COMIKAZE 2014: Insect Show and Tell with Nature Expressions

COMIKAZE 2014: Insect Show and Tell with Nature Expressions


It’s Jess with Everyday Science and I’m here at Stan Lee’s 2014 Comikaze Expo – check it out! It’s Molly Faulkner, I’m with Nature
Expressions these are my insects and arachnids – its
my artwork. I specialize in insects and
butterflies and arachnids for either television shows or students for school. a majority of my work is for
school – all the cases that I have are all openable so the kids can take them to
school and – let me give you an example here – so all the cases – the majority of kids actually have a show-and-tell you know no matter what age it’s
really nice so it’s easy it doesn’t have any
scent I spread em nice and big that they know
this is a rhinoceros beetle from Thailand it’s five horns – Jess: and where do you find them?
Molly: this one actually is from Thailand but when they are with them when they come to me
they are already dead and all scrunched together yes so you have different processes of opening these up, so, this for example it’s
easy you can just use a alcoholic and yeah have been relaxed and
then you spread em pin them all out when you have it about
maybe two weeks and it’ll dry – if it does not dry correctly and you put it in here gonna be all eaten by insects itself so we’ll have a lot of ants around–
Jess: It’s an insect eat insect world. exactly – hey Some of these things here – a majority of them are from Asia so we have I am for example I’ve got little sea life – these a little brittle stars you know from the Philippines Island so
these are all in muddy waters so you know that’s something that we can learn from but the majority of
these are actually being used for either scientific study or museums or you know a lot of these goes to schools. Jess: Very neat – and what got you into this? What kind of drove you to say: “I think I’m going to preserve insects now?” Well you know it it took a long
time – this is my – it’s been over 10 years. I started out when I went to school for biology and I wanted to be a veterinarian and obviously you learn
different things and one after another you end up having all these I’m hoping you know people or
young kids coming over saying “wow that’s really
nice”, and hopefully one day they’ll be a biologist! I’ve met a lot of people that are
now studying to be either a marine biologist or you know zoology Jess: Inspiring children and adults… Molly: Yeah, anything… Jess: Well thank you so much I appreciate you talking to us. Molly: You’re welcome. Thanks for coming.

