Hard-working honey bee – an amazing creature


There are 7 species of a honey bee, with 44 subspecies They can survive in almost every climate Because honey bees have been domesticated to produce honey for human consumption, they are now found all over the world in different habitats. While honey bees can thrive in domesticated or natural environments, they generally prefer living in meadows, orchards, woodlands, gardens, and any other areas where there is an abundance of flowering plants.

Spider vs Penis (Priapism) – Smarter Every Day 98


Alright, so this video may not be appropriate for kids, and it is uh.. It’s disturbing, on several different levels. Especially if you’re a man… So you know on Smarter Every Day I try to keep everything very intelligent and respectful, but this video is crazy. Like, you need to think about whether or not you want to watch this. Because now that I know this happens, I have nightmares. And they’re not good.. [laugh] They’re not good nightmares ok? So you just think about whether or not you want to know this information. Do you want to know it? OK… Introduction. – Talk to me. Give an introduction right now.
(Destin) Hey it’s me Destin welcome to Smarter Every Day. I’m in the Amazon rainforest. [little girl squeal]
– [laughter] [clapping] Yes! – Speaking of the penis tree, what this guy does he uh.. yeah. It’s the.. pretty much the third most venemous spider in the world. Phoneutria fera I’m gonna stay this far away.
– They’re really agressive. Should we see how aggressive they are?
– Alright, most likely it’s gonna hop down, but let’s see if we can get him to rear up. – Oh.. Oh no he’s like..
(Destin) Holy cow, he’s fast. – Who’s gonna put it on their face then?
– Nooo. – You go ahead.
– Yeah.
– Will also cause a condition called a priapism in males. (Destin) Priapism. Oh yeah, ice water enema to fix that? Yep. OK this spider is called the Brazillian Wandering Spider, and if you heard what Phil said, he said it causes this condition in males. I assume that means not in females. And there’s only a couple of things I can think of that can happen to a male but not to a female. Anyway, we’ll come back to that.
– If you look underneath that front leg, you see how it’s got banding? Black, white and black. Can you see that from this angle? See that?
– Yes. – So, when it gets really mad it flips those up in the air and then you can see that black white black white. That’s kind of a warning signal. (Destin) It’s called a wandering spider?
– Yeah.
– Because he doesn’t make webs? – Correct
(Destin) Alright, well I’m done with the third most venemous spider in the world.
– Is she done with you? – That’s the question.
(Destin) OK you’re on a jungle walk, an entomologist tells you that this spider can affect the penis. Obviously the first thing you do is you get the books out, find out priapism is a medical emergency involving the penis, which is terrifying. So here’s what we’re gonna do. We’re gonna go to this hospital, we’re gonna go find a urologist. We’re gonna ask him what are the causes of priapism, and number two and more importantly, what are the fixes for priapism. So we’re gonna go in here, I know it’s funny, hahaha, Destin’s talking about a penis, but think about it. If you’re a male or you know a male, you need to know this information. So, if I have to take the hit, I’ll do it. I’ll try not to blush, but if he’s a urologist chances are he’s either really funny or really boring, so.. I don’t know. Let’s go get Smarter Every Day. Missed the door. Dr Sergey Ananyev? Am I saying that right? – That’s right.
– And you are a uh.. let me get this.. urologist? Which is a…
– Glorified pecker checker. [laugh] – Excellent, OK so show me what we’re doing here. What is going on with the erection?
– Well, erection is a by-product of both nerves and blood vessels working together once a man gets excited. Our penises consist of two chambers that have one way valves. Those two chambers are called cavernosal bodies, and they communicate to each other. – They communicate with each other like hydraulically?
– As in, yeah sideways yeah like fenestrations.
– Is it priapism or preeapism?
– It’s priapism, and priapism by definition is a prolonged erection that is unwanted, that usually lasts four hours or longer. – OK so what does that have to do with a spider in the rainforest? That’s why I’m hear talking to you.
– The spider in the rainforest, once it gets hold of you, is able to stimulate and effect a certain pathway which on the molecular level effects nitric oxide. You’ll have this nitric oxide release, which is a molecule.
