Millipede vs Centipede!

Millipede vs Centipede!


– I’m Coyote Peterson, welcome
to the desert millipede versus the desert centipede. (upbeat adventure music) Venturing into the
nighttime desert is not for the faint of heart, as this cactus strewn ecosystem is laced with a plethora
of nocturnal predators. Whether it be
scorpions, spiders, that right there
is a black widow, solpugids, or vinegaroons, these arachnids are
certain to be on the prowl, as they use the
cover of darkness to silently hunt for their prey. Look at that. Does that thing not
look like an alien? All arachnids come
equipped with eight legs, and most are also armed
with a set of fangs or a venom injecting stinger. That is the most venomous
species of scorpion in the United States. And he’s on my hand. All right, this makes
me a little bit nervous. I wanna see if I can get
him to just sit still. However, if eight legs, fangs, and stingers aren’t
enough to scare you, Arizona’s Sonoran
Desert is also home to a subphylum of creatures with even more
legs, the myriapods, which consists of
centipedes and millipedes. At the end of the day, both of these animals do
their best to avoid humans, however, today we are going
to capture one of each so we can get them in
front of the cameras for an up close comparison. First, let’s talk about
the desert millipede. Now, millipede
means thousand feet. And each one of these
little body segments has two pairs of legs on it. Now there’s no way
that I’m going to get underneath this creature
and count its legs, but I can tell you from
it crawling across my arm, that there are a ton of
them tickling me right now. It feels like a bunch of
little tiny pieces of Velcro grabbing onto your arm hairs. Despite the name,
there isn’t actually a species of millipede
on the planet that has a thousand feet. On average they have around 400, with the record being 750, more than any other
animal in the world. These myriapods have
very poor eyesight. They have very
simple eyes up front, so they’re really using these
antenna to help them navigate through the environment. And you’ll see as he dances
up in the air like that, he’s basically looking
for what his next move is going to be. If he can’t feel anything
with those antenna, he’s kinda like, woah, woah, I’ve run out of road here. And until he bumps
into something that he can walk on, he’s just gonna stay
put until he can get those front legs planted. Now, the millipede doesn’t
have many predators, and that’s because
these little myriapods are actually poisonous. They do have glands that run
along the side of their body, and if they are really,
really threatened, they will secrete a
nasty orange fluid. And it absolutely stinks. I actually got it all over
my hands the other night. Now, if you get this
poison on your skin, all you need to do
is wash you hands with soap and water, and you’ll be just fine. Now I’m completely
comfortable with millipedes. They don’t bite. If it doesn’t bite, it
can crawl all over me all that it wants. But the centipede is a
whole different ball game. And we’re gonna get that
guy out in a second, and get a close look at that
venomous little desert dweller. The desert millipede is
virtually harmless to humans. And if you encounter
one in the wild, just admire it from
a safe distance. (breathes out) OK, now we’re
on to the part of the episode that I have been dreading. There is no good way to do this. You just have to plop
him out and go for it. All right, here we go, ready? Oh boy. Now he’s kinda like,
oh, I’m on the ground, and I’m on the move. Desert centipedes can
inflict a very painful and venomous bite, so I stress, never
attempt what I am doing. OK, there we go. Now that I have his
head under control, and more importantly,
those fangs, I feel a lot better
about this situation. Oh, look at how creepy that
little desert creature is. Now, what’s really interesting
is that the centipede means hundred feet. Each species of
centipede varies. There’s no way that this
one has a hundred feet, but as they continue to grow, and their body
segments elongate, they grow more legs. Now one major difference between the centipede and the millipede is that the centipede has
a very flattened body. This allows them to fit
into crevices between rocks, and allows them to
glide very quickly over the surface of the desert. Now, these are
voracious predators. They are out here right
now walking the washes and searching through the
rocks for other animals. They will eat bugs,
they will eat scorpions, they will eat lizards, and the ones that
grow to the size of the giant desert centipede, they will even take rodents. But the bite from a
centipede of even this size is gonna put you into
some incredible pain. That’s why I wanna be
as careful as possible while handling this myriapod. One really interesting
feature about all centipedes is that you see
the back end here? This rump? You have these two modified legs on the back end here which have little hooks in them. And this back end is
pretty much a false head. It’s the same color
as the head is. And these two little modified
feet on the back end here have hooks on them. So, let’s say you’re a predator, and you’re coming, and
you’re like, all right, I’m gonna get him, I’m gonna
bite his head right off. These little modified
feet go up in the air, boom, and you get pricked
with those little spikes, throws you off guard, the
centipede spins around, and that’s when you get a bite
from those venomous fangs. This is not a creature that
is very easy to consume. Centipede venom is not
considered deadly to humans, however, the pain has been
said to keep a full grown man on the ground and in
pain for several hours. Moral of the story, steer
clear of centipedes. I hope everybody
enjoyed this comparison. The desert centipede versus
the desert millipede. Both species are native
to the Sonoran Desert. And I’d suggest avoiding both because the
centipede is venomous and the millipede is poisonous. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave, stay wild, we’ll see you on
the next adventure. Both of these myriapods
play an important role in the ecosystem. And while they may be creepy and have a gazillion legs
as compared to you and me, always try to remember that they’re going to
use each and every one to run in the
opposite direction. If you thought that
comparison was cool, check out the alligator
snapping turtle versus the common
snapping turtle. And don’t forget subscribe
to join me and the crew on this season of
Breaking Trail.