Massive Scarab Beetles For Feeding to Ants

Massive Scarab Beetles For Feeding to Ants


Now speaking of incredible workings happening
underground, there’s a new plot of soil in the Antiverse which houses a few creatures
that I am positive you guys will truly marvel at, creatures that I have yet to feature on
this channel, and I can’t wait to show our new incubating creatures. Please subscribe to my channel and hit the
bell icon. Welcome to the AC Family! Enjoy! AC Family, the utter beasts that lay hidden
within this container were unlike anything I have ever seen before in my life, gargatuans
creatures that I am certain will leave you in awe… either that, or make you grimmace
in disgust! Either way, I can’t wait to show you these
true natural wonders of the animal kingdom, so keep on watching until the end, as we uncover
the secret lives of these major players of the world’s forests. Khepri, Khepri, Ra, Ra, Ra
Soon to be this depicted god. In the soil, they wait and grow,
to become the creatures we all know, Make up more than a quarter,
of all we’ve discovered, In next week’s video,
they shall be uncovered. This was the riddle I left for you guys in
last week’s hidden video for anyone who wanted to take a stab at what our mystery creatures
were, featured in this week’s video, and turns out… Many of you hit the nail on the head, as I
knew AC Family would! Beetles as a group of insects, form the order
Coleoptera with about 400,000 species, making it the largest of all taxonomic orders, making
up a whopping 25% of all known animal life-forms we’ve ever discovered! Can you believe that of all the animals we’ve
ever documented, a quarter of them are beetles? If aliens were to study and survey the animals
of the planet Earth, it wouldn’t be surprising to me if they named Earth “Planet of the Beetles”. So, I’m pleased to announce that the newest
inhabitants of the Antiverse are beetles, but not just any beetles. They happen to be my favourite beetles in
the whole world: Scarab beetles! Scarab beetles, belonging to the family Scarabaeidae,
consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide. Khepri, is an Egyptian god of creation with
the head of a scarab beetle. Chances are you’ve seen a scarab beetle at
least once in your life. Some of the well-known scarab beetles are
Japanese beetles, dung beetles, June beetles, rose chafers, Hercules beetles, and Goliath
beetles. But today, AC Family, the scarab beetles I’ll
be introducing to you are nothing less than epic! But first, the reason they’ve come to the
Antiverse! I opened my superworm farm last week and discovered
that it was empty. All that was left was an adult superworm,
a.k.a. a darkling beetle, but looking at the darkling beetle crawling across my hand, something
came to me. You see I had been thinking of what I could
possibly feed my ants for Canadian Thanksgiving which recently passed last weekend. I wanted to give them something other than
the ordinary superworms they were used to eating, something fatter and much more meatier. So I called up some beetle friends of mine,
and low and behold, so arrived this ominous container, which was allegedly full of fattened,
scarab beetle larvae collected from native forest soils, a beetle known to locals as
“salagubang”, the species: Xylotrupes gideon philippinensis, the Siamese Rhinoceros beetle! These beetles can allegedly reach a whopping
length of 3.5–7 centimetres, which is massive. They are sexually dimorphic. The females are smaller, while males are larger
and have big rhino-like horns which can vary in size and shape, used to battle each other
for females and territory. I bet, the larvae of these Rhinoceros beetles
were just fat and juicy, the perfect Thanksgiving treats for my ants. Ahhh! I was so excited and nervous all at once to
peek inside! Upon arrival I immediately opened the container,
and saw the container was filled to the brim with digging medium. But, no… patience… I wasn’t going to harvest the beetle grubs
just yet. I promised myself to wait for Thanksgiving
Day before offering my ants, the fattened feasts they deserved. It was the morning of Canadian Thanksgiving,
and though I live in a completely different country on the opposite side of the planet,
I still celebrate Thanksgiving, and was eager to finally give my ants of the Antiverse their
fat, juicy turkeys, a.k.a. the scarab beetle grubs! But AC Family, I wasn’t ready to see what
I was about to see upon opening their container. Look! Mushrooms had sprouted in just two days since
the container’s arrival. And guys, it turns out those little black
pellets are the beetle grubs’ frass. Their droppings, which are super nutrient
rich for plants and I suppose mushrooms… hey! Did you guys see that movement? There must be a beetle grub now! I took my tweezers and tried to sift through
the soil for a beetle grub. Nothing. Alright, seriously though it’s time to dig
out these scarab beetle grubs! AC Family, let’s do this! I put on some gloves because I was told these
beetle grubs can bite with their powerful mandibles and it can hurt! I carefully sifted through the surface. I would be lying if I said I wasn’t a bit
scared scraping through the soil like this! Suddenly, I hit something! A grub? No, a piece of wood. False alarm! Now, while digging, I decided to also collect
and store some of this frass-filled soil, because I could use it in the future as a
growing medium for terrariums and plants. In fact, you can buy insect frass in bags
for gardening. As mentioned, insect frass is jam-packed with
nutrients for plants. Comes to show you these beetles are super
essential in the forests they are part of as they recycle dead plants to nourish the
living plants. I continued to dig. I wasn’t sure how big these beetle grubs were
nor how many there were, but the whole time my heart was racing! Aside from the fear of being bitten, I’m also
mildly vermiphobic, and the sight of worms or anything worm-like, mini-snakes and legless
lizards excluded, make me shudder, and TBH, based on what I imagined these rhino beetle
larvae looked like, I knew I was going to initially be repulsed at first sight. But before I knew it, something shiny and
white caught my eye. We found one! OMG! Look at it! My jaw dropped to the floor. It was huge, fat, and curled up into a ball. Wow! Look at its body shape, and check out that
red head and massive mandibles. Indeed, it was unlike anything I’ve ever seen
before. I checked the back and underside of the beast. My ants were going to enjoy this giant morsel! It was time to prepare the ant turkey. I washed the grub clean with water, and it
flinched at every squirt, I held the creature in my hand. For such a big and scary beast, it sure didn’t
put up much of a fight. Alright, the grub was now ready for the execution
block. The first ant colony I planned on feeding
was my largest and hungriest of all, the Fire Nation. I knew this beetle grub would be enough to
feed my ravenous colony of fire ants for at least two days. I estimated that this fat larva had the equivalent
of at least two or three cockroaches. And as I do with all prey insects, I was to
put the creature out of its misery before feeding it to the ants. I took the execution scissors, still caked
with the dried blood and guts of previously killed prey insects. My plan was to split it in half so the ants
could easily get into the grub’s insides. Here we go… 1… 2… 3… Sorry, guys. 3! No…. I stood there motionless for a moment. My hand was frozen and defiant, unwilling
to close down. I watched the helpless beetle grub, curled
up in fetal position, awaiting its fate at the blades of my scissors. Ahhhh my heart… I couldn’t… I could not follow through with the execution. I withdrew my scissors and picked up beetle
grub with a heavy heart. I placed it back into the container. What was I going to do? It suddenly was no longer a vile beast to
my eyes, but in a strange way had become… well, cute! AC Family, how about you guys? Doesn’t it suddenly look real endearing to
you. The shift of perception was completely unexpected,
and with this new context, my plans had suddenly changed completely. They were to join our Antiverse as inhabitants. Behold, a simple container I bought from a
department store. It was to become the sacred home and growing
chamber of our rhinoceros beetles. Apparently, these grubs need at least 10 cm
x 10 cm x 10 cm of space, and it is allegedly better to keep the beetles singly because
they may fight and lethally puncture each other with their sharp mandibles. This container was perfect. I also modified the cover to create a much
more open top and airy sides. Next, I had to add the beetle larva’s food. Xylotrupes gideon philippinensis, happen to
be notorious pests in coconut farms in the Philippines where I live, as they prey on
the wood and roots of coconut trees, living or decaying, and it just so happens that my
neighbourhood is abundant in coconut trees. So, I took a walk down the street, found a
pile of decaying coconut wood, and harvested this favoured rhino beetle larva food. I couldn’t wait to put our growing chamber
together, AC Family! I placed some decaying coconout wood at the
bottom of the chamber. It was amazing to think that these rhino beetle
larvae actually eat and grow into gigantic beetles, subsisting entirely on decaying wood. This blew my mind! It also meant that the larvae had within their
gut, the necessary microbiota to allow them to properly digest and acquire nutrition from
the cellulose in the wood, much like termites do! Many animals cannot digest this stuff! But these beetle larvae can. After this initial layer of decaying wood
was set in place, next I was going to add their main growing medium. This brick of coco peat, also purchased at
a department store, can be found in most home and gardening stores. It’s really cool, because all you need to
do is soak the brick in water and it instantly expands and becomes great growing medium for
epiphytic plants, and well in our case, rhinoceros beetles! I packed this coco peat into the growing chamber. The beetle larva may also very well, find
this coco peat to be a tasty food, as well. I then added another layer of decaying coconut
wood, then pack it off with another layer of coco peat. And volia our new rhino beetle larva growing
chamber – a dedicated, double food layered catacomb in which the beetle larva can grow
and develop into adulthood in peace. What do you guys think of it? I placed the modified cover back on and proceeded
to do the exact same thing, to prepare 10 other growing chambers. I returned to the container and set the growing
chamber on the ground, removed the cover, and carefully went to pick up the larva we
had found, and place it inside its new home. The larva lay motionless. I admired the neat auburn hairs that covered
the larva’s entire body, as well as those reddish spots running down the body, and that
rear end though, looking crazy extra-terrestrial to me! But it wasn’t long before our rhino beetle
baby began to move, and began to move the soil using its head, mandibles, and front
legs. But watching it burrow now, my initial thoughts
were that it didn’t seem like such an effective burrower. I mean, honestly at this pace, it seemed like
it would take at least a good half hour to get soil-deep! It even strangely began to burrow horizontally. What an ineffective burrower! Have a look! But AC Family, I was wrong! For when it finally found its preferred place
to really start digging, it quite effectively started using its legs, head, and powerful
body muscles to start excavating a nice tunnel downwards. Those hairs seemed pretty good at keeping
soil moved upwards in place, as it continued to dig deeper and deeper. In 5 minutes flat, the grub was completely
concealed deep within the soil. I had to move some soil aside to see it! AC Family, isn’t that incredible? What amazing subterrarean creatures, right? I proceeded to cover it up, placed the cover
back on, and continued to dig out the remaining beetle larvae! I carefully sifted through the soils, I didn’t
want to injure the delicate grubs during excavation. I felt as though their bodies could pop with
a single puncture. Wait! Yes, we found a second grub! I dug some more… a third grub! Alright! This was actually fun! It was like we were digging for gold! I hit something solid and pulled it out. It was a large piece of decaying wood. This was what the larvae were eating in here,
I guessed. I found a fourth grub and a fifth. Woah this one was huge! Could be a male, perhaps! I placed each grub in its own growing chamber,
and boy was it ever satisfying to set each grub in its own, special home we made for
them. Have a look! I felt like we were bees, placing our larvae
into cells in which they were to grow for their whole larval lives, until they emerge
as adults! Each one of these growing chambers had all
they needed to develop into adult rhinoceros beetles. All I needed to do was water them periodically. And look! One grub already blessed its chamber with
a frass pellet. How cute! I made sure to enjoy looking at the grubs
now that they were visible, because I knew that once they were below the surface feeding
on our decaying coconut wood, they would be completely concealed in the soil away from
view. Alright, it was time to keep digging! I wonder how many more were left. I dug, and I dug, and I dug, and managed to
pull out four more huge beetle grubs. Just look at those cute babies. Now I also realized that I should space them
out a bit when setting them down so they don’t bite each other. I placed them each into their own growing
cell. It kinda felt like I was planting a tree or
something. Haha! When I had found the final beetle grub, I
held the huge creature in my hand for a bit. I just couldn’t believe Nature had fashioned
such a spectacular and beautiful creature. I wanted to take a final and good look at
the larva before setting it into its growing chamber. I loved watching it move around. When I was ready, I picked it up. AC Family, I feel we made the right choice
by saving these beetle babies from becoming ant food. Alright, our baby is squirming now and just
wants to be buried. I placed it into its growing chamber and watched
it burrow into the soil. The process took 8 minutes. Eat well, our beloved beetle larva. I can’t wait to see what you look like when
you emerge. When all was settled, the growing chambers
were arranged neatly behind the Plateaus of Gaia. A total of 13 beetle larvae were collected,
so I had to create two more extra chambers. All the larvae had long burrowed deep into
their growing chambers and were nestled deep in darkness, where they would remain for the
next couple of months, feeding on the decaying coconut wood we had prepared for them. So it turns out the larvae are expected to
pupate and emerge as adult rhino beetles by Christmas! Oh man, won’t that be quite the Christmas
gift in the Antiverse?! I have decided to call these incubating beetle
catacombs, the Chambers of Sudan, as a tribute to Sudan, the last male northern white rhinoceros,
who died earlier this year on March the 20th. Though I realize, keeping carnivorous wild
animals like ants, as pets, often requires the killing of living prey animals like beetle
larvae and roaches, but having said that, I am happy we chose life for these beetle
grubs. For Thanksgiving, I just gave my ants some
extra roaches. So, what should we call these new beetles? Leave your name suggestions in the comments
and I will choose my top 5 favourites for us to vote on in a future video. The Chambers of Sudan are placed right next
to my closet, so I will make sure to check on our beetles every day, for on a random
day in December, we, the AC Family, shall be ready and waiting in celebration, for the
arrival of the great rhinoceros beetles into the Antiverse, and boy, do I have some epic
plans when they do! Yes, AC Family! Did you enjoy this week’s episode? I seriously can’t wait for the adults to emerge,
can you? Imagine seeing huge rhino beetles emerging
from the soil. So you know the drill! Hit that Subscribe button and bell icon now,
so you don’t miss out on their grand emergeance, and hit the Like button every single time,
including now. And hey, if you’re new to the channel, and
want to catch up on all your AntsCanada Lore, feel free to binge watch this complete story
line playlist here, which traces the origins of all the ant colonies of the ant room, so
you can follow their stories and better appreciate how these ant kingdoms came to be, and why
we love them so much! AC Inner Colony, I have left a hidden cookie
for you here, if you would like to watch extended play footage of the beetle larvae! They are incredible creatures to look at,
despite their scary demeanor! And before we proceed to the AC Question of
the Week, I’d like to plug my daily vlogging channel, daily vlogs which have become a full
out bird dad channel, as I am now raising a baby African Grey parrot! If you love birds, I’d love for you to meet
my new cute little bird! She’s quite the character, loves to cuddle,
is quite chatty, and is fun to watch grow up! Hope you can subscribe when you’re there. And now it’s time for the AC Question of the
Week! Last week we asked: What made it easier for
the ants in this video to dig more tunnels? Congratulations to Arnav Singh who correctly
answered: The moisture from the watering made
it easier for the ants in this video to dig more tunnels. Congratulations, Arnav, you just won a free
e-book handbook from our shop! In this week’s AC Question of the Week, we
ask: Why did we have to separate each beetle larva? Leave your answer in the comments section
and you could also win a free e-book handbook from our shop! Hope you can subscribe to the channel as we
upload every Saturday at 8AM EST. Please remember to LIKE, COMMENT, SHARE, and
SUBSCRIBE if you enjoyed this video to help us keep making more. It’s ant love forever!