– Right. – That would in turn stimulate another molecule, that will then relax the muscles inside the penis. – So the nitric oxide is what activates whatever this is.. – It’s a step in the ladder, yeah. To eventually relax the muscle of the penis to allow the blood flow in.
– OK so it’s a valve. – Uh, well yeah nitric oxide is just the molecule that helps open the door for a valve but yeah. What you’ll actually do is you have.. they’re in a way one way valves where the blood flow goes in once a man is excited for whatever reason.
– Yeah?
– Whether a partner or a spider. [laugh] – OK.
– Once the blood flow goes in the one way valves will close and the blood can’t come out. – You just made me think about something really strange. So, I’m an engineer and when I was at school we had to do this equation in something called differential equations. And it was inflow and outflow. And so the rate of inflow vs the rate of outflow determined the internal fluid inside.. so there is a differential equation, you can express it like mathematically to determine the rate of which that will do what it does. OK there’s math on the screen, I’m starting to get a little bit more comfortable now. So, the design of the penis is pretty interesting. It’s like two balloons that are stacked side by side and you have an input and an output into the system. If you throttle these flow rates you can generate this expanding control volume and that’s the erection. Now Dr Ananyev will install these prosthetic devices into men who suffer from ED. It happens to men of all ages by the way. So he decided to demonstrate how this biomechanical system works in the body by just showing us one of these devices. So this prosthesis that you.. This is what you do right? You insert these into the human body right?
– It’s one of the many things we do. – These are the caverns right?
– These are the two cavernosal bodies. When one gets excited, there’s an increase in blood flow to both of those bodies. And I will demonstrate it by the virtue of this mechanical pump. – So you’ve got a hydraulic pump and you’re squeezing it.
– That’s right. – So you’re pumping that there, and that’s taking fluid from there..
– From the reservoir, which would be your blood stream. To the end organ, which would be the two cavernosal bodies in the penis. – OK, so that’s how..
– And then a one way valve that keeps the blood from outflowing.
– Gotcha. So once that happens, then.. you know.. sexual activity happens and then..
– You feeling a little uncomfortable Destin?
– [laugh] I am a little uncomfortable. You actually deal with uncomfortable situations all day long every day, don’t you. – That’s my defense mechanism yeah.
– That’s fantastic. So the outflow, is this?.. You have it in the same valve here, so how does it happen in the human body?
– In the human body when a man reaches a climax, certain chemicals are released that are allowing those valves to open. In the case of priapism what’ll happen Destin is that you will have an increased blood flow, but instead of climaxing and allowing those one way valves to open and allow the blood flow back out, the blood stays in for a prolonged amount of time as I mentioned about four hours or longer. And when that happens the blood inside these cavernosal bodies becomes what we call ischemic, which means deprived of oxygen, and as it becomes deprived of oxygen and clots it becomes very thick. That in turn makes the problem worse because it’s a lot harder for now the thick blood to get out even if the valves were working. – So what do you do?
– There are a couple of ways to fix the problem.
– Yeah?
– You would start off by trying to take a cold shower. I’ll see if I can get some more tape for Mr Skeleton – Does it cause permanent damage? Like people can..
– If you do not reverse it within about four hours it can usually lead to irreversible scarring and permanent loss of erection.
– Can you die? – Usually.. I have not in my limited experience seen anybody die of priapism but you can definitely suffer. So if the cold shower and then the medications do not work, the next step of the process is to actually drain the engorged blood inside the penis, with a needle. – With a needle?
– That’s right. – So.. You showed me the two caverns, there’s a cavern on each side, so you have to drain them independently?
– No you do not. Those caverns communicate, so.. – They have a..
