Bugs Eating Bugs Up Close | Insects, Bugs & Scorpions | Love Nature

Bugs Eating Bugs Up Close | Insects, Bugs & Scorpions | Love Nature


To all the different kinds of bugs that live here, the
forest is a giant buffet. (optimistic music) This giant grasshopper is a herbivore. It has the basic insect tool
kit, three sets of mouth pods. It uses sideways slicing jagged mandibles like scissors to cut up leaves. The other two sets carry jaungent
palps that taste the food, before the grasshopper bites into it. This multi-blade, Swiss
Army knife of tools, evolved from primitive legs and with a few minor modifications can be used to tackle many different
items on the insect menu. This African ground beetle is a carnivore. It hunts on the forest floor but it won’t be a high speed chase. It hunts slugs. These defenseless mollusks seem to just wait to get captured. The beetle’s mandibles have pointed tips, more like curved daggers
than scissors perfect for piercing the gelatinous
slug and dragging it off. (anxious music) The mandibles also serve as steak knives. Below the pointed tips, sharp blades chop up slight meat
into bite sized pieces. (eats loudly) Covered in slime, there’s
no elegant way to eat a slug but the little African
ground beetle is no slob, keeping it’s mouth parts and legs clean is vital to its survival. So after it finishes a meal it finds a napkin to wipe itself clean. This bit of leaf will do nicely. Grasshoppers and beetles
use the insect equivalent of knives and forks to cut
and then chew their food. This stealthy assassin bug
prefers to stab and suck. All three sets of mouth
parts are molded into a long sharp beak, or rostrum. Strong enough to puncture
the armor of its prey, in this case, a wandering cockroach. (foreboding music) The beak is hollow. When it pierces the
roach’s tough exoskeleton, it injects a deadly fast-acting poison which dissolves the prey from the inside. Then, with straw already inserted, the assassin bug slurps up
the gourmet cockroach soup. (slurping) This South African rock scorpion isn’t an insect, it’s an arachnid so it starts with a
different basic toolkit. One set of primitive
legs has been transformed into giant claws called pedipalps evolved to grab and hold the
prey using brute strength, though it’s a bit of overkill
on a little wood louse. (creepy music) Scorpions don’t have mandibles, instead, another much
smaller pair of claws, the chelicerae, reinforced
with heavy metals for toughness tear and shred it’s meal before passing morsels into it’s
mouth hidden from view. All arthropod mouth parts
started out as primitive legs but evolution as transformed
those basic jointed limbs into different structures,
from claws to straws. It’s just one of the reasons
for their incredible success.

Managing Garden Insects Begins with a Question: Friend or Foe?

Managing Garden Insects Begins with a Question: Friend or Foe?


