‪Do Social Insects Share Brain Power?‬

‪Do Social Insects Share Brain Power?‬


♪ MUSIC ♪ SEAN O’DONNELL: Brains are expensive. The field of neuroecology explores how brains develop and evolve to match the challenges animals face. One compelling idea in this field is that living in societies places special pressures on animals. Dealing with social competitors and even forming alliances can require a lot of brain power. This idea, called the Social Brain Hypothesis, is well supported for vertebrate animals, ranging from fish through birds to mammals. Species with more complex social interactions tend to have larger brains or larger brain regions that process complex information. Many researchers suspect that the human brain is actually a product of social brain evolution. The way our brains work has a lot to do with the way we interact with each other and our human brains may have evolved along with human societies. But social behavior is not unique to humans or even other vertebrates. In fact, insect societies are some of the largest and most sophisticated on earth. So my lab set out to test for social brain patterns in social insects. We chose wasps as subjects because related species of wasps range from solitary living through simple groups to some of the largest and most complex colonies we know of. Did insect brains increase as sociality evolved? The answer was a resounding no. In fact, the opposite was true. We found that investment in key higher brain regions actually decreased going from solitary to social species. So why are insects so different from vertebrates? We suspect the answer lies in how insect societies form. Most vertebrate societies are groups that include non-relatives, whereas most insect colonies are a single family of cooperating close relatives. Wasp colonies, for example, support the reproduction of one or a few mother queens, and colony members’ interests are often tightly aligned. So if colony members can communicate and rely on each other, perhaps the need for individual brain power is decreased. It’s as if the insects that cooperate in colonies have shared brain power, so even though individual wasps may be less brainy than solitary individuals, the colony as a whole may be smart together. We call this the Distributed Cognition idea. It’s a sign that there’s more than one way for complex societies and intelligence can evolve together. And if this finding holds true with other kinds of social insects, it could reshape our assumptions about the evolutionary connections between brains and behavior. ♪ MUSIC ♪

Insects: White Pine Weevil, 4-H Forestry

Insects: White Pine Weevil, 4-H Forestry


– [Narrator] The next insect
is the White pine weevil. Again, another weevil. This one is distinguishable
from the pales weevil because of the two white blotches near the rear end of the insect. These are distinguishable. You can see these if you’re
using your magnifying glass. Also the snout, you can
see the snout there, is really skinny and it’s very long compared to the pales weevil. Those are your only two characteristics between the adults to tell them apart. It has a really skinny long snout and it has those two
white patches right next to each other on the
rear end of the insect. The damage for the white pine weevil occurs in the shoots and in the leaders. It may look similar to the
damage of the pales weevil. The pales weevil’s in the
stem of young seedlings and the white pine weevil
is gonna be in the shoots and in the leaders. You can see where they bore
in, there’ll be little holes and splits where the
larvae bore in and feed in these shoots and stems. And that’s the white pine weevil.

Insects Porn Director – Mini-Mocks

Insects Porn Director – Mini-Mocks


– When a beetle has
sex with a beetle, is it still considered
doggy style? I’m Jordan Mendoza, and
I direct insects porn. Take it out and put it back in. Sexual taboos reminds us of
where our ethical edges are. It’s standard human psychology, the more forbidden something is, the more you want it,
and I direct just about the most forbidden nasty
stuff in the world. Grab her by the exoskeleton now. I came up with the
idea when I realized everyone was doing big
boobs, big ass porn. I thought, what if
I did the opposite? Classic lady on lady action. It’s all about
finding your niche, and sometimes your niche is
about the size of a worm hole. It’s casting day. When I told my
family I was trying to break in to the
insects porn industry, they were absolutely disgusted. So I said it more
slowly, insects porn. And then they were
only mildly disgusted. Take nine. You might think
attracting new talent would be difficult,
but it turns out they’ll work for free
as long as you feed ’em. And I do try to cater to
a variety of audiences. I’ve got dung beetles
for ass people, public exhibitionist stuff, and, of course, your
classic water sports. Yes, of course I’m concerned
about disease transmission, but all of our talent
has been tested for malaria, so
no problem there. Cameras are rolling, okay? Insect porn stars have
incredibly short-lived careers, but they make for
great collectibles. There’s Daddy Long Schlong,
star of Hairy Arachnid Milfs. We’ve got Riley
Roach, Tori Thorax, and, of course, Antenna Jameson. We’re even dipping our toes
into the live cam bug arena. Oh (bleep), I think
this bug might be dead. Like with any normal porn
set, clean up can be an issue, but ever since I got Rick on
payroll, it’s been a snap. This guy is a cunnilingus king. Oh, also, all these
bugs are step siblings. (light guitar music)

