class A drugs and class B drugs. So that that’s not different
from any other countries. So we have lists of drugs
that are illegal– to buy it, to use it, to bring
it over the border to trade. It’s completely illegal. Then we have a small
portion of drugs– in Holland, we call it the “soft
drugs”– where you have weed and hashish
and the joints. Or we call it joints, because
we smoke joints. I don’t know if that’s the
correct term, but we have which is called like a tolerance
policy by the Dutch government. And they have on paper saying
that if the amount isn’t bigger than so-and-so much, then
it’s allowed to have it, it’s allowed to smoke it, and
you are allowed to sell it. So up until around 2007,
it was OK to use the magic mushrooms. HAMILTON MORRIS: These were the
salad days for mushrooms. But a series of unfortunate
incidents where mentally ill tourists hurt themselves turned
politicians against the sacred mushroom. And they began to
legislate a ban. [SPEAKING DUTCH] HAMILTON MORRIS: And there had
been scattered mushroom incidents in Amsterdam for
decades, it was not until the death of a 17-year-old French
student named Gaelle Caroff that lawmakers began taking
serious steps towards banning the sale and consumption of
psychedelic mushrooms. [SPEAKING DUTCH] [SPEAKING FRENCH] HAMILTON MORRIS: After
the incident with Gaelle, others followed. A Frenchman, supposedly under
the influence of mushrooms, ritualistically sacrificed his
dog with a pair of kitchen shears in order to free
the dog’s mind from its corporeal shackles. [SPEAKING DUTCH] ALI: He said, well, I
was on mushrooms. He had psychosis. And it had nothing to
do with mushrooms. He wasn’t even close
to mushrooms. Since these products are legal
in this country, it’s very easy to hide yourself
behind it. [SHOUTING IN DUTCH] HAMILTON MORRIS: With
prohibition looming on the horizon, protesters swarmed the
parliament building, armed with Super Soakers filled with
psychedelic mushroom spores, which they used to spray the
surrounding parks and lawns. They demanded their right
to consume mushrooms. But parliament ruled in
favor of the ban. So in 2008 they banned
all of these different genus and species. KAREM CANATAN: Yeah. Well, part of them were
already on it. But especially this
list from here. The magic mushroom list. And it says here that magic
mushrooms are mushrooms who have by nature these and these
active ingredients. And then all these species
are on the list. ALI: The law changed in 2008– 1st of December, 2008. Sad day. Saddest day of my life. HAMILTON MORRIS: How much time
did they give you after the ban to get rid of your
stock of mushrooms? MURAT: 10 days. ALI: 10 days to clear 16
growing houses, all the equipment, and so on. HAMILTON MORRIS: And you were
saying all these other different bans have been given
enormous amounts of time, years before they have to– ALI: Mink farms, for instance. They got 10 years to
change the plans. HAMILTON MORRIS: 10 years? ALI: 10 years. HAMILTON MORRIS: And
you got ten days. ALI: 10 days. Look at that. HAMILTON MORRIS: How did you
get rid of the mushrooms? ALI: That was the easiest part,
because people were lined up here. the last mushrooms, the
last mushrooms. HAMILTON MORRIS: Despite the
chemical and biological similarity to the mushroom,
parliament decided not to ban the magic truffle. ALI: When the law changed in
2008, we just continued with the truffles that we were
already growing in that time. HAMILTON MORRIS: So
what is a truffle? And how is it different
from a mushroom? MURAT: [INAUDIBLE] for nutrients and moisture. HAMILTON MORRIS: Like
all organisms, a fungus seeks to reproduce. But environmental conditions are
not always ideal to do so. If the substrate is too dry,
cold, hot, or poor in nutrients, the mycelium will
grow inwards, forming a tangled clump of globular fungus
called a sclerotium. These hard structures are
able to survive in harsh environmental conditions until
the time is right to send forth mushrooms. Murat offered to give me
a guided tour of their innovative sclerotium
cultivation facilities. MURAT: We’ll start where
it all begins. That’s the dirty side where
all raw materials come in. HAMILTON MORRIS: First, the rye
grass seed substrate is sterilized in an
industrial-sized autoclave to kill opportunistic bacteria and
fungi, which are equally eager to consume the bags of
warm, moist nutrients. Then the bags are inoculated
with a liquid culture of mycelium. MURAT: This is a class
100 cleanroom. That means that only 100
particles of 0.00096 micron may be present in one
cubic feet of air. Normally in an operating room
it’s class 10,000, so 10,000 particles may appear in