– There is one good thing about this. Yeah usually you’ll be able to drain it from one side while the other side spontaneously…
– Deflates? Is that the term?
– Yep. That would be the term.
– How big is that needle? – It’s big enough to hurt. A lot of times you would talk to the patient about numbing of the area, but by that time you have to stick them twice, and they’re fairly uncomfortable so what you end up having to do is go at approximately mid shaft and stick the needle all the way inside their cavernosal body, and then drain what would have the consistency of tomato paste by that time.
– Really?
– Or grape jelly. – Does.. Oh my goodness.
– You would have to do this multiple times. A lot of times if the blood is really clotted you will end up having to actually remove the clot and then inject sterile salt water in there and then irrigate it back out. Once you irrigate it out, it can come back within 5-10 minutes, and you would actually repeat the process, and for the poor folks in who the condition keeps returning you have to go to more drastic measures. – [nervously] Like? – Like going up in size, and instead of a needle, using a scalpel. Most of the time they would require sedation or sometimes a trip to the emergency room. What you would actually have to drive the scalpel through the head of the penis..
– Are you serious?
– And ream it 90 degrees.
– Are.. are you being serious right now?
– Yeah unfortunately – Really?
– Mm hmm.
– And so then that fluid would come out that open.. [Heavy breath intake]
– It would actually create what we call a shunt by virtue of a big size. That shunt will allow the blood..
– I’m having trouble breathing right now. [laugh] This is bad!
– Yeah – So, at that point how do you..
– That’s why I hate spiders. – [laugh] Good gracious! Oh man! There’s really nothing more to say is there?
– No.
– So actually in the head? – That’s right.
– Or is it called the glans? It’s called the glans right?
– Yes that’s the proper name, glans penis. – Glans? So.. Does it.. Obviously there’s damage, there’s permanent damage because of that. There can, but there’s definitely gonna be permanent damage without it. – Last thing, how often do you see this problem? Obviously not from spider bites but..
– Well it depends on the community in which you are in, but we’ll probably see it two or three times a year. – So it’s pretty rare.
– It’s fairly rare and you would usually be able to identify one by the risk factors whether it’s a predisposing disease like a sickle cell or overdose in medications that help you get to a happy place to begin with.
– Oh I see. Well thank you very much for your time, I appreciate it. Yep. Take it easy. OK in summary I hope you don’t feel like I was being rude or crude or disrespectful at any point in this. This is a serious issue and I hope I got the information into your brain in a pretty interesting and fun way. Speaking of serious I’m still not working on Fridays for pay, I’m furloughed. So that’s a pretty big deal as a dad. So I’m more than happy to tell you about my sponsor. Audible.com/smarter. Audible.com they have audio books and you can go to audible.com/smarter and get a free one. They want me to tell you about a book you can listen to that has something to do with the video, but I don’t think we want to hear the word erection one more time if we can avoid it. So, I’m gonna do you one better. Love. There’s a book by C.S.Lewis and actually read by C.S.Lewis on audible called The Four Loves. There’s one word in english, love. In Greek there’s four. There’s eros, there’s agape, filia and storge. Eros is erotic love, think about the video, but these other three are very interesting. Particularly storge, I didn’t know about it. So once I understood the four loves my interaction with people in my life changed. It was very interesting and I think it’s good for you to at least explore that. Anyway, audible.com/smarter you get a free audio book. You’re smart. You know what’s up here. I’m Destin, you’re getting Smarter Every Day. Have a good one. OK so how long does it take.. I mean how long will this last? Several years in a man?
– That depends on the wear and tear.
– [snort] You’re awful.
– That’s not a joke.
– I got it. I can’t.. I can’t do this. [laugh] This… is a tree that grows in the rainforest And it has odd shaped things on it. The end. [ Captions by Andrew Jackson ]
captionsbyandrew.wordpress.com Captioning in different languages welcome.
Please contact Destin if you can help.