Amazing Insect Camouflage in Nature | Bugs, Insects & Spiders | Love Nature

Amazing Insect Camouflage in Nature | Bugs, Insects & Spiders | Love Nature


To avoid the keen eyes of predators these wonderbugs have
become masters of disguise. (gentle music) A six inch stick insect
gingerly makes its way to the end of a twig. If it weren’t for its movement, it would be almost impossible to discern. Made of chitin, insect
exoskeletons can take on any shape, color, or texture. Looking like a dead stick is apparently a very successful option. There are more than 3,000 different kinds of stick insects in the world. Each with a slightly different
interpretation of a stick. (dramatic music) Just another stick in the forest? No, it’s a grasshopper. When not feeding, this
four inch South American horsehead grasshopper
stands absolutely still. Like stick insects, it’s
opted for the stick disguise. A case of convergent evolution. There are nearly 200 species
of these stick grasshoppers in South America that
look almost identical to the unrelated stick insects. It’s bizarrely elongated
head adds to the disguise and helps confuse predators. When is a leaf not a leaf? When it’s a katydid. Invisible when still. When it does have to
move it tries its best to look just life a leaf
blowing in the wind. In the dense undergrowth of the jungle, there are just so many
options for camouflage. Leaves, twigs, and flowers abound, of all shapes and sizes. But don’t be fooled,
this too is an insect, hiding in plain sight. It’s a leaf insect, one of
elite masters of disguise. Covered in the same intricate pattern of veins as real leaves. It’s another example
of convergent evolution with the leaf-like katydid. Eventually real leaves shrivel and die. But this just adds to
the options for mimicry. A dead leaf mantis wafts
gently in the breeze. To complete the disguise
the bug’s flattened thorax looks like a leaf that’s going moldy. And that’s even been nibbled on. It’s wing cases look
like curled up leaves, complete with veins. This extraordinary
deception enables the mantis to hide from those that would eat it. But it too is a predator, all mantids are, and their disguise sets them
up for the perfect ambush. (dramatic music) Here an orchid mantis sits exposed, looking like a flower. And rocks in the breeze
to complete its disguise. Evolution has perfected this
mimicry to such a degree the mantis even reflects
ultraviolet light. Copying the way real
flowers attract insects to feed on their nectar. But lurking beneath this cloak of deceit is a ruthless hunter licking its chops. (dramatic music) When it’s finished there’s
not a scrap of evidence left to betray this lethal bloom. We know there are millions
of species of bugs out there. But how many more are
waiting to be discovered, hiding in plain sight?