a cubic foot of air. HAMILTON MORRIS: Impressive. ALI: If you do everything, like
your laboratory work and your growing, under one roof,
you get a cross-contamination somewhere, somehow. And that risk was so big that
we looked for a proper building with at least two
separate departments. HAMILTON MORRIS: Then the bags
are transported to an incubation chamber, where a
temperature of 28 degrees Celsius is maintained to
accelerate the colonization of the substrate. How do you prevent the
growth of mushrooms? MURAT: By controlling the
temperature and the microclimate in the bag. The microclimate in the bag
is not suitable for formation of mushrooms. HAMILTON MORRIS: The final stage
is the nursery, where the bags are kept in darkness
for as many as five months before the sclerotia
are mature. And what is the capacity of
this plant at the moment? MURAT: Full capacity, if we
worked 24 hours a day in three shifts, 18,000 tons per year. ALI: Something like
that, yeah. HAMILTON MORRIS: 18,000 tons? ALI: Yes. MURAT: Yeah. MURAT: I think that sclerotia,
to go for the mushroom market one-on-one, by now– ALI: By now it’s one-on-one,
yeah. HAMILTON MORRIS: Upon maturity,
the bags are opened the sclerotia are plucked from
their substrate, cleaned with a soft-bristled brush, and
packaged for distribution. It seems your brand is the only
brand, except for one another that I saw, that
you can get at smart shops in Amsterdam. MURAT: Yeah. That might be correct. There are some home growers,
but as far as commercially grown sclerotia, I think
we’re the largest. HAMILTON MORRIS: Do you
have any competitors? MURAT: Everyone who grows a
truffle is a competitor. HAMILTON MORRIS: Ah. Each package contains a single
serving of fresh, psilocybin-containing
sclerotia. MURAT: We deliver them to
the shop in boxes of 24. We give the shops 24 booklets so
that people get the proper information. HAMILTON MORRIS: Good. Murat invited me to join him
on his delivery route and visit the magic truffle
storefront in Amsterdam. The Dutch countryside touched
us both deeply, but we could not linger on these
natural delights. We had important sclerotium
deliveries to make. One of the stops was a wholesale
psychedelics distributor specializing
in peyote cacti. We finally made it to the shop,
and not a minute too soon as the hoards of
truffle-hungry Dutch waited eagerly for their Queen’s
Day delights. [BACKGROUND CHATTER] HAMILTON MORRIS: Chills and
Thrills was not the truffle theme park I was expecting, but
I knew the real ride would come later. SPEAKER 1: you? HAMILTON MORRIS: I’m good. I would like to buy some
P. Tampanensis. SPEAKER 1: HAMILTON MORRIS: Thank you. SPEAKER 1: you. Enjoy. HAMILTON MORRIS: The truffles
require no preparation. And thought the truffle
brothers recommended a truffle-based milkshake, I chose
to take them raw so that I could savor their essences. That’s not bad at all. It’s actually kind of good. Well. It has almost a sour aftertaste,
but sour is the last taste I would associate
with a truffle. Do you want some
truffle crumbs? Scarf them down. Mmm. Tastes pretty darn– uh, like a wet nut. This is a drug? This is a drug? This is technically a drug? All right. KAREM CANATAN: Well,
I don’t have any experience with the truffles. But if it’s not a health risk
and it doesn’t have any other negative side effects,
I would say allow it. And then make sure you
can control it. HAMILTON MORRIS: What
sort of person buys psychedelic truffles? MURAT: I don’t think there’s
a specific type of person. Age has nothing to do with it. We’ve had people in their 80s
coming for mushrooms. ALI: Yeah, or people who are
curious for the experience who think there’s more
in life than the regular things we see. And there’s also the real
cosmonauts, who use it for the real spiritual thing, like
the shamanic experiences. HAMILTON MORRIS: What category
would you put yourselves into? ALI: None. HAMILTON MORRIS: None? You don’t use your
own product? ALI: No. MURAT: Bummer. HAMILTON MORRIS: While the
Mazatec Indians prescribed special conditions under which
the sacred mushroom should be consumed, there exist
little-known rituals surrounding the psychedelic
sclerotium. Their history remains
unwritten. Though I feel sweaty and
overwhelmed by the chaos of Queen’s Day, I feel no
compulsion to ritualistically stab a dog and play with its
internal organs in a van. Nor do I wish to jump off a
bridge to a watery death. I’m glad that the resilient
structure of the sclerotium has survived the inhospitable
environment of prohibition. And I hope that it sends forth
mycelial threads of liberty for many years to come.