You Wish You Had Mites Like This Hissing Cockroach | Deep Look


Is there anything more lowly than the lowly
cockroach? Uh, yeah there is. That’s a cockroach mite. It lives its entire life on this cockroach. But these hitchhikers are doing a lot more
good than you might think. The mites are only on one type of cockroach – these
guys – Madagascar hissing cockroaches… …which are known for their hiss, of course. They do that when disturbed or looking for
a mate. They only live in the Madagascar rainforest
on an island off the coast of Africa. And they’re bigger than the cockroaches
you might find in your kitchen, like these brown-banded roaches. These pests will eat anything: food scraps,
poop, trash – you name it. As a result, they can spread disease or trigger
allergies. Hissing cockroaches are detritivores – they
mainly eat decaying leaves, tidying up the forest floor. They can even be kept as pets, because they’re
more docile than their common cousins. And most importantly, they’re a lot cleaner
… thanks to a permanent population of tiny housekeepers. Ok, yeah, it looks pretty bad. The mites crowd together in the crevices – places
where the cockroach can’t brush them off. They get their meals near the cockroach’s
head, gobbling up the food bits and saliva that the roach leaves behind. When they get thirsty, they head to the spiracles:
the openings the roach uses to breathe. The mites get water vapor from them. The roach also has one special hissing spiracle
for that signature sound. The mites live on a single roach, unless they
get passed on from roach parent to roach baby. They’re doing these cockroaches a favor. By cleaning up the old food and debris, the
mites help keep them free of mold and pathogens … potentially extending the roaches’ lives. Really, both a hissing cockroach and its mites
have the same important job: keeping the world a little bit neater. Not so lowly, after all. Looking for more wild science adventures? Journey to Earth’s most remote laboratory
in Antarctic Extremes, a harsh, thrilling and hilarious new show from NOVA and PBS Digital
Studios. Hosts Caitlin Saks and Arlo Pérez reveal
a world where science and survival meet. Find the show on Terra, PBS Digital Studios’
new science channel. Link is in the description.

How Bees Can See the Invisible


{music} Welcome to It’s Okay To Be Smart, I’m DOCTOR
Joe Hanson [cheering and music]. For bees and flower blossoms, springtime is
all about two things: feeding and fertilizing. See the flowers want to pass their genes on
to the next generation, and the bees need to eat so they can do the same. So they use
a little teamwork. But how do bees find flowers? And how do flowers find bees? What does a
bee see when they see one of these? For millions of years plants have evolved
to depend on insects and other pollinators to carry their genes on to the next generation. A flower is like a big neon sign they use
to say “land here!” In return for getting a helping hand in making
baby plants, most flowers offer up a tasty treat in the form of nectar. It’s like a dinner date, only you eat afterwards. Biologists call this kind of arrangement “mutualism”.
The flower gets to spread its genes, and the worker bee gets a sugary drink and packs her
knees with golden protein-rich pollen to take back to the thousands of hungry mouths back
at the hive. Everybody gets what they want. Flowers sure look pretty to us, but bees see
them in a completely different light. Literally. Not only do they see the world through these
compound eyes made of thousands of individual pixels, they see a world bathed in ultraviolet.
Way beyond what our eyes can see. We see this. And they see THIS. See, special pigments absorb the UV light
and they paint this big bullseye in the center of the flower, guiding the bee to the tasty
nectar and of course, that sweet, sweet pollination. Now the relationship between flowers and bees
goes way beyond the visual. Scientists from the University of Bristol recently discovered
that bees can sense a flower’s electric field. Just like when you run across a carpet in
your socks, bees build up a positive charge as they buzz through the air. And flowers
are slightly negative. This helps pollen jump from the flower to
the bee like electric velcro. It also helps the bee figure out if another worker has already
visited that flower and slurped up all the goodness. Now, nobody knows quite how the bees sense
that electric charge, but their fuzzy little bodies might be buzzing like your hair when
you rub a balloon across it. Now, evolution’s been playing matchmaker between
bees and flowers for millions of years, resulting in one of nature’s closest relationships. So next time you see a bee buzzing around
the garden on a warm spring afternoon, imagine how their world looks, and think about how
much of nature is invisible unless you see it through the right pair of eyes. Thanks for watching! Leave us a comment and
let us know if YOU have a question. Make sure to subscribe, and as always, stay curious
. . . and stop to smell the flowers.