For These Tiny Spiders, It’s Sing or Get Served | Deep Look


Behold a very small and rather cute spider. This is clypeatus. A jumping spider. He doesn’t spin webs. Instead he uses silk as a lifeline, reeling
it out as he hops from place to place. But right now, he’s looking for a mate. The thread of a female spider that he can
trace back to its source. Problem is, she may have other priorities. While he’ll jump on pretty much anything
that moves…She only mates once. She’s picky. So he’s going to make his case… on the
dancefloor. Male jumping spiders perform courtship displays
that would make Bob Fosse proud. Jazz hands, leg-lifts…they even shimmy their
pedipalps. But he needs a soundtrack. So, by beating together the front and back
halves of his body, he creates vibrations that travel through the ground. This is what her ears look like. Tiny membranes stretched across slits in her
legs. To study these jumping spider pulses, researchers
at the University of California Berkeley use a sophisticated laser vibrometer developed
for quality-testing cars and airplanes. It turns those vibrations into something we
can hear. And guess what? It’s a song. The first verse sounds like this. A fast heartbeat. Thump thump thump thump thump thump thump. Then, more thumping. Followed by something new. A “BOOM.” This is verse two. That pattern, over and over again. For verse three he adds a third element. Almost like he’s casting a spell, right? From species to species, and there are thousands
of different jumping spiders, the songs vary. But one thing never changes: Male jumping
spiders sing like their lives depend on it. Because they do. She may mate with him. She might refuse. But she might just eat him instead. When the Berkeley scientists prevented the
males from singing while they danced, the females were three times as likely to hunt
them as prey. So he needs to go big. The closer he gets to her, the more danger
he’s in. The dance and the song get more and more urgent. But even with all that… She’s still calling the shots. Hi, it’s Amy. If female spiders are picky, with males, the
bar is so, so low. He’ll do this courting song and dance with
pretty much anything. In the lab, scientists use frozen specimens
this one. A dead female spider! And he still tries to mate with her. While you’re here, subscribe to Deep Look,
and thanks for watching.

Chicago Adventure, Part Eight: How to be an Insect

Chicago Adventure, Part Eight: How to be an Insect


The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected natural history museums in the world. Join me as we go behind the scenes! Dun dun dun! These are huge. They’re bigger than birds. They’re katydids from Papua New Guinea. It’s like a grasshopper in the order Orthoptera. In this order there are katydids, grasshoppers, and crickets. And katydids…
– So what abou- what’s a locust, then? Are they… A locust is a grasshopper, it’s-
– Okay. It’s a large grasshopper.
– I’m just trying to like put ’em all in the same thing. It’s a common name.
– So these are- Alright, yeah, yeah. Most people call cidadas locusts too, but they’re not.
– Okay, alright. It’s just the- the grasshoppers that are locusts.
– Mmkay. So, these are probably the largest katydids you’re gonna find. I mean, they’re gigantic! Yeah, ours are probably this big. The katydids in- in North America?
– Okay? Yeah, so this is over twice as long.
– Wow. With a huge wing. And they have a shield that looks like a leaf. So the whole thing is to mimic a leaf. I-d- it definitely looks like a giant leaf. Well, we have the mantids that- so these are clear mantids
– What? that look like leaves. And when an insect is going to copy a leaf, it’s usually a green leaf so it looks live, But…
– Exceptions to the rule. Yes.
– Whaaa- gluuuh- This is the top side, right?
– Yeah. And then when they’re at rest, they fold their wings and they look like a dead leaf. Now these guys took it to a whole new level. Not only do they have the vein of the leaf and the little minor veins, they have rust spots and diseases like a dead life.
– Wow. So they- they copied their host plant.
– How- How do you find these in the wild? Like, ho- what do you- how do you even know where to look for them? You wait till they fly.
-You- Really? Yeah, ’cause you’re not gonna notice that if it’s on a twig.
– No way. I would never, I mean you had to- I looked at these in here and I was like, well, you put some leaves in here for comparison, but obviously not. So this is the underside. Woaaahh!
– Isn’t that amazing? And lookit! Even the tails look like a stem.
– Yeah! Looking like a leaf is a good camouflage,
– Mmhmm. Bu- looking like sticks too.
– *Gasps* So this is the largest, this is the longest insect on the planet.
– This is huge! The giant walking stick. This one I think is from Malaysia. That is- huge!
– And we joke around a little bit here… In-s- yeah, it says “more than seven feet.” I’m like, even I think that’s a little implausible. A lot of people don’t catch that, they’re like “what?”
– Really? Th-These things can be bigger than seven feet?! You can- you have the credentials being in a museum, you could say anything and people would believe you.
– Yes, exactly. And, are these insects too? I can’t even see what’s in here. They look like tiny, tiny dots.
– Yeah, those are probably some of the smallest beetles you’re gonna find. They’re beetles?
– They’re called feather-winged beetles because their wing- This is their wing. It looks like a feather. We have a huge collection of these that Hank Dybas, he was one of our curators here, Mmhmm.
– um , he collected. How do you collect these? We use traps.
– Oh. And we get a lot- we get a bunch of everything.
– Mmhmm. And then we sort out what we call the target taxa, things that we want to study. That’s a death’s head moth over there! Sorry, I just saw that, too. Yeah, the Silence of the Lamb moth. It has a skull on the back of it. So why does it have a skull, like, impression? No, the actual thing that it’s supposed to be looking like
– Mmhmm. is a giant bumblebee.
– Ohhhhh. Because they go into the hives and they’re able to either give off a smell or make a sound that, um, the other bees are like, “Oh, okay, you’re- you’re a friend. Doo doo doo doo.”
– Okay. And then it starts eating the honey and it’s takes it out.
– Wow. The way to collect moths is you hang a sheet and you put a light behind it,
– Yeahh. And the moths come to the sheet. And they run into it and you photograph it. These guys, certain parts of the year, they like cover your sheets, like “go away, I want other stuff!” Ohh, they’re so cool.
– And they- they run into the sheet and they knock the little stuff off. Bullies. These are the tarantula hawks. So, some people are afraid of tarantulas, but they should really be afraid of Tarantula hawks. Yeah.
– the tarantula hawks. See the stinger? So that’s where the venom comes through.
*gasps*But he- but it doesn’t kill them right away. It paralyzes them, and they stay alive? Yeah, and then they’ll l- lay an egg inside.
– What!? And then the egg hatches, and then the larvae start eating the spider inside out. Kinda weird and gross and awesome. I mean I wouldn’t have my children that way,
– Well that’s one thing… but you know. To each his own.
– Insects are found everywhere, and they’re found in other insects too. We have a huge ectoparasite collection, so. Okay, ectoparasite meaning what for- If Bill collected a mammal, he can comb the fur and he’ll find fleas, and lice, and mites.
– Oh yeah! There’s a fly that lives on bats, called a- a bat fly. And many of them are wingless and they move like little crabs through the fur of the bats.
– Weird. And we collect them because, uh, Jim and his colleagues can identify them, and you can actually find how two different species of bats are related to each other based on the relationship of their ectoparasites. Weird!
– So as the ectoparasites evolve, and the relationships among different ectoparasites, reflects the relationship among the different hosts. So it’s a- it’s a- very, very
– It’s like networking, like social networking. Totally like networking.
– It’s like Facebook. Yeah.
– For parasites. Exactly.
– That’s great.