[Background music]>>Managing garden insects
begins with a question. “Friend or Foe?” One of the most common
questions that people ask entomologists about
insects in the garden is “How do I kill it?” However, many kinds of insects
are actually helpful in the garden and getting rid of them
can lead to problems. Before you decide whether
an insect is friend or foe, you must first answer
the important question “What is it?” The answer will tell you
if it is a useful partner, a minor problem, or has
the potential to become a serious problem. Once you know what it is,
you can easily learn where it lives, how it
lives and if necessary, the options for
effective management. The most sensible and
intelligent option for managing insect
pests is IPM or Integrated Pest Management. IPM allows us to reduce
reliance on one single method, like the use of pesticides,
which is not always the most effective or environmentally
friendly option. IPM allows us to
make intelligent and thoughtful decisions
about pest management. The steps of IPM are: • Monitor the garden • Identify the problem pest • Evaluate the situation and
predict the impact of the damage • Then make a decision about
the best course of action and
choose your control methods. Insects are the most diverse
creatures in the world and they also play many roles
in the environment. At any given time,
your home garden may have over 1,000 different insects. Some people consider insects
as ‘bugs’ or pests that are annoying and must
be destroyed. It is not possible or even
desirable to get rid of all the insects in the garden. Many insects are garden
friends, others are foes and a wise gardener
knows the difference. Among the million or more
insect species known on earth, less than 3% cause
problems to humankind and can be called ‘pests.’ The other 97% are
either harmless or actually beneficial. Let’s start with some
of the friends or the helpful insects
in your garden. Most people are aware
of beneficial insects that pollinate our crops, and
provide us with products like honey, beeswax and silk. Insects also serve as food for
birds, fish and other animals, so they are important
links in the food chain and for maintaining
ecological balance. Through biological control,
harmful insect populations can be reduced by using
other live organisms, including insects. Sometimes natural enemies are
mass-produced and released. However, in a landscape
or home garden situation, it may be difficult to
introduce, release, or retain commercially-reared predator
insects or parasitoids. So the best thing to do
is conserve the existing natural enemies and avoid
practices that harm them, such as, unnecessary
insecticide use. Predatory insects and
other natural enemies can be attracted to
your garden simply by providing food, water,
and shelter through a diverse array of
plant material. Planting a variety of pollen
and nectar bearing flowers can help conserve and
increase the number of beneficial insects
in your garden. Predatory insects are
especially beneficial in the garden because they
eat harmful insect pests. Predators are generally larger
than their prey and faster. They have to capture and
eat many individuals to complete their life cycle. Birds, amphibians, reptiles,
fish, spiders, and insects are examples of predators
that eat insects. Let’s focus on some
common predators. Spiders are some of the most
common and important predators that can be found in a
landscape or garden. Most are general predators
that feed on a variety of prey. Spiders can be easily
identified by their body shape and eight legs. Although there are several
mites that can cause significant damage to plants, there are also some predatory
mites that prey on pest mites as well as small insects
like whiteflies and thrips. Predatory mites are
similar to pest mites, with 8 legs and no
antennae or wings, but they are often larger,
more colorful and move more rapidly than pest mites. Many of the true bugs
– Heteroptera – are predators and prey on other smaller,
soft-bodied insects like aphids, white flies
and even caterpillars. Assassin bugs are
relatively large. Some can be identified by the
wheel-like structure on their back and are often called
‘Wheel bugs’ because of this. Damsel bugs are smaller
and have large eyes. Both of these hunters have a strong proboscis
– long flexible snout- that can pierce the
exoskeleton of other insects. Other true bugs, such as shield bugs,
also known as stink bugs, may be either hunters
or plant eaters, depending on the species. Some insect
eating stinkbugs, unlike their plant-
feeding counterparts, have spine-like extensions
on their shoulders; for example, the
two-spined soldier bug. Plant bugs can
also be pests. Once again, check
the proboscis. The plant eating bugs will
have a delicate proboscis. Population size is
another indicator of the insect’s
dining habits. Often 10 to 100 individuals
of a plant eating species will be found on a plant
whereas populations of a predatory species will
be relatively low, with less than 10
individuals per plant. Green and Brown Lacewings are
very common predators found in gardens and are
fairly easy to identify because of their distinctive
lace-like wing pattern. Adults feed on pollen and
small, soft-bodied insects like aphids, lace bugs,
and mites. Larvae are voracious predators
with powerful sickle-shaped mandibles – grasping
appendages near the mouth. Lacewing eggs are an easy to
identify treat in the garden. Each egg floats above
the leaf surface, supported by a
thread-like strand. This may serve to
prevent cannibalism among the young larvae
as they hatch. Praying Mantids are also large
and powerful predators. They use their strong
front legs to capture and devour their prey. They are easily recognized
and widely praised for their hunting prowess. However, they eat both
friends and foes including other praying
mantids, so they may not be the most dependable
hunter in the garden. Still who can
resist their charms? Several families of beetles
are voracious predators both as larvae
and as adults. Some of these may be common
in your garden such as Ground Beetles, Tiger Beetles
and Rove Beetles. These predators can
be identified by their sickle-shaped
crossing mandibles. Wasps, like paper wasps
and yellow jackets should be welcome in the garden because
they do not attack plants but instead protect them
by feeding primarily on caterpillars. They have strong mandibles
for chewing prey, as well as a proboscis which they use
to suck nectar from flowers. Please do not attempt to
check their mouthparts! They are related to bees
and may sometimes show aggressive behavior by
stinging when disturbed. Give them plenty of space. Flies, such as syrphid