The Cruel Fate of the Zombie Spider

The Cruel Fate of the Zombie Spider


hi and welcome to facts in motion Human zombies are still a thing of fiction, but in the animal world, mind control is actually more common than you might think. But unlike in movies where it’s usually a virus that turns people into the walking dead, in the real world parasites are the most common cause for this phenomenon one example of this parasitic mind control is found in spiders, more specificaly in orb weaving spiders of the genus Cyclosa one of the biggest threats these spiders face is a wasp species of the family of scorpion wasps a parasitoid wasp family that has adopted a very special strategy for reproduction while most wasps practice either mass provisioning, where all the necessary food for each of the offspring is stocked with the eggs in a small chamber, or a progressive provisioning where the larves are fed directly and continually during their development scorpion wasps instead inject the eggs into or on the bodies of living hosts this provides the larvae with a continuous supply of food until they’re big enough to pupate a few weeks later at this point, the hosts usually die and the larvae emerge, and begin their metamorphosis into adult wasps While each species of these wasps are usually specialised on a specific host, collectively, scorpion wasps use a diversity of different hosts with the most common being the larvae and pupae of butterflies, beetles, flies, and other flying insects. But what’s so special about the case of Cyclosa it’s not that the host is a spider, but how the spider is manipulated by the wasp larva and turned into a mind-controlled worker. After the larva spends a few weeks living and growing on the spider’s body and using its teeth-like structure to suck the spider’s blood, it is ready to pupate. At this point, the larva injects a substance into the spider’s body. What exactly the substance is and how it works is still unknown, but its effects on the spider are drastic. After the injection, the spider exhibits a significantly-altered behaviour. Instead of going about spider business, it starts to completely rebuild its web for the wasp like a mindless zombie. First, it removes all spiraling threads that makes the webs of orb weavers so appealing and are normally used to catch the spider’s prey. They won’t be of any use for the larva. The (?) of the webs, however, remain, and even get reinforced with additional strings and then decorated with special-fabric silk that reflects ultraviolet light. This warns away birds and some large insects from accidently flying into the web and destroying it. The improved visibility and increased strength of the web are very important to keep it intact during the larva’s two-week metamorphosis. When the spider’s finished building the perfect nest for the larva, it returns to the center of the web and sits inert, patiently waiting for its own death. With no further use for it, the larva kills the spider and sucks it out completely before throwing its empty shell off the web. Then, it settles down in the center of the web to spin itself a cocoon in which it will transform itself into a wasp within the next 10 to 15 days. The spider’s bespoke creations are, like researchers from Japan found out, not a completely new design by the parasites. Instead, the larvae were corrupting a natural behaviour of the spiders. Spiders which are about to moult bear a very similar one, called the “resting web” that is used as a temporary hangout during its two-day moulting process. But a web that lasts only two days isn’t going to cut it for the larvae, which explains why the threads the spider uses to construct the larvae webs were significantly thicker and tougher, requiring 2.7 to 40 times the breaking force to snap than the threads of a normal web. From an evolutionary standpoint, this makes it relatively easier for the larva. Instead of having to mind-control every step of modifying the sticky web for its needs, it just has to turn on an already existing behaviour program and slightly alter a few variables. How exactly the larva does this is, however, still a mystery. One theory is that the chemicals injected by the larva are similar to the hormones the spider produces naturally before moulting. And that this is what motivates the spider to start building the nest for the larva.