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل


Spilostethus pandurus
Lygaeidae – Spilostethus pandurus Scientific classification
Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Arthropoda
Class : Insecta Order : Hemiptera
Suborder : Heteroptera Infraorder : Pentatomomorpha
Superfamily : Lygaeoidea Family : Lygaeidae
Subfamily : Lygaeinae Genus : Spilostethus
Species : S. pandurus Binomial name
Spilostethus pandurus Pine processionary larvae marching
in characteristic fashion Scientific classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Lepidoptera Family: Thaumetopoeidae Genus: Thaumetopoea Species: T. pityocampa Binomial name
Thaumetopoea pityocampa Directed by ELBAR MOHAMED ELAMIN

4K CC. Grasshoppers, Catching Insects In The USA, AZ UT CA NV NM Herping HD

4K CC. Grasshoppers, Catching Insects In The USA, AZ UT CA NV NM Herping HD


That’s a big…woah woah Big Grasshopper O where’d he go? He fell down Don’t worry I shall rescue you with my love Come here Mr Grasshopper No no no don’t go that way I love you and I wan’t to touch you Wow he’s a big one He seems to be a little clumsy tho He’s like backin away Woah woah woah Keep an eye on him boy’s Keep an eye on him Where’s he goin? Ok there he is there he is Keep an eye on him Come lets see Kid: He looks like a leaf Guy: Woah look at all these critters flying we are getting just raided Kid: Yeah we are Girl: There Moths Kid: Aahhh Guy: That is a big critter Kid 2: He’s Godzilla Guy: Uh he’s on the camera ( Flashlight in mouth) Kid: He’s on the camera Kid: Spikey oouch I want this guy Don’t…don’t think about it Bad Grasshoper! No noo bad Grasshopper Guy: Let your brother catch him Kid: He got him Guy: Phahaha Guy: Or let him jump on you Kid 2: Oh ow ow he is one Gahaha Kid: He bites He’s attacking him Kid: Keep your hands around him Guy: Is he hurt? Kid 2: Oh umm Kid: Uh Kid: 2 uh oh Guy: Open up your hand let’s get a look at him Let let your brother have him Kid: I’m the one who’s Kid 2: aahhh Kid: Oh ahhh Does he bite? Kid 2: He a no Guy: He claws Kid: Oh now he’s bitting he’s angry Guy: He’s trying to get out Kid 2: Woah he’s strong Kid: He Hurts? How strong is he? Ok we caught him He’s upside down Guy: Hand him to your brother Hand him to your brother Kid: You better not bite oh get back here Kid: Now dad gots him Guy: Ok now he’s got me Kid 2: He loves you Kid: K awesome Big fat Grasshopper Kid 2: Cricket kisses Guy: Ok Kid: What did you catch? Kid 2: Cactus ( In Pain) Kid: owwaaa Guy: hahahehe lol Kid: You sat in a cactus Everyone: Hahaheehee lol Guy: Oh My Girl: He sat in a Cactus? Guy: Oh my Kid: It’s right there! Guy: alright Let me…Ok Kid 2: I’m ok Guy: Oh Ok I got to turn off the camera Err ya know what What ever we’ll leave it on I can’t believe you sat in that Let me see your but Kid 2: Feels good Guy: I don’t know I don’t know I have never seen him before Yeah he bit matthew No don’t put your thumb up buddy You got to get him to crawl across Woah man what kind of species is this Hey quit biting me ( Bugs on my leg) I’m getting here gettin this Grasshopper and then some little tiny bug flies on me and starts nibbling me Wow He’s got some crazy colors Now there’s this one over here Get in the car k buddy K cause there is a really big bull right there who is just starting at us ok and If he really wants he can jump that fence You see that right? Wow We’ll go in 1 seconds just keep an eye on him Wow That almost looks like a toy It doesn’t even look like it’s real If I saw one of those things I would think Yeah that it wasn’t even real if I wasn’t out here looking at it my self I just…. woow Ok Go back to making more Grasshoppers Kinda crazy Catching a lot of Grasshoppers today These things are just exotic colors I didn’t even know we had Grasshoppers like this Alright Good job boys!!! Kid: Lets release them