Magnetic Termites: Leading You Out of the Australian Outback

Magnetic Termites: Leading You Out of the Australian Outback


Hi Guys. I am Trisha with Insectopia here to talk to
you about magnetic termites. These termites build tall mounds that some
people say bear a resemblance to headstones. They build them in plains and they all face
the same direction. Mostly North-South, which is where they get
the name magnetic. But why in the world would they build a mound
that is 9-12 feet high with a North/South axis of 7 feet, and an East/West axis of only
3 feet? The leading hypothesis for their North/South
orientation is, temperature control. In the early morning the termites spend their
time on the east wall to warm up. By noon, when the day is hottest and the sun
is directly overhead in the Australian Outback, the termite mound is thin so the mound does
not have a large amount of surface area that the sun can heat. As the day is ending, the mound can pick up
enough heat to make it through the night. How does this help you? Well, now with the knowledge that the termite
mounds are built North to South. The next time that you are lost and wandering
around the Australian Outback and you run into one of these mounds, you will have a
50/50 shot at picking North instead of walking around completely lost. Before we dive into this mound, I want to
clear up a common misconception. Termites are eusocial cockroaches. Let’s try to clear this up a little, termites
are a kind of cockroach and are closer related to grasshoppers, praying mantids, and walking
sticks than they are to ants. This has to do with termites having an incomplete
metamorphosis and ants having a complete metamorphosis. Now, let’s look inside of this mound. In each mound there are varying ages of individuals
from eggs to adults and the individuals are specialized for different jobs. These special groups of individuals are called
castes. The 5 castes are: queen, king, soldier, worker,
and reproductive. The life cycle of a termite mound goes something
like this: The queen lays every egg in the colony and
is the mother to every individual in the colony other than the king. The eggs are cared for by the workers. In fact, the workers do all of the hard work
in the colony. They clean and repair the nest, gather food
and water, care for the young, construct the tunnels and galleries, and control the numbers
of soldiers and reproductives by killing and eating them based on chemical cues. The workers are very busy. Every single worker in the termite mound is
a nymph and most of them will stay nymphs for their entire life. These insects never molt into adulthood! It is as if most termites live in Peter Pan’s
Neverland. The lucky few individuals that come into adulthood
turn into either soldiers or reproductives. The soldiers have large mandibles and it is
their job to protect the colony. The reproductives gain wings and will wait
around in the colony until the external conditions are right so that they can go on a mating
flight. On a mating flight, a reproductive female
and a reproductive male will mate and become a king and queen. They will land on the ground and shed their
wings. The queen will find an ideal location to start
a colony. At that point, it is the king’s job to tend
for the colony and the eggs until there are workers to do these jobs. The king will stay by the side of the queen
in her chamber for the rest of his life. The queen will become as large as a human
index finger and lay an egg every 3 seconds. She actually becomes so large that she is
no longer able to move or leave the chamber that she is in. The workers will carry the eggs to another
chamber and care for them. This is how the cycle starts anew. These are real life pictures of the magnetic
termite’s mounds. This is what a termite looks like in real
life. On the left you can see an egg on the right
you can see a worker. On the left you can see a soldier and on the
right you can see a reproductive. On this final slide you can see a queen. Thank you for listening! If you have any questions about magnetic termites
or a thought on which caste you would be if you were a termite, let us know in the comment
section below! Make sure to like, comment, and subscribe
for more videos like this one. I will be posting videos frequently. Come and check out our next epic insect tale.

Giant CENTIPEDE | Day 4 BUGMAS 2016:  a bug eating countdown to Christmas

Giant CENTIPEDE | Day 4 BUGMAS 2016: a bug eating countdown to Christmas


Greetings my lovelies. Hi, it’s Emmy. Welcome back to another day of Bugmas. Today we have… Giant centipede. So this is Day 4 of Bugmas 2016. If you’ve missed the previous days I shall put the links down below. And I shall put also the playlist from last year’s Bugmas as well. All right, let’s go ahead and see what’s inside this bag. Based on the picture, this looks a lot like mukade, which is the Japanese word for a type of centipede that you can sometimes find in your house. We actually found one in our apartment when we lived in Japan. The bite is actually quite painful, as my husband found out. Similar to a bee sting, if you are allergic to the venom, it can be potentially life-threatening. Because their exoskeletons are so hard, you can’t just squash them. You have to actually have to drop them into boiling water. At any rate, I learned a little bit about the fun of Japan while eliminating the mukade. And I’m curious to see if this at all is similar. Oh. My. God. All right, so most of the time these are reflective on both sides. Like this packet right here. This one is clear. Can you see that? Okay, let me show you what this centipede looks like, my friends. Holy…smokes. This is gnarly. I’m not usually affected by these insects but this is…this is a big, big critter. Check this out. Wow. Wow… yeah. This actually looks very similar to the mukade that I exterminated in Japan. Although this one is much thicker. This one looks a little bit wider… …in terms of its body. But about the same length. And… similar kind of sharp pointy legs. Yup! And there — this looks very similar on the bottom. See these big, big, big pincers? Yup, that’s what it looked like. And it is very, very crunchy. It has a smell. It smells slightly toxic. Smells a bit like Raid. And leather. Well besides the size of this, what I also find worrisome is how hard this is. [clinking sounds] Like against my palm. Look at the size of that. In terms of shock factor, I think this is right up there with the waterbug that I had last year. I was just really surprised at how large the thing was. And, uh, yeah. Let’s see how it tastes. Itadakimasu. [crispy crunch] [crunching] Hmm. Mm. It definitely tastes better than it smells. It does still taste residually of Raid, which is worrisome. I don’t know what Raid tastes like. It tastes a little bit medicinal; slightly bitter. A little bit like dirt. And kind of leathery. I was… pleasantly surprised by the crunch. It’s a lot crunchier than I thought it was going to be. I thought this was going to be hard and difficult to get through. But it wasn’t. It’s not bad at all. It does leave a livery aftertaste, which I don’t find exactly pleasant. But… not as bad as I thought it was going to be. So I don’t think I’ll be snacking on any giant centipedes in the near future, but… I’m glad I tried it. All right! I hope you guys enjoyed that. I hope you guys learned something. Tune in tomorrow for the last day of Bugmas. Follow me on social media; share this video with your friends; like this video so I know you like this video series. And, yeah! I shall see you in my next video. Toodle-loo. Take care. Bye! Happy holidays! “What’s goin’ on?” Oh nothing, just snacking on some, y’know, centipede.