Ants vs Giant Millipedes

Ants vs Giant Millipedes


Greetings, AC Family. On this channel, we delve into the awesome
and often shocking world of ants. But today’s video is just one of those videos
that can be summed up in a four letter word – EPIC! AC Family, today I made the decision to take
my chances and see what would happen if we added giant tropical millipedes into the Hacienda
Del Dorado, the estate of our Golden Empire. The result which you will witness in this
video, will hands down shock you! You won’t want to miss all the epic invertebrate
action ahead, so trust me on this, keep on watching until the end! AC Fam, let’s gather round the Golden Estate,
and find out what happens when we add some giants into our Golden Empire ant territory,
in this week’s episode of the AntsCanada Ant Channel. Please Subscribe to my channel and hit the
bell icon. Welcome to the AC Family, Enjoy! So, let’s begin with WHY I had to add these
giant millipedes into the Hacienda Del Dorado. If you have a look at these ant territories
you will see that the plant growth is unbridled, uncontrolled. The plants are thriving and it is starting
to get a bit crowded. Thriving plant life is good, because it adds
structure below the soil, which is perfect for the ants’ tunnels, and also adds landscape
and humidity above ground. The only drawback is I have to regularly trim
the plants because some of them will go on to grow past the ant barrier and hence offer
a bridge of escape for the ants. In last week’s video, you may have seen that
I was cutting these apro plants. Now the thing is, these plant trimmings take
a long time to decompose. They simply lay on the ground and decompose
naturally, which can take weeks or months. Of course, it helps that the Hacienda Del
Dorado is also home to colonies of miniature creatures like isopods and springtails, which
by the way thanks to a vote by you the AC Family, are officially called the “Spring
Cleaners”. But still, even with the Spring Cleaners,
the plant matter took long to decompose. As you can see here, at the site of last week’s
plant cuttings, the decaying plants are still there. And so, I felt this terrarium community required
much larger helpers, chosen specifically to feed on the decaying plant trimmings and speed
up the decomposition process. Introducing our chosen ones, Orthomorpha coarctata,
tropical millipedes native to South East Asia. They belong to a family of flat backed millipedes
called Paradoxosomatidae, and boy do they look interesting! I caught these millipedes during a recent
stay in the Philippine jungle. They were everywhere and were clearly a very
important decomposer of plant detritus. Here we have 6 very active millipedes and
most of them were captured as mating pairs. I find these millipedes to be extremely promiscuous,
always mating at every opportunity and with various partners. The fact that the millipedes were breeding
was perfect because I knew that I not only had both males and females, but that I could
expect them to multiply and proliferate inside the Hacienda Del Dorado. Now the name Millipede means “thousand legs”,
but millipedes have much less, but still, watching them move is truly a marvel. Check out those legs moving in waves. They can even move backwards! Now AC Family, let’s take a look at the risks
involved with introducing creatures like these into the Hacienda Del Dorado. Of course, there was no telling how the ants
of the Golden Empire were going to react to our new multi-legged guests. In the past we have found that anything large
found in their territory, would be perceived as a threat and/or dinner. So, there was the obvious risk that the Golden
Empire would completely devour these millipedes. However, here’s why I felt the millipedes
had a good chance at withstanding the ants. First, the millipedes impenetrable exoskeleton. I find these millipedes to have some of the
hardest, most solid exoskeletons around, and when I say solid, I mean solid, for their
size anyway. I once fed a dead one of these millipedes
to the Fire Nation, our red tropical fire ants, and not even they could cut it open
until it naturally decayed and by the then, the good stuff had all dried up. So, I expected that both the mandibles and
formic acid of our yellow crazy ants would not have been able to get past the millipedes’
thick armour. Also, speaking of acid spray, these millipedes
have other tricks up their sleeves. They possess glands which allow them to actually
expel a defensive dark brown fluid containing hydrochloric acid. Take a look at these snap cap vials which
I used to contain the millipedes on the way back to my place. You can clearly see the dried up blobs of
defensive fluid. It is enough to make animals sick, creatures
die, and even bring about a bad reaction in humans. In fact, after shooting this video one of