Are Insects Really Going Extinct? – De-Natured

Are Insects Really Going Extinct? – De-Natured


On Nature League, we spend the third week
of each month exploring a current trending article from the peer-reviewed literature. Scientific information isn’t just for scientists.
It’s for everyone! It just requires a bit of a break down. [CHEERY INTRO MUSIC] For this month’s De-Natured segment, we’re
going to look at an article released online in January 2019 in the journal Biological
Conservation. This month is all about extinction, and in
this month’s Lesson Plan we discussed some traits that are connected to a higher likelihood
of extinction. We mentioned how species with larger body sizes and ranges are typically
more likely to go extinct from currently existing threats and pressures. But what about smaller organisms? What about
the world’s insects? Are they actually going extinct? In this paper entitled, “Worldwide decline
of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers”, the researchers investigated current trends
and types of extinction threats to entomofauna (or insects) worldwide, and their results
have stirred up some serious alarm. But first, let’s discuss what’s already
known. It’s estimated that about ⅕ of all vertebrates
on Earth are threatened with extinction. These estimates come from decades of research on
vertebrate species around the world. However, scientists have only recently started noting
concerns about extinction risks to invertebrates, including insects. The main drivers of biodiversity loss at present
are habitat loss and overexploitation; however, there is also evidence that the intensification
of agriculture is the main driver of declines in smaller groups of taxa like birds, insect-eating
mammals, and insects. And it’s not just the conversion of some
habitat into agricultural lands- it’s also the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
that’s driving some of the declines. In fact, two studies in 2013 pointed to pesticides
as the primary driver of population declines of grasslands birds and stream organisms. However, we don’t know whether these factors
are /also/ connected to the global decline of insects being witnessed at present. Unfortunately, more and more research is providing
evidence for a major and ongoing decline in insects worldwide. What’s additionally troubling
is that even though insects make up close to ⅔ of all land-dwelling species on Earth,
most of the recent studies on insect declines weren’t able to explain the majority of
the declines. In this study, the team summarized all available
research on insect declines worldwide and identified likely causes of these declines.
They searched databases of peer-reviewed literature for any long-term insect surveys published
within the last 40 years. They came up with 653 total publications,
but filtered this list by removing studies that focused on individual species, outbreaks
of pest species, and species considered invasive. Additional filtering related to study design
and data types was implemented, resulting in a final total of 73 papers. The team used these papers to estimate the
annual rate of decline for different groups of insects and regions of the world. Then,
they counted and analyzed the reported drivers of these declines. So what did they find? In this paper, the authors report their findings
by taxa, or species groups, and by region. These details are available in the full article,
but for the purposes of this episode we’re going to focus on overall trends and threats. Overall, the largest losses of insect biodiversity
on land are in dung beetles in Mediterranean countries. Of these species, more than 60%
are in decline, and a large proportion are considered threatened with extinction. Almost
half of moth and butterfly species are declining more quickly than expected, and in bees, 1
in 6 species have gone regionally extinct. Overall, aquatic insects fared even worse
than those on land. The research team also wanted to investigate
what the drivers of these declines were as stated in the papers they considered. Close
to half of the studies included in their meta-analysis indicated that habitat loss and change were
the main driver of insect declines, and the authors stress that a lot of this is due to
agriculture. In fact, a quarter of their studies indicated that agriculture-related practices
were the /main driver/ of insect declines, both on land and in aquatic systems. The second main driver of reported insect
declines was pollution, specifically in the form of fertilizers, synthetic pesticides,
sewage and landfill components, and industrial chemicals from factories and mining operations.
Other drivers included biological factors like parasites and pathogens, and climate
change, which impacts abundance and distribution of many insect species. In conclusion, by compiling the results of
published, peer-reviewed articles, the authors estimate that the proportion of insect species
in decline is 41%, and the pace of local extinctions is 10%. In the countries studied, the researchers
estimate that about ⅓ of all insect species are threatened with extinction. This article is making major waves on social
media and in the mainstream news media, which is rare for a journal article. Here’s why I think
this peer-reviewed piece is making the rounds: First off, we’re sort of late to the insect
game research-wise despite them making up such a massive amount of life on Earth. So,
any time a review article is published that catches us up on such a big piece of biodiversity,
scientists and the public alike get excited. So, that’s the positive spin here…but
you can probably guess what’s coming next. The main reason I think this study went viral
is because the news is… bad. Like… really bad. To put it in perspective, the 41% of insects
declining is double the proportion of decline in vertebrate species. And the local extinction
rate of insects this study estimates is 8 times the local extinction rate of vertebrates. So perhaps a better question is, “What’s
the big deal about losing insects?” Most scientists will cite quite a few reasons,
and most of these have to do with the services that insects provide for us and other species.
These include pollination, food, nutrient cycling, and decomposition, among many others. What’s more, the authors mention that because
the declines in insects were documented in the majority of species across different groups
of taxa, it is, in the authors’ words, “evident that we are witnessing the largest extinction
event on Earth since the late Permian and Cretaceous periods”. Cool. As with any piece of new research, there are
several areas of improvement that exist in this study. This study was a meta-analysis- that means
the researchers compiled and analyzed /other/ research. So, this study is subject to all
of the uncertainties of the /73 papers/ included in their analysis. My issue is not with meta-analyses, but rather
with data uncertainty. There’s simply not enough information provided in the paper as
presented to analyze the sources or extent of uncertainty in combining this many different
measurements from so many different papers. Another issue I have with this meta-analysis
is the inherent geographic bias in data availability. Long-term scientific surveys typically get
funded and take place in developed countries, usually in the northern hemisphere. However,
the authors directly acknowledge this, and suggest that their review doesn’t, in their
words, “adequately cover trends in tropical regions, where information on insect biodiversity
is either incomplete or lacking”. And now for some real talk. One of my critiques
here is more of a word of caution, particularly when discussing the results. There is a /big
difference/ between declining populations and extinct populations. Just because a population
or species is declining /does not mean/ it is, or will go, extinct. We have to be really careful to distinguish
these two processes. The authors of this paper do a good job of making this distinction,
but some reporting outlets have definitely confused the two. So let’s be clear- this
study used other studies to estimate that 41% of insect species are currently in decline.
But, these species are still here, and still living, mutating, adapting, and evolving to
the threats they’re facing. While extinctions have and will continue to happen, life on Earth
has proven itself to be a formidable contender. My last critique comes from ongoing research
in both ecology and environmental philosophy, and it has to do with phrases and wording
about ecosystems being pushed “beyond the brink” and “collapsing”. For example, in the conclusion section of
the paper, the authors state that in terms of these current insect declines, “the repercussions
this will have for the planet’s ecosystem are catastrophic to say the least, as insects
are at the structural and functional base of many of the world’s ecosystems”. Okay, so these are strong words, and the news
outlets reporting on this study are using the same kind of “collapse” and “catastrophe”
language. Don’t get me wrong- if this report is accurate,
I’m not happy about the results. I personally value having more species on Earth than less. But that value comes from a place of intrinsic
worth, and not some balance-of-nature, ecosystem-stability angle.
The thing is, we don’t really know what happens to ecosystems without insects. Perhaps
this would result in other species going extinct… or perhaps other species would fill these functional
roles and a different form of biodiversity would exist. There isn’t some perfectly “balanced ecosystem” —
this is completely relative to a pre-established idea of what “balanced” looks like. So
my biggest critique here is a personal one- I wish we could discuss how much it sucks
to lose species because of their own intrinsic worth instead of some human-conceived notion
of the “balance of nature”. My personal take home message? Insects are
incredible in their own right, and our actions are negatively impacting them in ways that
could lead to some extinctions. Thanks for watching this episode of De-Natured
here on Nature League. We’ll be shooting a question and answer episode soon, and we’d
love to hear from you. If you have a question related to life on
Earth, leave it in the comments below or tweet me @Nature_League and your question could
be featured in the next Q and A video. And, to keep going on life on Earth adventures
with us each week, make sure to subscribe at
youtube.com/nature league and share.