Air conditioning with wind, sun and water: Ben Bronsema at TEDxDelft

Air conditioning with wind, sun and water: Ben Bronsema at TEDxDelft


Translator: Els De Keyser
Reviewer: Ariana Bleau Lugo Ladies and gentlemen, the buildings
you see here are very different. There is a town hall,
there is a big ministry building, there is an airport terminal,
there is a head office of a big bank and a small bank, and an office
of a broadcasting company and also two old buildings
from the last century, a museum in The Hague and the head office of an important
Dutch trading company from the former century. These buildings were built in the 20’s
and the 30’s of the last century. Well, these are very different buildings and yet they have one thing in common: the airconditioning systems in these buildings
were designed by me and by my staff. (Laughter) Everybody can talk about airconditioning but few have ever seen
the heart of an air-conditioning. And what you see here on this slide is the very heart
of an airconditioning plant: huge air handling units
which cool and dry your air or heat it up and humidify it. Well, this has always been
important work for me. This was my joy, this was
my passion and my life, to design this kind of things. Ordinary people
are not allowed to go in there. And architects also
don’t like those systems. Architects dislike airconditioning, in fact. It costs a lot of space. They hate the pipes and the ducts. They hide them very carefully above the false
ceilings and in insulating shafts. And at last, airconditioning
costs a lot of money. It has to be funded
from the construction budget, and that’s their budget. Then next, do people like airconditioning? Well, they generally do not. They hate the noise of the fans, the draft of the cold air
that is coming into them, they don’t like the air quality, they think the inside air quality is not
as good as the outside air quality. They complain about dry air. And, well, energy consumption
of air conditioning is rather high. So that’s also not so very good
for air conditioning. So having a relationship with architects
that is a love-and-hate relation, and customers that do not like my products, you can imagine that I had
a very hard and difficult life. (Laughter) So, should I have given up
or is there a solution to this problem? Well, can we learn from nature? What you see here
is a termite hill. I’ve seen lots of termite hills
in Africa, in Kenya. They are very large buildings
they build for themselves. Inside that building, that mound, they grow a fungus. The fungus is
their primary food source. The fungus grows best
at a temperature of 30°C. So the temperature in the mound
has to be kept at 30°C, while at the outside, it’s 50° in daytime
and the sun is shining on the hill, and at night time, the temperature
can go down to about zero. So, can we learn from some —
could we design a building like those termites do? Well, we don’t know for sure, but I think termites do not split up
the design of these mounds and architecture [and] engineering.
They build it together. (Laughter)
(Chuckles) I say: as far as we know!