5 Most Beautiful Insects You Won’t Believe Are Real

5 Most Beautiful Insects You Won’t Believe Are Real


5 Beautiful Insects You Won’t Believe Are
Real. Number 5. Dactylotum bicolor looks like it’s one of
those “paint-by-numbers” projects with all those amazing colors! In reality though, it’s called a Rainbow Grasshopper
or Painted Grasshopper. Native to the United States, Canada and northern
Mexico, this grasshopper grows to an average length of about 20 mm (0.8 in) for males and
35 mm (1.4 in) for females. It is mainly black with distinctive reddish
and yellowish markings, a pale green prothorax and pale green wingpads. The tibia of the hind leg bears six to eight
spines, and this species does not develop wings and is unable to fly. Number 4. The spiny Flower Mantis, or Pseudocreobotra
wahlbergii, is a beautiful and colorful flower mantis with natural range in sub-Saharan Africa. They are white with orange and green stripes,
and as adults they have a beautiful patch of color on their wings that looks like an
eye. An easy way to tell males from females is
to look at the length of their wings: A female’s wings will reach to the end of her abdomen,
while a male’s wings will extend past it. Number 3. There are a number of Ruby-tailed wasp species
that look very similar and are difficult to tell apart. They’re all beautifully coloured, with red,
blue, green and bronze metallic colours. These wasps are solitary, meaning they don’t
live in large social nests. Being barely 10mm in length, they can be difficult
to spot. You can often see them running restlessly
over walls and tree trunks, constantly using their downward-curving antennae to pick up
the scent of their host insect. As a parasite they require another species
for part of their life cycle, Chrysis ignita mainly parasitizes mason bees and other solitary
bees. Number 2. Maratus speciosus, sometimes called the coastal
peacock spider, is an Australian species of jumping spider. They are only known to inhabit the vegetation
of the coastal sand dunes of southwestern Western Australia. Like other Maratus spiders, the males of the
species engage in a courtship display during which they raise their third pair of legs
and their abdomen, presenting their colorful opisthosomal plate
to potential female partners. Unlike other Maratus, however, the males of
this species have a set of bright orange hairs (setae) along both edges of the opisthosoma
which only become visible during this display. Number 1. Greta oto may sound like the name of a silent
movie star from Eastern Europe but is in fact the scientific name for one of the most exquisite,
and little known, species of butterfly on the planet. This butterfly’s claim to fame is that its
wings, spanning up to six centimeters, are almost completely transparent. That’s right, you can see just about right
through them. The common English name for this remarkable
butterfly is glasswing, which in itself speaks volumes about the appearance of this small
but unusual insect. However, it takes the romance languages to
step in and give the butterfly the name which, for many, suits it best. The Spanish name for the glasswing is “espejitos”. Literally translated, this means little mirrors. Just a glance at the insect in question and
one can imagine the thrill of pleasure when the moment of inspiration that came to its
Hispanic name giver.