my eyes got super irritated for a few hours due to the defensive fluids. I knew, that these giant invertebrates were
not defenseless weaklings, and in my mind, if any larger creature were to survive the
thousands of ants of the Golden Empire, it would be these guys. So AC Family, the time has come. Time to add the millipedes. If we can successfully pull this off, we will
have a new crew, essential to the health of this entire biological community that is the
Hacienda Del Dorado. The Golden Empire was going out their usual
evening activities. They were busy building and fortifying their
tunnels, diligently. Here you can see ants feasting on honey, and
don’t worry about those ants that look like they are drowned. They’re not. They’re just stuck and when all this honey
is sucked up by tomorrow, they will be freed. I also made sure to feed the Golden Empire
some extra cockroaches just to make sure they were well-fed prior to this epic introduction. So my plan, was to introduce one millipede
first and see how the ants would react, and gauge whether or not it was worth adding the
others. Here we go AC Family, time to add our first
millipede. Here we go 1-2-3. The millipede is now inside the Hacienda Del
Dorado. Instantly, ants are all over it. It isn’t long before the millipede is swarmed
by the Golden Empire. Strangely, it seemed as if the millipede was
calm and unaffected by the swarming ants. It was hard to tell if the millipede how the
millipede was feeling. The millipede began to move and made its way
to towards the foliage, with ants still hustling about doing their best to subdue the massive
creature. The struggle continued…. and then the millipede
disappeared into the foliage. It was hard to tell if the millipede was injured
or not. It was evident that the Golden Empire was
restless and were fully aware of their new visitor. I decided to take our chances. It was time to add more millipedes, this time
a breeding pair. Instantly, the pair split up when they were
met with a swarm of aggressive ants. The male went on to flee towards the plants,
while the female decided to take a dangerous move. She proceeded to enter one of the ant’s nest
entrances. Let’s watch what happens. The female realizing she had made a huge mistake
immediately scrambled as best she could to climb out of the ant’s den, but even with
so many legs, she kept slipping off the loose soil of the tunnel walls, and kept sliding
back into the ant hole, met with swarms of aggressive ants. The male, too was doing his best to seek refuge
from the angry ants. The scene was heart-stopping! She attempts to climb out again. No good. She slips right back in. The male continues to look for a place to
flee to. The Golden Empire is angry as ever, trying
their best to bite, subdue, and formic acid spray the millipedes. Will this be the end? The female tries again. She’s almost out. Oh no! She slides back in again. Things were not looking good for this female. The male still seemed mobile and in a strange
way, ok. The female attempts another escape. Yes, she’s out. She began to wander a bit and then strangely
headed back for the hole she just came out of. No, don’t go in there again! The female moved towards to the plants for
refuge. I realized that perhaps the millipedes were
at a disadvantage because they had no plant cover to escape to, and also I was placing
them directly near the ants’ nest entrances. So, I decided to release the final 3 millipedes
in the dense plant foliage, so that they would have a better chance at escaping the initial
barrage of ants, perhaps even escape into the shrubbery unnoticed. I released the millipedes. And as expected, very few ants were made aware
of their presence, and they managed to escape, unscathed. That was it! They needed to be released near cover and
away from the ants. I looked back at the mating pair that were
still being attacked by the Golden Empire. The female had disappeared around a corner
out of sight. I had no idea if she was going to survive. When I looked at the male, my heart sank. Sadly, he hadn’t made it. It looked as though the Golden Empire’s acid
sprays had been too much for the millipede. The millipede’s lifeless body lay motionless
in the soil, as ants proceeded to continue biting and spraying him with formic acid. The dying millipede began to curl up into
a ball. He then fell into an ant hole, to be attacked
further by the Golden Empire. I felt so bad about this. This was all my fault. Watching this millipede die was truly heart-wrenching. My guess was the other millipedes were also
suffering a similar fate in some other sad corner of the Hacienda Del Dorado. Adding these millipedes was one very big miscalculation
and a mistake. Usually, when filming these nature videos,