Fire Ants vs. Giant Spiders

Fire Ants vs. Giant Spiders


I noticed the next morning, the fire ants
had been busy cutting out their own path of resistance. The fluon barriers I had placed to ensure
the ants remained secure inside the Selva de Fuego had weak spots. Over night, the ants had figured out that
the corners were easier to cling on to despite the fluon barrier. Oh no! So far, it looked like they hadn’t yet figured
a way to cross the upside down lip. But that’s not all! What I spotted next, caused me great concern. The rains overnight had naturally cued some
guests to emerge from the nests, and there seen on one of the frog bit islands were full
grown male and female alates. We didn’t have the time I thought we had to
prepare. The fire ants were now starting to have mating
flights! What was going to do keep all these fire ants
inside? It was then that a tiny movement in the corner
caught my eye. A tiny spider was lassoing some of the ants
that managed to get too close. At first, I asked myself, how on Earth did
a spider get in here? It must have come in with the plants. But what was more important, was that it was
at that very moment, that a crazy idea came to me, which would offer a great solution
to both my fire ant escape problems. Oh boy, this was about to get interesting. Please SUBSCRIBE to my channel, and hit the
bell icon. Welcome to the AC Family. Enjoy! So AC Family, I know a lot of you out there
are arachnophobic as it is a very common phobia, but if you’ve read the comments on some of
the other videos of this channel, so many AC Family have expressed that these ant nature
videos helped them overcome their fear of ants, so if they can do it, so can you arachnophobes. If you are one of these arachnophobic people,
while watching this video, do take deep breaths in and out, feel free to press pause whenever
you need to, and grab someone’s arm to watch with you, especially at the ending, because
if you can get over the rather intense scene at the ending of this video, you can say that
you have officially conquered your spider fears. Now about the escaping ants, I know many of
you have mentioned, why not just add a mesh cover to the Selva de Fuego to keep the ants
in? Valid question, but the answer to this is
I can’t add a cover because these ants are small enough to fit through the space between
the glass edge and any cover I put on, and if I were to add some kind of sandwiched insulation
layer to block that space between where the cover meets the glass, the ants would be able
to chew through it and eventually get out. Plus, even with a tight fitting cover, what
about when I have to feed the ants, or do water changes and maintain the river? As soon as I would open that bad boy, the
ants would be ready to break loose. Basically, a cover was not an option, and
a barrier was the answer, even if it had to be a biological barrier. So AC Family, over the years a lot of you
have been asking and waiting for an episode like this, but never had I imagined I would
be in a situation that necessitated the meeting of two of my favourite invertebrates on the
planet in a single enclosure. But today, we were going to attempt the unimaginable. Spiders and ants couldn’t be any more different. Ants are insects, with six legs, they’re social
in nature living in huge groups, and they live in soil. Spiders are arachnids, with 8 legs, most species
of which live in solitude, in webs that they spin. For ants like these fire ants, a colony you
guys named the Fire Nation, their venom is injected from their stingers. Spiders inject their venom from fangs. Both fire ants and spiders however are notoriously
hated and feared by the world, and revered and loved by critter-lovers like us. Today, I needed a safe and ethical way, a
natural way, to keep my fire ants that have surprisingly managed to pass my barrier of
fluon in their newly created rainforest setup called the Selva de Fuego, from escaping into
my home. But it wasn’t only the crawling ants that
I had to worry about; it was also the flying ones. The Fire Nation’s army of reproductives called
alates, young queens and males produced by the main queen every mating season, were growing
in numbers now, ready to start their annual mating flights, to seed the next generation
of fire ants. I was surprised to discover last week that
the Selva de Fuego’s lush, humid, and rainy climate was the cue these reproductives were
waiting for to start these massive aerial breeding sessions. But I wasn’t going to let these fire ant nuptial
flights nor escapes happen. I was determined to use some special eight-armed
forces. My plan today was to release a team of hungry
spiders into the Selva de Fuego to hopefully serve as natural assassins of escaping ants
as well as air control for these flying reproductive ants! The plan was totally crazy, but at this point
I was willing to try anything. It was too late now to move the Fire Nation
back into their old setup. We needed our team of spiders now. So I waited for the dark of night to befall
the Selva de Fuego. Our aquatic creatures were retiring for their
slumber. Our wedded pair of ram cichlids, whom you
guys have officially named Romeo and Juliet, were snuggling with each other lovingly under
the moonlight. Our cleaning team of Corydoras catfish were
fast asleep. The Fire Nation’s night shift workers were
busy going about their various tasks around the kingdom. But what the Selva de Fuegans didn’t know
was that above them, awaited secret teams of skilled beasts preparing for what we will
call Operation: FEAR… Flying & Escaping Ant Regulation. Behold! Our eight-armed forces for the job. AC Family, here I have prepared two teams. Meet Team A, a group of four Neoscona punctigera,
orb weaver spiders. This was a stout team of female assassins
who create impressive orb webs in jungles, which are super effective at capturing prey. They were a perfect size because they were
not too big which meant they might be able to safely touch Selva de Fuego soils without
being noticed in case they need to secure webbing from ground attachments. They wore camo and could blend in perfectly
with any branch, leaf, or rock. Next, AC Family, I’d like you to meet Team
B, the brawn and muscle of our Operation. In the event of Team A failure, meaning death
at the mandibles and stings of the aggressive Fire Nation, or abandonment, or even death
by each other, the plan was to then send in these spiders of Team B. They were also orb
weavers, belonging to the widespread genus Argiope. Unlike the spiders of Team A, these ladies
were giants! And unlike Team A there was nothing discreet
about them. Shiny silver and yellow patterns adorned their
backs, designed to reflect sunlight to attract insects into their grand orb webs. They were scary-looking, except maybe this
one. It seems this spider came to me in the middle
of shedding and had hardened in a very distorted manner. The poor thing. I’m not too sure what I will do with her. All eight of these spiders, by the way were
recruits sent to me by local children here in the Philippines were I currently live. You see a long time popular activity for Filipino
kids for decades has been spider fighting, something my dad told me about as a kid, where
kids would go out and catch these spiders from the forests and keep them in match boxes
until they were ready to be put up against each other on sticks, to fight to the death,
sometimes betting money. These spiders hopefully won’t be killing each
other, though. I hope they will be preoccupied with picking
off the ants. There were however so many uncontrollable
variables I could foresee with Operation: FEAR. First, there was no way to control where the
spiders would build their webs. As a kid growing up in Canada, I used to release
an orb weaver spider at my window sill indoors and they would obediently build a web right
there on my window by morning, where I continued to feed them until they died by Fall. My hope was that if I released four of these
orb weaver spiders into the Selva de Fuego at all four corners of the territories, they
would each build their web on location, and take care of ants escaping at these corners. This was the best case scenario! Second, there was no way to tell if their
webs would be effective at catching all flying reproductive ants or even escaping ants. Third, nothing stopped the spiders from simply
crawling out of the Selva de Fuego and wandering off somewhere in my ant room or even out a
window. Fourth, I had no idea if these spiders would
be able to survive the wrath and blood-thirst of the Fire Nation. In fact, nothing has ever been able to survive
the Fire Nation. In other words, AC Family, this entire thing
was 100% experimental and unpredictable. But, again, I was willing to try it! Here we go. It’s time to release our four members of Team
A at their individual posts within the Selva de Fuego, but first we needed to give the
spiders a leading advantage at the space. We couldn’t have the spiders attempt web building
while fire ants were all around, so I reinforced the corners with baby powder mixed with alcohol
barrier, to keep the ants temporarily off so the spiders could web build undistracted
and in peace. Next, I prepared wire clips from which each
spider’s container would hang. Here we go, AC Family 1 -2 – 3! releasing
our first spider, and then our second. Third, and fourth. AC Family, let’s watch! The spiders immediately emerged from their
containers and began to wander the premise. This spider felt the need to release its built
up feces before embarking on its journey to who knows where. I watched as it came close to a nearby spider
but took another route above it, accessing our rain system. Another spider stationed herself in a discreet
spot along the edge of the tank, where fire ants came dangerously close but didn’t seem
to notice. This spider decided to hang out and clean
itself. Look at that webbing! Can we marvel at this creature for a second. Take a look at her. I find it just incredible that evolution has
created such an animal, living exclusively on webbing produced by spinnerets on the tip
of its abdomen. Spider webs start off as a liquid and solidifies
into a sticky substance when in contact with air. What’s amazing is that this spider can control
the types of silk webbing produced, depending on what the webbing is for. In this case, it’s a life line to hang from. Webbing used for wrapping prey is different
from the webbing used to build webs, which is different still from life line webbing,
like this spider’s here… woops! AC Family, get this! Spiders can create up to seven different types
of silk for different uses, including webbing for pheromonal trails, reproduction where