Insect Lore’s Butterfly Feeder

Insect Lore’s Butterfly Feeder


Butterfly Feeder. Fill it like a
hummingbird feeder. With this colorful butterfly feeder,
butterflies on the go can get the same sweet treatment as their hummingbird
friends. Mix together some nectar. Easy recipe
included. Pour it into the feeder’s reservoir, hang
your feeder from a limb, or set it on a flat surface and wait for
wild butterflies to arrive to drink from the colorful flowery wicks. Entomologist approved, this beautiful
feeder will provide hours of enjoyment for the whole
family. Ages 4 and up.

GCTV7: Overcoming Phosphine Resistant Insects

GCTV7: Overcoming Phosphine Resistant Insects


GCTV Ep#7 Phosphine Resistance Narrator:
All around the world wherever grain is held in storage, insect contamination is a problem.
Insects can reduce stored grain’s quality; reduce the price growers receive for their
grain; and in Australia, result in grain deliveries to export
facilities being rejected if live insects are present.
The way to get rid of the insects is to use fumigation but the insects have been fighting
back. Rob Emery: Senior Entomologist DAFWA
“In Western Australia there’s the Rust-red Flour beetle that is very common and has started
to develop strong resistance but there’s also
the Lesser Grain Borer which is a much more damaging insect.” Narrator:
What these insects are developing resistance to is the chemical that grain growers have
come to rely on most. Tony Crowley: Reporter
“For more than 40 years Phosphine has been a safe and reliable fumigant for the control
of insects in stored grain. Over 80 percent of
all stored grain is fumigated with this chemical but
insects are starting to build resistance to it. So when a previously resistant strain
of Red Flour Beetle here in WA was eradicated using Phosphine
it was a remarkable result.” Narrator:
No-one in Australia, quite possibly no-one in the world, has scientifically documented
such a result before.
While many grain-producing countries rely on phosphine to disinfest their stored grain
Australia is the only country with a national phosphine-resistance
monitoring program. A program supported by the Grains Research
and Development Corporation and the Co- operative Research Centre for National Plant
Biosecurity. Western Australia began to monitor for Phosphine
resistance in the early 1980’s some 15 years before the national project commenced. It
was to be the foundation on which this remarkable achievement was built. Rob Emery:
“The lead up to the Wubin eradication was the detection of strong resistance in Rust-red
Flour beetle. Now we’d been expecting that strong
resistance to develop for sometime because it had
been found in the eastern states and we noticed in Western Australia through our monitoring
that weak resistance gradually increasing and we
know that when weak resistance becomes common strong resistance soon arrives.” Narrator:
Three years ago near Wubin in WA’s northern agricultural region that strong resistance
arrived. An isolated insect population had built resistance
to phosphine because of poor on-farm storage hygiene and an inadequate fumigation process. Chris Newman: Senior technical Officer, DAFWA
“The farmer had been fumigating incorrectly for about 11 years. Simply punching holes
in phosphine containers and hanging them in the
head space means that the gas is released exceptionally slowly and there was a very
high selection pressure in the head-space of the silo.” Narrator:
In Western Australia the clinical approach is to first use a rapid test to determine
phosphine resistance so that action can be taken as
soon as possible. Insects are separated from the grain sample,
dosed with a precise amount of phosphine then left
for half an hour. Michelle Chami: Technical Officer, DAFWA
“We’d hope to see in a susceptible strain of insects that there’s no life or appears
to be no life, they’re all knocked down after 30 minutes.
In a resistant sample we’d see some life so some
normalcy in the insects.” Narrator:
The insect sample from the Wubin site was strongly resistant and indicated that urgent
action was required. Chris Newman:
“Rob Emery asked me if I would have a look at the situation on this particular farm,
Michelle had already indicated that it was starting to
look very interesting and so I first went up to the farm and
assessed the situation, discovered what the fumigation practice was; looked at the silos;
looked at the hygiene around the farm and decided
that it was possible that we could do an eradication of the insects on the farm.” Narrator:
Proper hygiene and fumigations were maintained for the next couple of years.
Empty silos cleaned and treated with diatomaceous earth.
Silo seals were renewed and pressure tests conducted.
And when filled with grain the silos were fumigated using the correct procedures.
The final result was that the strongly resistant beetles were eliminated. And what was even
better news was that they had been beaten by the