or flower flies and robber flies can be
very important predators. Syrphid flies can be
voracious feeders on aphids and will be attracted
to pest populations even when they
are low in number. They often mimic bees
or wasps and appear to hover in flight
like hummingbirds. Robber flies have
heart-shaped heads with an indentation between
the eyes and a “bearded” face. These flies may also
mimic wasps and bees. They are often seen
capturing prey in flight. You are probably familiar
with parasites, like ticks or fleas. They are generally much
smaller than their hosts and live on or within
the host for part or all of their life cycle. Generally they don’t
kill their hosts. Insect parasitoids
are different. They kill their hosts
by eating them. Adult parasitoids
often lay their eggs inside or on the host. The immature parasitoids
hatch and consume their host
during development. Many insect parasitoids
are found in the order containing wasps,
Hymenoptera. Some are very specific
in prey selection, others prey on a
wide variety of pests. Parasitic wasps attack
caterpillars and aphids. They lay eggs in the host
and when the larvae emerge, they consume the host. These wasps leave behind
mummified hosts. The mummies have darkened
shells with exit holes, from which the adult
parasitoid emerged. Sometimes the parasitoid
will pupate on the host; other species will pupate
near the dead host. Parasitic wasps are also
very effective against scale insects, and when
large numbers of exit holes can be seen on scale insects,
avoid spraying insecticides to conserve these
natural enemies. As every gardener knows, not all garden insects
are beneficial. Insects are often the cause
of the unsightly damage seen on our plants. In many cases, the insect
damage may weaken the plant and predispose
it to diseases. Destructive insects
can be divided into four basic categories
based on the type of damage they cause to plants: chewing, discoloration,
distortion, and die back. Chewed, shredded, torn
and skeletonized leaves, flowers, buds, and fruits
can be symptoms of insect damage on plants. This kind of damage is
caused by insects with cutting and chewing mouthparts. These insects have
powerful mandibles that cut up plant parts. Examples of such insects are caterpillars of
butterflies and moths and larvae of sawflies, larvae and adults of beetles,
and grasshoppers. Discoloration of leaves
by stippling, flecking, bleaching or bronzing,
with no actual damage to the shape or size
of leaves is often caused by insects with piercing
and sucking mouthparts. This damage is caused when the
insects insert their slender, needle-like mouthparts
into the leaf tissue and draw out plant sap. In the process, they’ll also
damage the surrounding cells which results in destruction
of chlorophyll leading to the leaf discoloration. The discoloration begins as
small white flecks or stipples and gradually the entire
leaf may become chlorotic or bleached in appearance. Some insects that cause this
type of damage are lace bugs, aphids, plant hoppers,
white flies, and leaf hoppers. Mites and thrips are
very small and may not be visible with
the naked eye. Sometimes webbing may
be seen in plants affected by mites. Thrips – adults
and juveniles – can be identified
under a microscope. Distortion of plant parts
into abnormal shapes or structures can also be
a sign of insect damage. For example, galls on leaves,
flowers or stems, leaf curling
or cupping and abnormally twisted
leaves or stems. This type of damage can be
caused by different insects like thrips, aphids, larvae
of some wasps and moths, and also gall mites. It is important to note
that some plant diseases can also cause galls. Sometimes twigs, stems,
or branches or even the entire plant appear
to wilt and eventually die. This symptom, called die back,
can be caused by insects. These dead twigs and branches
are retained on the plant. This damage is typical
of scale insects because they are not mobile
and severely deplete the branch or twig
of plant sap. Some moth larvae and
beetles that bore into stems can also
cause this symptom. In addition to damage or
symptoms, insect products, often called signs, such as
fecal spots, honey dew, frass, and cast skins are solid
evidence of their presence and/or activity on the plant. These may not be directly
harmful to the plant and often remain on the plant
for long periods of time even after the
insect has left. Make sure there is an
active infestation on the plant before considering the
application of an insecticide. Sooty mold, a charcoal black
fungus grows on honey dew secreted by sap feeding
insects such as aphids, mealybugs, scales,
and white flies. It is another common
sign of insect activity. Though sooty mold appears
to grow on the plants, it is not a plant disease,
and is a clear indication of an insect infestation. At times, sooty mold can
also grow on other surfaces like in this picture. You can see how the honey dew
dripping from the tree above caused sooty mold on the wall
and road along the tree line. If the insect
is controlled, the sooty mold will
go away on its own. Chewing, distortion,
discoloration and die back symptoms can be caused by a
wide variety of insects and often a single pest may cause
different types of symptoms. Similar symptoms can be
caused by plant disease or even abiotic causes such
as environmental stress, extreme heat, drought,
cold injury or chemicals. Once potential insect
damage has been identified, the next step is to
look for insects. Symptoms and signs alone
do not warrant action. When you see any of these
symptoms, look for insects. Carefully check both
sides of the leaves and carefully study the stems. Look in the branch forks
and all around the flowers. Insects can be
very good at hiding. After locating
suspected pests, the next step is to
identify the host plant. Once you know the
name of the plant, you can easily discover
the common pests associated with it. At this stage in
your diagnosis your County Extension Agent
will be a great resource. Each state has a
Pest Control Handbook that will suggest control
measures if needed. Remember to consider
the severity of the infestation and damage,
plant species involved, and any evidence of predator
or parasitoid activity before applying pesticides. We hope that this video will
help you identify the insect Friends and Foes that you
will commonly encounter in your gardens
and landscapes. You will be amazed at just how
astounding and fascinating the diverse world of
garden insects can be. In fact, if you take the
time to get to know them, you may find you enjoy
your garden insects as much as the plants! © 2012 University of Georgia College of Agricultural
and Environmental Sciences