some spiders create sperm webs, prey immobilization where some spiders squirt and mix their venom
with their silk, guideline webbing to help spiders find their way back to a previous
location, and this awesome thing called ballooning where spiders will use their silk to catch
winds to actually fly them to other locations! Yes, many spiders can fly. Isn’t it mind-blowing to think about how evolution
has produced such a creature? Many ants also produce silk, not these fire
ants of the Fire Nation, but ants that create cocoons, like our Golden Empire, or that build
silk-glued leaf nests like the Black Dragons, but ant silk is nowhere near as versatile
as that of spiders. Humans are studying the chemical make up of
spider silk to better understand how we can improve human items like bullet proof vests. Anyway, this spider eventually went on to
join this stationed spider on the risky edge, to sleep soundly for the rest of the night. It seemed like these spiders were not too
aggressive to each other. The other two spiders kind of just chilled
and cleaned themselves all night, and seemed unphased when the rains came rolling in. I actually tried to stay up all night to watch
the spiders in hopes to film them building their orb webs, but I ended up falling asleep
on the floor. When I woke up, I instantly jumped to check
the Selva de Fuego to see if the spiders had built webs. To my dismay, there were no webs. I saw spider one, two, three, and spider four
was nowhere to be found… oh, never mind. There she is. She didn’t survive the night. Oh boy! This all was going to be tougher than I thought. Later that day, another spider went missing. She must have fallen prey to the Fire Nation,
as well. That afternoon, I decided it was time to send
in Team B. I summoned Team B’s most promising members, and placed them into the Selva de
Fuego. These spiders were absolute giants! I loved watching them for hours as they moved
around the top of the Selva de Fuego. The one thing I did notice though was that
they spent a lot of time, and I mean a lot of time, cleaning themselves. I had no idea spiders were such germaphobes! By night, I saw something really interesting. Check this out. It seemed one of the Team B spiders had set
up the framework for an orb web, but it seemed to be bouncing back and forth. When I looked down to where it had attached
its support line, there was a member of the Fire Nation trying to climb up the web to
get to the spider! You see how fearless the Fire Nation is? Man! Anyway, the spider seemed to be trying to
shake the fire ant off so it could continue with web-building. I was looking forward to finally seeing some
webs by morning. Morning came, and checking the Selva de Fuego,
I saw no webs, again. In fact, I saw no spiders at all, the only
place I did see webbing was outside my window! One of them had managed to find its way out
of my ant room. This unlucky streak continued when I tried
to release our third member of Team B, which I found later under a huge pile of Fire Nation
workers, and well, this deformed Team B member couldn’t even move properly, so I let it go. AC Family, this was the failure of Operation:
F.E.A.R. I felt terrible at all the arachnid lives
we had lost while trying, and what was worse: The Fire Nation had now found a way to cross
the upside down lip. The fire ants were now successful at officially
find their way out of the Selva de Fuego, and I had no way of stopping them now! I had placed a pane of glass I had laying
around, as a last resort at keeping them in, but I knew it would be no use. Soon these free ants would be going back to
the colony to tell them all about this new way out. I panicked and felt defeated. I couldn’t imagine the Fire Nation breaking
loose in my room! And then the unthinkable came to mind. Was I going to have to resort to exterminating
the Fire Nation myself with spray? No! Suddenly, clarity. It was then that I knew what to do, or rather
whom to visit. AC Family, who you’re about to meet now, is
someone absolutely legendary, someone none of you have ever met before, but whom I’ve
known since the beginning of time, well ant time anyway. In watching these ant videos, you’ve all come
to know the queens of this ant room, of our Antiverse, but what you guys don’t know, is
that before the Antiverse ever came to be, there existed the one, a goddess who ruled
this plane of existence. Actually, I’m surprised none of you ever asked
about what lay next to the Fire Nation, what laid beneath the Fire Palace. AC Family, it was time to visit, the goddess
of the Antiverse, who is surprisingly not even an ant. No, the goddess of the ant room is a spider. I approached the goddess’ lair with reverence
and caution. Opening the glass, and AC Family, brace yourselves,
as I present to you, in her splendid divinity, Imelda, the bird-eater tarantula, goddess
of the Antiverse. She has an 8 inch legspan and is a true behemoth. Just do as I say, AC Family and we will be
safe. No sudden movements. Every time I enter this sacred lair of Imelda,
I make sure to always show great respect and reverence in her presence, lest I lose my
fingers. Her water bowl, which I always make sure is
topped off and full, needed some cleaning. She telepathically commanded me now to make
it clean. As you wish, my goddess. I took a deep breath and with my hand slowly
made my way to her water bowl. Got it. Removing the bowl to wash it free of its stains. The next requirement of me was a peace offering
of some sort. I was not allowed to enter her lair without
bearing a gift, fit for a goddess. She waited patiently. I came with the fattest, most delectable cockroach
from my cockroach farm to offer as my appeasing sacrifice to goddess Imelda. I had hoped this gift would suffice. She always loved to eat the male roaches. I approached slowly and deliberately to give
her the cockroach. Oh man! Alright, it seems she’s not hungry at the
moment. I had fed her a few days ago, so I guess she
was still content food-wise. She’ll be eating our gift later, but the good
news is we had her blessing to remain here for a short time. So now, the reason I came here. I needed Imelda’s silk. Tarantulas like Imelda here cover their entire
living space with a thick carpet of silk. On some nights, I will catch Imelda meticulously
going over this entire terrarium with a fresh layer of silk. She blankets the decor, the ground, and even
the glass with this divine mattress. In fact, she refuses to dig tunnels like most
tarantulas and demands that she be kept in a big space like this to treat the entire
space as her cathedral of silk. I’ve kept her in different setups before in
the past, over the years, but she has shown me that she is most comfortable living in
this huge palace of webbing. The reason tarantulas lay down these carpets
of webbing, especially during feeding time is because in their natural habitat ants are
common nuisance, including fire ants. Imelda is also a South American species, and
the smell of feeding time easily attracts a barrage of various ants to her den. This silk makes it hard for ants to invade
and enter her territory, and I was in need of this godly material. I proceeded to harvest this webbing, and using
some glue, I attached it to the corners of the Selva de Fuego. And wanna hear something absolutely crazy? It worked. To my utter surprise, the Fire Ant escapes
stopped. The webbing made it hard for the fire ants
to cross! I couldn’t believe it worked! I resolved to continually harvest sections
of Imelda’s silk and attach it to the corners of the Fire Nation’s kingdom to ensure there
were no escaped ants. Now as for the flying reproductives, another
idea also came to me. Who needed teams of spiders when I had the
best teams for biological control – the ant colonies of the entire Antiverse. So my solution? Black lights set on at night to attract the
flying alates into the adjacent kingdoms of our other ants who would then proceed to have
a feast. I was completely elated that we found a solution
to our fire ant escape problems. It could have been so easy to resort to some
kind of chemical warfare to combat the Fire Nation, but deep inside, I just knew Mother
Nature had an eco-friendly solution to my problems somewhere. I just had to figure it out, and today I felt
as though I had cracked a grand code to a Mother Nature’s rubix cube! And as if Mother Nature was giving us a pat
on the back for all the great work, in the night I spotted something that filled my heart
with such joy and amazement. Romeo and Juliet, were engaging in the ancient
dance performed by ancestors millions of years before them. AC Family, they were spawning… It was absolutely beautiful to witness, and
also assuring because from my research, Ram Cichlids will mate when water conditions are
just perfect! AC Family, brace yourselves, it looks like
we were about to be witnesses to the great miracle of life. AC Family, things are looking bright for the
future of the Selva de Fuego, but honestly speaking next week’s episode was one of the
toughest episodes emotionally I’ve ever had to film on this channel. You will not expect what’s coming up, and
I most certainly didn’t! So trust me on this guys, you won’t want to
miss it, so hit that SUBSCRIBE button and bell icon now so you don’t miss out on this
epic ant story, and hit the LIKE button every single time, including now. AC Inner Colony, I have left a hidden cookie
for you here, for more on the giant spiders in this video. They are just fascinating and awe-inspiring,
and will always be one of my favourite creatures on the planet! Also, I’d like to plug my daily vlogging channel. I upload daily vlogs of my travels around
the world and this particular vlog here is a complete vlog of how I built the Selva de
Fuego from scratch. Go check it out, and don’t forget to subscribe
while you’re there. Alright and now it’s time for the AC Question
of the Week! Last week, we asked: Why does the Fire Nation queen take her time
when moving out of an old nest and into a new one? Congratulations to Kyler Bentley who correctly
answered: The Fire Nation queen takes her time when
moving out into a new nest because she needs to make
sure she knows whether or not the new habitat is
safe. Congratulations Kyler, you just won a free
ant t-shirt from our shop! In this week’s AC Question of the Week, we
ask: Name three things spiders
use their silk webbing for. Leave your answer in the comments section
and you could win a free e-book handbook from our shop. Hope you can subscribe to the channel as we
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Community Ecology: Feel the Love – Crash Course Ecology #4