fumigant they’d build a strong resistance to …
Phosphine. Chris Newman:
“The most important aspect of it was that although we’d eliminated the insects in
the silos we needed to check that the insects that were
flying into the area were also not strong resistance.
And so I put an environmental trap under the silos which was essentially a large rubbish
bin full of grain and sieved the insects out of that on
a regular basis and submitted them to the labs for
Michelle to test and found that there was no strong resistance left in the insects that
were flying into the farm.” Narrator:
The United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organisation’s resistance test is the more
exacting procedure used to determine both frequency
and level of resistance and it was the next step the
WA team used to document the Wubin experience. The FAO established this test 30 years ago
and it’s been accepted internationally as the standard. Michelle Chami:
“It’s a discriminating dose test so we put a certain dose into the same number of
insects, a hundred per replicate of 3, for a 20 hour
test and that tells us whether or not that population has
strong resistance. I inject a sample that I take out of the desiccators into the gas
chromatograph and make sure that that reading is what I
expect for the concentration required.” Narrator:
The lab’s confirmation that the strongly resistant population of Rust-red Flour beetle
had been eliminated was the news the WA team had been
hoping for. Chris Newman:
“Oh extremely pleased to put it mildly. It’s the first time I believe that its been
recorded that we’ve eliminated the insects from the farm and the
environment. Certainly there have been a lot of
fumigations over East where strong resistance has been eliminated from the storage but in
this case we’ve proved that the insects are no
longer existing around the farm environment itself.” Narrator:
Helping to underpin the program’s work is a national grain insect resistance database
currently holdings the results of more than 60 thousand
tests. Between 1985 and 1990 samples were mainly
recorded in WA and NSW and weak resistance to phosphine was already widespread.
In the next 10 years more sites were sampled and weak resistance was now found in most
locations around the nation. And from Queensland to South Australia strong
resistance was building. As well as tracking resistance the National
Phosphine Resistance Monitoring program developed better fumigation protocols and recommended
changes to phosphine labels. These changes removed incorrect practice and provide the
basis for more improved management of strongly resistant insects. Rob Emery:
”Yeah well this work obviously highlighted the need for continued research and development
on phosphine resistance because it shows that
not only were we able to detect a problem we were
able to deal with that problem as well. But we also learned from that resistance and the
different resistances around Australia that we have
resistance management strategies that allows us to
advise farmers and bulk handlers on how best to use phosphine to avoid resistance developing
in future.” Narrator:
As was the case at Wubin, repeated incorrect fumigations are the biggest risk to maintaining
phosphine as an effective control of grain storage insects.
And a GRDC survey in 2010 found only 36 percent of grain growers using phosphine applied it
correctly. Chris Newman:
“Phosphine resistance doesn’t mean to say you can’t control grain insects. It
just means you have to be better at your fumigation, that
there must be no gas leakage below the required concentration for the correct length of time.
And so controlling very strong resistance is simply a
means of increasing the time and the dose rate to control the very strong resistant
insects. Once they’ve been controlled you can go back
to normal fumigation practice on your own farm.” Narrator:
Used correctly Phosphine will give grain growers many more years of reliable insect control
in their sealed grain storages and fewer episodes
such as Wubin. ENDS 3

Flesh Eaters: Carnivorous Plants Lure Insects Into Their Deadly Clutches

Flesh Eaters: Carnivorous Plants Lure Insects Into Their Deadly Clutches


00:05
COMM: These carnivorous plants make light work of any insects that stray into their
deadly clutches. 00:14
COMM: The Cape sundew, native to South Africa, lures ants and flies in with drops of sweet
smelling fluid on the highly adhesive tentacles that line its leaves. 00:29
COMM: Surrounding tentacles then move further to ensnare the insect, before glands on the
leaf start to release digestive enzymes. 00:43
COMM: A Venus flytrap leaf is divided into to halfs, fringed with stiff spikes. Each
plant carries three touch sensitive hairs, and when two are touched in quick succession,
the trap is triggered, imprisoning the fly. 01:10
COMM: And while these carnivorous plants are short on mercy, some fortunate creatures do
live to fight another day.