I make it a point to not interfere and to simply allow nature to take its course, but
I did that once, and it cost the lives of dozens of newborns. I did what I usually never do. I went in to rescue the dying millipede from
the ravaging ants. What I saw next, shocked me to the very core. The millipede was not dead, but was actually
very much so alive and moving. It seemed as though the ants’ acid sprays
and bites were indeed no match for the millipede’s tough exoskeleton. I was right! The millipede was alive, but it seemed it
was just playing dead, until the ants would leave him alone! What a clever boy! This brought so much hope! My guess was that each one of the millipedes
I placed inside were able to get away from the ants by taking refuge in the thick plant
cover or simply were able to fool the ants by playing dead until they left it alone. I won’t know for sure until I see the millipedes
again after tonight, but I will surely update you if I do. My guess, is each one of those millipedes
are still alive and they will go on to feed on our decaying plant matter in the Hacienda
Del Dorado. Let’s hope they continue to breed and multiply. And so, ends another epic day, AC Family,
in the untamed and exotic world we call the Hacienda Del Dorado, a biological community
of which just got bigger. Tonight I learned a valuable lesson: it seems
as though you can take the wildlife out of the wild, but you can’t take the wild out
of the wildlife. Thanks for watching, AC Fam. This is AntsCanada signing out. It’s ant love forever. —- Woah, talk about plot twist! Were you guys afraid and sad for the Millipedes,
too? It looks like they’ll survive, but we’ll see. Let’s keep our fingers crossed! Ac Inner Colony, I’ve placed a hidden video
here if you’d just like to watch more long form footage of the ant-millipede battle without
all the narration. And now it’s time for the AC Question of the
Week. Last week, we asked: Name one of the three beneficial
creatures that live with the ants in the Hacienda Del Dorado. Congratulations to Wolfee03 who correctly
answered: Springtails. We also accepted aphids and isopods. Congratulations Wilfee03 you just won a free
AC test tube portal from our shop! For this week’s AC Question of the Week, we
ask: What type of acid can be found in
the defensive fluids of the millipedes in this video? Leave your answer in the comments section
and you could win a free ant t-shirt from our shop! Hope you can subscribe to this channel, as
we release a brand new video every single Saturday at 8AM EST. Also it would mean a lot to me if you could
hit the LIKE button, SHARE, and leave me a comment! It’s ant love forever!

The Age of Giant Insects

The Age of Giant Insects


This episode is supported by The Great Courses Plus Even though we often refer to this time in
history as the Age of Mammals, we should probably be calling it the Age of Insects. Because, just looking at the numbers, there
are way more of them than there are of us. Humans alone number more than 7 billion at
this point, which is … a lot. But insects? Try 10 quintillion! We may like to think we’re in charge because
we make the rules and, well, we’re bigger than they are. But insects, and other arthropods, weren’t
always so small. About 315 million years ago, they were not
only abundant. They were … enormous. To meet the biggest invertebrates to ever
crawl across the Earth, we have to go back to the Carboniferous Period, from 298 million
to 358 million years ago. That’s when you’d find the likes of Meganeura. It was a griffinfly, a giant relative of today’s
dragonflies, that had a wingspan of about 70 centimeters. That’s about the size of a pigeon — more
than three times larger than the biggest living dragonfly. Meager by comparison was Stephanotypus, another
griffinfly that was still some 40 centimeters across, about as big as a robin. And this greatness in size wasn’t limited
to insects! You see out-sized arthropods all over the
world during this period… like Arthropleura. You know those cute little millipedes you
find curled up under rotting logs in the woods? Now imagine one of those about two meters
long and a half meter wide, shuffling like a living carpet over the undergrowth. It was probably the largest arthropod that
ever walked on land. So. What allowed these invertebrates to get so
big? The answer … is oxygen. Take a deep breath. Right now, the amount of oxygen in atmosphere
is about 21 percent. But back in the Carboniferous, it was nearly
35 percent! That’s because the Carboniferous was a time
of incredible, runaway plant growth. Huge forests full of ferns, mosses, and some
of the earliest vascular plants had taken over much of the planet. They sucked in carbon dioxide and pumped out
oxygen in enormous amounts. Now, you might be thinking: Earth has lots