Community Ecology: Feel the Love – Crash Course Ecology #4


I wouldn’t be much of a teacher if I didn’t tell you that life is tough and that everyone’s looking out for themselves in this world. That’s just the way it is, people. You know how I always say that biology is
ultimately about sex and not dying? Well both of those things are more difficult
than we’d like them to be, because of competition. There’s a finite amount of resources on this
planet, so evolution drives us to compete for them so that we can survive long enough to spread
our genes all over the place And naturally, competition is a really important part of how different species interact when their habitats overlap. These interactions between species are what
define ecological communities. So it makes sense that community ecology studies
these interactions anywhere they take place, from a tide pool to the whole ocean,
from a rotting log to an entire forest. But just because inter-species interaction
is mostly competitive doesn’t necessarily mean that community ecology is all about big, bloody, tooth-and-claw scenes like from cable-TV nature shows. Actually, a lot of it is, but we’re not going
to get there until next week. For now, let’s just note that competition,
while prevalent and important, is also pretty dangerous, kind of a hassle,
and can, like, really hurt. So a lot of inter-species interaction is actually
about sidestepping direct competition and instead finding ways to divvy up resources,
or otherwise let species just get along. Can you feel the love? [Theme Music] Careful guys! Because right now we’re surrounded potentially lethal interspecific competition going on all over the place. Since we’re animals, we usually think of competition
as going on between animals, but really it happens between almost all members
of the four kingdoms of life. Whenever species compete, they’re going after
the same resources that they need for their survival and continued population growth. In this garden, the weeds are competing with the sunflower, the corn and the dill for nutrients and water in the soil. So these resources, because they’re finite in this area, are the limiting factors that we’ve talked about. The population can only get as big as these
factors will allow. Now, a particularly nasty weed could, over
time, eliminate the veggies entirely. Such elimination is known as competitive exclusion, and it’s one of the most fundamental properties
in community ecology, and also, like, life. Because the fact is, when two species are
competing for the same resources, one of them is eventually going to be more
successful and eliminate the other. This bitter truth is known as the Competitive
Exclusion Principle, and it was first identified in 1934 by Russian
ecologist G. F. Gause in a study of two closely-related species
of microscopic protists. When he was only 22 years old, Gause made
a name for himself by conducting experiments that pitted one species of protist, Paramecium
aurelia, against another, Paramecium caudatum. First, Gause grew each species separately
with the exact same resources, and found that each developed rapidly and
established stable populations. But, when he grew them in the same container, P. caudatum was soon driven to extinction by P. aurelia. Paramecium aurelia gained a competitive advantage because its population grew slightly faster than P. caudatum’s. So Gause’s experiment showed that, in the
absence of another disturbance, two species that require the same resources
cannot live indefinitely in the same habitat. The inferior competitor will be eliminated. Makes sense, but if competitive exclusion
is the natural law of the land, then why isn’t all of earth just a crazy crap-circus
of constant competition, predation, and ultimately, extinction of all those losers? Well, for a couple of reasons:
first, not all resources are limiting. Two species of sharks may compete for water
in the ocean, but the ocean is, you know, gigantic. So that’s not what limits their population
growth. Rather, the amount of food, like a specific
fish that they both eat, could be limiting, while other resources are plentiful. Second, as the overwhelming diversity of life in almost any community shows us, most species — even ones that are almost identical to each
other — are adaptable enough to find a way to survive in the face of competition. They do this by finding an ecological niche,
the sum of all resources, both biotic and abiotic, that a species uses in its environment. You can think of an organism’s niche as its job in the community that provides it with a certain lifestyle. We tend to keep jobs that we can do better
than anyone else in our community, and if we’re desperate, we do a job that nobody
else wants to do. But no matter what job we have, what it pays
in terms of resources dictates our lifestyle. So finding a nice, comfy niche that you have
pretty much to yourself not only provides a steady income of food and other stuff, it also allows a species to avoid competitive
exclusion, and this, in turn, helps create a more stable ecological community. It’s and elegant and peaceful solution, I wish that we humans could figure out something as good, but as with anything in life, this relative
security and stability comes at a price. The bummer is that it prevents some species
from living the lifestyle that they could have if nobody else competed with them at
all. This ideal situation is called a fundamental
niche, and it’s just that, an ideal. Few, if any species ever get to live that
way. Instead, because of the need to avoid competitive
exclusion in order to survive, many species end up with a different job,
and hence lifestyle. It’s not necessarily the job that they studied
for in college, but it makes a decent living, and that’s called a realized niche. This, my friends, is how nature does conflict
management. But it sounds kind of unnatural, doesn’t it? I mean, Gause taught us that competition, and winning the competition, was the natural order of things. So how could it be that part of the natural order actually involves letting everyone compete and win just a little bit? And how did we ever come to discover that
things actually worked this way? Well, it took a special kind of person, and to to tell you about him, I’m going to need a special kind of chair. Canadian born ecologist Robert MacArthur was
in his late 20s when he made a discovery that made him one of the most influential
ecologists of the 20th century. While researching his doctoral thesis at Yale
University in 1958, he was studying five species of warblers that live in coniferous forests in the northeastern United States. At the time, because there were so many different species of warblers that lived, fed, and mated in such close quarters, many ornithologists thought that the birds
occupied the exact same niche and thus were an exception to Gause’s competitive
exclusion principle. But MacArthur was not convinced. A mathematician by training, he set out to
measure exactly how and where each kind of warbler did its foraging, nesting, and mating. In order to do this, he studied each tree the birds lived in, dividing them into zones, 16 zones to be exact, from bare lichen at the base of the trunk, to new needles and buds at the tips of the branches. After many seasons of observing many birds
in many trees, he found that each species of warbler divided its time differently among the various parts of the tree. One warbler, called the Cape May, for example, spent most of its time toward the outside of the tree at the top. Meanwhile, the Bay Breasted fed mostly around
the middle interior. MacArthur also found that each of the warblers
had different hunting and foraging habits and even bred at slightly different times of the year, so that their highest food requirements didn’t overlap. These differences illustrated how the warblers
partitioned their limiting resources, each finding its realized niche that allowed
it to escape the fate of competitive exclusion. The phenomenon he observed is now known as
resource partitioning, when similar species settle into separate
niches that let them coexist. Thanks in part to this discovery, MacArthur
became known as a pioneer of modern ecology, encouraging curiosity and hypothesis driven research, championing the use of genetics in ecological study, and collaborating with biologists like E.
O. Wilson and Jared Diamond. Sadly, he died of renal caner at the age of
42, but his study of northern warblers remains a classic example of community ecology that is still taught today. So, if organisms can do this, if they can
behave in ways that help minimize competition while increasing their odds for survival, it follows that traits associated with this
behavior would start being selected favorably. After all, that’s what natural selection is for. When this happens, it’s known as character displacement. To demonstrate, let’s go back to some other
famous ecologists, our favorite couple of evolutionary biologists
and love birds, Peter and Rosemary Grant. I told you before about how they observed the process of speciation among Darwin’s famous Galapagos finches. Well on the same island, Daphne Major, in 2006, they witnessed character displacement in action. For a long time, a small population of finches
had the island to themselves, where they ate a variety of seeds, including
seeds of the feverplant, which were bigger and more nutritious than
the smaller seeds that were available but were harder for the little finches to open. Then in 1982, a group of much bigger finches
showed up on the island, and they began to commandeer the island’s
abundant supply of feverplant seeds. Within just 20 years, the Grants found that
the small finches’ beaks shrunk to allow them to specialize in eating only the smaller,
less nutritious seeds. But now the little finches had those seeds
all to themselves. The traits of the two populations had actually diverged to help facilitate the partitioning of resources. See? Competition can be hard on us, but it
also can make us better people, or you know, finches or warblers or kangaroo
mice. But there are also kinds of interspecies interaction in which species actually join forces in the fights for survival. This is the ultimate in conflict-avoidance. In these cases species in a community actually
manage to avoid competition altogether by forming downright tight relationships that
benefit one, if not both, of the parties involved. You may have heard of both of these cases:
First, mutualism, where both species benefit, and commensalism, where one species benefits
and the other is kind of like, “Whatever.” Mutualism abounds in nature, and for those
who’ve been paying attention to Crash Course, you’ve heard me talk about it many, many times
before. A prime example [of mutualism] are mychorrhizae, the fungal root that we talked about a few weeks ago, where fungi and plant roots get tangled and essentially rub each other’s backs for nutritious favors. Others you may have heard about include flowering
plants that produce nectars to attract pollinators, and that bear fruit to attract animals to
help spread the seeds inside. Oftentimes these relationships become rather
needy, like in the case of termites — they can’t break down the cellulose in the
wood they eat without the enzymes produced by the microorganisms that live inside their
digestive systems. Without the little critters, the bigger critters
would die. Such a needy relationship is called obligate
mutualism. By contrast, commensalism is where one species definitely benefits and the other isn’t really hurt or helped. Such neutrality, of course, is difficult to prove because even a seemingly benign interaction probably has some effect. Barnacles, for example, hitchhike on gray
whales, getting a free ride through swaths of plankton-rich water for feeding. While clearly a benefit to the barnacles,
the relationship is often considered commensal because the whales probably don’t really care
whether the barnacles are there or not. Or do they? The barnacles might slow down
the whale as it swims through the water, but on the other hand, they might also serve as a type of camouflage from predators like orcas, in which case they confer an advantage. So it probably comes down to “meh” for the
whale. And when you consider all the other possibilities out there when species interact, “meh” isn’t such a bad option. Especially considering that next week, we’re
going for the throat, by which I mean we’ll be investigating the
kill-or-be-killed world of animal predation and all of the fantastic evolutionary changes it can trigger that lead to even greater diversity in ecological communities. There probably is going to be a lot of blood
though, so you might want to bring your poncho. Thank you for watching this episode of Crash
Course: Ecology. If you want to review anything, there’s a
table of contents over here for you to click on any of the parts that you may want to review. Much love and appreciation to all the people
who helped us put this episode together, and if you have any questions or comments or ideas, you can leave them for us on Facebook or on Twitter, or, of course, down in the comments below.