(Chuckles) (Applause) And I think termites are very satisfied with the endoclimate in their buildings. So could we imitate this,
the way termites do this? It’s called the biomimicry principle. Could we learn from them
and build a building in reality? Could we make buildings
in the human world as a machine
for natural air conditioning? Then I come to the words architect
and engineer – different minds. Architects are artistic,
intuitive and creative and engineers logical,
rational and well, I must say that architects sometimes
have very fantastic ideas but they leave the quality
of the endoclimate to the engineer. The engineer is always responsible. So, different minds. I have learned the mind
of the architect rather well during my career. About 20 years ago I was
appointed as a guest lecturer at Delft University,
at the faculty of architecture and I got to know the minds
of architects even better. And then I got a new idea. Can we build a building
with natural air conditioning in the way termites do it? How do the termites do it? Well, they very carefully open and close vents that let warm air out and let cool air in, and opposite. Could we do that in the same way
as the termites do it? And could we, by doing so,
have natural air conditioning, avoiding fans, could we, by doing so,
probably, maybe, hopefully, make a zero energy building and a building where the endoclimate is more like the outdoor climate
and people are more satisfied with it? Well, this was the idea. On a morning, I awoke,
during a holiday, and I said: well,
but what’s the title for it? What about Earth, Wind and Fire? That was the working title
for this investigation. (Laughter) I wrote a research proposal on that. And I applied for funding
from the Dutch government. Well, the Dutch government
took their time — about two years — (Laughter) but at last, I got
about a million of euros. That’s a lot of money.
The good old times, you can say. It is tax money. So you all contributed
to my research. Thank you very much.
(Laughter) (Applause) So when I got the funding for my research,
the research could start. It started in the early summer of 2007. My wife, Ilona, was recovering
from major surgery after chemotherapy. About 20% of the women
survive ovarian cancer. I was convinced that
she would belong to that 20%. Then in a week in November
came the message from the hospital that the cancer was back
and there was no more hope for her. I was a caregiver, so
I had to divide my time between Earth, Wind and Fire
and Ilona. But you can understand
that that was a difficult task. And at the end of the year,
my inspiration and ambition had gone so much that I thought: well, I’d better give up Earth, Wind and Fire, forget about that and
concentrate on my wife. But she didn’t agree with me. She said, “Ben, your work, your job has always been your passion
and your life, your joy, so go on with that. And when I’m no longer here, you still have a wonderful
purpose in your life. And that little voice, I still
hear it after so many years. So she died in February 2008. For a couple of months, I did nothing
at Earth Wind and Fire, but then, slowly, I restarted. (Ramses Shaffy singing:) Sing, fight,
cry, pray, laugh, work and admire. (Applause) This is the title page of my thesis, stating that singing, fighting, crying,
praying, laughing and working, I restarted the research and was more and more
surprised by the results. As a principal investigator I put together a team of researchers. Scientists of the University of Delft
and the University of Eindhoven. A fantastic combination
of old and young, of trained intuition —
that’s me, of course — (Laughter) and open minds —
that’s the researchers. Also practical experience,
but also scientific expertise. There was a fantastic team
to do this work. You see a picture here. It’s part of my research team
and also one of my promotors. We also had a project advisory team of people from the building industry. Once or two times a year we came together and they said what they thought
about the progress of the research. Well, this was the idea:
Earth, Wind and Fire. What you see here, is a cross-section
of an office building. The wind comes from the left in this case, but it’s wind direction independent, so it’s not important to place the building
in the wind direction, but there are overhangs at roof level and the wind blowing to the facade is caught by the overhangs
and is entering the building. Part of the wind is used
for air conditioning of the building, and part of it is used for energy production by wind turbines
that are not on this picture. At the left side,
you see the climate cascade where the fresh air enters. At the top of the climate cascade cold water is sprayed,
water of 13° C That cold water cools the air in summer and preheats the air in winter. The temperature of 13° C, we can get that
from cold from the soil. The soil is about 11 to 12° C, so we don’t need chillers, we can get
the cold from the soil to cool the air. Then the air is cooled, for instance, in summer from 28 degrees outside
to 18 degrees — about 10 degrees,
we can cool that. At the top of the climate cascade,
the water is sprayed. At the foot of the climate cascade,
pressure is built up. We need some pressure
to distribute the air into the building. Because of the weight difference
between the water air mixture inside the climate cascade and the surrounding, there is a negative thermal draught, so we have positive pressure at the foot. At the other side of the building, we have the solar chimney. The sun shines into the chimney, the air is heated up, is rising, it’s thermal draught, and at the foot