of trees now. So what’s the difference? Well, today, that big log you find in the
woods with all of those bugs under it? That log is being decomposed by bacteria,
among other things, that take in oxygen, and release CO2. But in the Carboniferous, those wood-eating
bacteria didn’t exist yet. So Earth’s giant, primordial forests were
taking in lots of carbon dioxide and pumping out lots of oxygen. That’s what plants do. But since the trees weren’t decomposing,
the CO2 wasn’t being released back into the atmosphere. The result was an all-time high in the world’s
levels of atmospheric oxygen. And that’s what made giant arthropods possible. Because, arthropods don’t breathe the way
we do. They have a system of external openings called
spiracles, that lead to a branching network of tubes called tracheae, that diffuse oxygen
through their bodies. And this puts a limit on their body size. Arthropods can only get so big before they
can no longer draw enough oxygen from the air. But in the Carboniferous, the abundance of
oxygen in the atmosphere made it easier for arthropods to get the O2 that they needed,
which allowed them to reach record-breaking sizes. In fact, paleontologists have managed to make
this happen today in the lab, by experimenting with modern insects. By raising dragonflies, beetles, and other
insects in controlled, oxygen-rich enclosures, scientists at Arizona State found that successive
generations of arthropods can grow faster and larger. But, of course, it’s possible to get too
much of a good thing. So, some scientists have proposed another
theory — that arthropods got huge not because they could, but because they had to. Lots of oxygen might have been a beneficial
for grown-up arthropods, but it also could’ve posed a threat to their larvae. Young invertebrates can’t control their
intake of air like adults can, and too much oxygen can be deadly. So researchers at Michigan State have suggested
that ancient arthropods began producing bigger larvae, so they’d take in less oxygen relative
to their body size. And those bigger larvae resulted in bigger
adults. But, you know enough about natural history
at this point to know that even the biggest creatures don’t stay on top forever. About 275 million years ago, during the Permian
Period, the world changed, yet again. The levels of atmospheric oxygen started to
plummet — why, we’re not sure. Ancient climate shifts might’ve had something
to do with it. But as oxygen levels fell, the interiors of
the world’s continents got warmer. This shrunk the big swamps that were acting
as natural carbon sinks. So, swamps weren’t pumping out as much oxygen
as they used to, and, on top of that, decomposers finally appeared that were able to start breaking
down all of the dead wood. As these microbes took in oxygen and released
carbon dioxide, global levels of O2 dropped even more. And with less oxygen available, it became
increasingly hard for the giant arthropods to survive. By about 305 million years ago, the two-meter-long
Arthropleura could no longer be found on the forest floor. By 299 million years ago, the last of the
Meganeura had flapped its wings. The arthropods that followed never got quite
as spine-tinglingly large as their ancestors were. But, of course, everything turned out fine
for them! Today, we’re totally outnumbered, both in
biomass and in diversity, by insects, arachnids, and other land-based arthropods. But if there ever was a time that was a true
Age of Insects, it was probably the Carboniferous Period, when arthropods of all kinds were
living large. Thanks to the The Great Courses Plus for sponsoring this episode. The Great Courses Plus is a digital learning service that allows you to learn about a range of topics from educators including Ivy league professors and other educators from around the world. Go to TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/Eons and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a photographer. New subjects, lectures, and professors are added every month, like the Introduction to Paleontology series taught by Professor Stuart Sutherland. You can learn about everything from Earth’s shifting crust to Taxonomy and more! With The Great Courses Plus, you can watch as many different lectures as you want – anytime, anywhere without any tests or exams. Help support the series and start your free one month trial by clicking the link below or going to TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/Eons What do you want to know about the story of
life on Earth? Let us know in the comments. And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/eons
and subscribe! If you think dragonflies are fearsome, wait till you see their babies. Our friends at Deep Look filmed them shooting out their super-fast mouthpart to catch a meal. Check it out here.