Licking bees and pulping trees: The reign of a wasp queen – Kenny Coogan

Licking bees and pulping trees: The reign of a wasp queen – Kenny Coogan


As the April sun rises
on a pile of firewood, something royal stirs inside. This wasp queen is one of thousands
who mated in late autumn and hibernated through the winter. Now she emerges into the spring air
to begin her reign. Most of her sisters weren’t so lucky. While hibernating in compost piles
and underground burrows, many sleeping queens
were eaten by spiders. Warm winters caused by climate change
led other queens to emerge early, only to find there was no available food. And some queens that survived the winter
fell victim to the threats of spring, such as carnivorous plants, birds,
and manmade pesticides. Our queen is the lone survivor
of her old hive, and now, she must become
the foundress of a new one. But first, breakfast. The queen heads for a citrus grove
full of honeybee hives. The bees can be dangerous if provoked, but right now they’re paralyzed
by the morning cold. Their hairy bodies are dripping
with sugar water from an earlier feeding, and the resourceful queen
licks them for a morning snack. Newly energized, our queen searches
for a safe nesting area. This tree hollow, safe from rain, wind,
and predators, is ideal. She chews the surrounding wood
and plant fibers to make a paper-like pulp. Then she builds around 50 brood cells
that comprise the beginning of her nest. Using sperm stored from last fall, the queen lays a fertilized egg
into each cell, producing as many as 12 in 20 minutes. Within a week,
these will hatch into female larva. But until then, the queen must hunt down
smaller insects to feed her brood, all while expanding the hive, laying eggs,
and defending against intruders. Fortunately, our queen is well prepared. Unlike bees, wasps can sting as many times
as they need to. With such a busy schedule,
the queen barely has time to feed herself. Luckily, she doesn’t have to. When she feeds an insect to her grubs, they digest the bug into a sugary
substance that sustains their mother. By the end of July, these first larva
have matured into adult workers, ready to take on foraging,
building, and defense. The queen can now lay eggs full-time, sustaining herself on her worker’s spoils
and their unfertilized eggs. Although each worker only lives
for roughly 3 weeks, the queen’s continuous egg-laying
swells their ranks. In just one summer,
the nest reaches the size of a basketball, supporting thousands of workers. Such a large population needs to eat, and the nearby garden
provides a veritable buffet. As the swarm descends,
alarmed humans try to swat them. They even fight back with pesticides
that purposefully poison wasps, and inadvertently impact
a wide-range of local wildlife. But the wasps are actually vital
to this ecosystem. Sitting at the top
of the local invertebrate food chain, these insects keep spiders, mites,
and centipedes, in check. Wasps consume crop-eating insects, making them particularly helpful
for farms and gardens. They even pollinate fruits and vegetables, and help winemakers
by biting into their grapes and jump-starting fermentation. This feast continues until autumn,
when the foundress changes course. She begins grooming some eggs
into a new generation of queens, while also laying unfertilized eggs that will mature into reproductive males
called drones. This new crop of queens and males
requires more food. But with summer over,
the usual sources run dry, and the foraging wasps
start taking more aggressive risks. By September,
the hive’s organization deteriorates. Hungry workers no longer clean the nest
and various scavengers move in. Just when it seems
the hive can no longer sustain itself, the fertile queens and their drones
depart in a massive swarm. As the days grow colder,
the workers starve, and our queen
reaches the end of her lifespan. But above, a swarm of reproductive wasps
has successfully mated. The males die off shortly after, but the newly fertilized queens are ready
to find shelter for their long sleep. And this woodpile looks like
the perfect place to spend the winter.

Parasitic Wasps – AskMDC


Today I’m going to talk about something
a bit gruesome, but interesting, nonetheless! The topic is Parasitic Wasps. See those little white things? They are the cocoons of tiny parasitic wasps
that have already devoured the caterpillar’s internal organs. Here’s what happened: A female wasp injected
eggs into the caterpillar some time back. The eggs hatched inside the caterpillar as
little grub-like larvae and then ate their fill of innards. Once they were ready to pupate, they exited
the caterpillar by chewing little holes through the body wall. Then they spun little silken cocoons on the
caterpillar’s back. After about 4 days, they will chew a neat
little cap in the cocoon and emerge as adult wasps. Many parasitoid wasps are considered beneficial
to humans because they naturally control agricultural pests. If you are a gardener and see one of these
caterpillars in your tomato patch, the best thing you can do is to leave it alone and
let nature take its course.