of the solar chimney, there’s an underpressure. That underpressure
exhausts the fresh air that is distributed
by the climate cascade. At the top of the solar chimney, we have a heat recovery system. It would be a pity, of course,
to leave all the energy that’s in the air. It’s not only the solar energy but also all the energy
that’s produced in the building. the heat from lighting, from people,
from computers and so on. All that heat is recovered by water, that water is heated and stored
into the soil beneath the building. We can use that in winter
to heat the building. Then the air is going up
through what is called a venturi ejector. This room is like a venturi. When wind blows through the roof,
the wind speed is accelerated and there is an underpressure
in the heart of the roof. By that underpressure, the wind, the air
is removed from the building. This works all naturally. We only need one small pump to pump the water up
to the sprayers. That was the idea. I concocted it myself
in a very coarse way. But it has to be calculated, of course. So the scientists
from Eindhoven and Delft made very sophisticated
computer models. But what is the value
of a computer model? It always needs to be tested. So the next step was that we built physical models, physical mock-ups. In those mock-ups,
we did all the measurements and based on those measurements
in the physical mock-ups, we could validate the computer models. So we have very reliable
computer models now. It turned out to be really good. We have very reliable models. It’s amazing that you can
make a CFD simulation of hundreds of thousands
of water droplets — what is the cooling effect? —
but it can be done, and it was really fantastic to do that. You see the tester here,
a mock-up of the solar chimney. It’s eleven meters high
and two meters wide. For one year,
many points were measured: the solar radiation, but also
the temperatures inside the solar chimney, the air velocities and so on,
and on the basis of all those measurements we could validate and
verify the computer models. And it turns out that we have
a reliable computer model for that. We did not only build a test mock-up
for the solar chimney, but also for the climate cascade
and for the ventec roof which is tested in the wind tunnel. Well, the question is: will people
like natural air conditioning? Well, most probably, yes! There’s no noise,
there’s no draft, the air is not so cold,
it’s about 18° C, there is outdoor air quality,
the best quality you can have, there’s no dry air
and the system uses very little energy. But of course the building itself consumes energy, because of the lighting
and so on, and the computers. So we need to provide for the energy consumption
of the building itself. So the next idea was to produce the energy
for the building in the building itself. We designed a power plant on a roof, a power plant using wind and using sun to produce energy — sun by PV roofing
and wind by wind turbines. This is a picture of such a power roof. It’s an energy power plant for the building. You see the wind turbines
in the pressure room and you see the ventec roof and a wind turbine can be
situated in there as well. In the best case, we can produce
all the energy we need in the building. This is an exploded view of the roof. Here is the entrance
of the climate cascade. You see the turbines running. Again. Then at last — the idea
of Earth, Wind and Fire was to apply it in newly designed buildings. That can be done:
you can design a building so that it is ideally suited
for the Earth, Wind and Fire concept, but there is no big building production
at the moment, so I did a test, a virtual case study on an existing building in Amsterdam. This is the new view of the building. This is the south facade. We made a complete
solar facade on the south. You see the roof and the overhangs
and the ventec roof. Well, it can be done. We calculated — we tested, of course,
but only virtually — that by the Earth, Wind and Fire concept you can reduce the energy
consumption of the air conditioning by about 40-60%,
and the remaining energy we need, can be produced
in the power plant on the roof; purely with nature. So I can say that Earth, Wind and Fire
is a multiple innovation. In the first place, I think
it’s a social innovation, because architects and engineers
are cooperating so closely. Architects are engaged in the design
of the climate system and they are also engaged in the problem
of energy and indoor environment. And that’s of course very important. And also for the people in the building
you can call it a social innovation because the indoor environment is better. Scientists have proven many years ago
that when the indoor environment is better, the productivity of the office staff
is improved as well. And at last it is a technological innovation. We have air conditioning without vents. We can have zero energy buildings
and that’s of course fantastic. We should do that in the future. Some of my favorite statements: the trouble with getting old it that one doesn’t. That means that your body gets old,
but your mind doesn’t get old. Is that a problem? No,
for me it’s not a problem — (Chuckles) but that the body gets old
is sometimes a problem. The most wonderful youth is a youthful mind
when you are no longer young. That’s my favorite saying. It’s from
a famous French philosopher.