Best Insect Fogger Reviews 2017 – How to Choose the Best Insect Fogger

Best Insect Fogger Reviews 2017 – How to Choose the Best Insect Fogger


## http://topproducts.com/reviews/best-insect-fogger.htm TopProducts.com Search topproducts.com for the best product
reviews online. Top Products presents, our pick for the top
5 Insect Foggers. For this review, we chose 5 brands known for
quality Insect Foggers, showcasing a variety of options that are available. At the number 5 spot is the Black Flag Indoor
Insect Fogger chosen not only for its features, but also because of its budget friendly price
tag. Founded in 1833, Black Flag has been killing
insects and bugs for years using effective products without harming humans and pets. The Black Flag Indoor Insect Fogger comes
in a pack of six and kills on contact. This insect fogger is affordable, effective,
and contains six foggers. It kills on contact for up to 12 weeks, leaving
no mess. However, it best does this for home use, and
isn’t sufficient for large-scale commercial use. Next on our list at number 4, is the Hot Shot
Pest Control Insect Fogger Hot Shot is a company with a focus on manufacturing
some of the most effective insect and pest control products. The Hot Shot Insect Fogger comes in a pack
of six for indoor use with a penetrating formula to reach inaccessible places where insects
and bugs hide. This insect fogger kills fast on contact,
controls heavy infestation, and is affordable. It keeps on killing insects for two months. While this fogger is wonderful for indoor
and home use, those looking for a commercial use fogger may need to look elsewhere. The next product on our list was chosen because
it is a great choice for people who are looking for an Insect Fogger with lots of bells and
whistles. At number 3 we have the Hudson Electric Indoor
Insect Fogger. Hudson is a global manufacturing company with
more than one hundred years’ experience in the sprayer business category. With an average output of 20 microns particles,
the Hudson Electric Indoor Insect Fogger is designed for portable handheld or stationary
hands-free use indoors. This insect fogger is lightweight, powerful,
and has an adjustable output. It’s also effective, durable, and can shoot
up to 100 feet. While great for indoor use, it can’t be
used outdoors, especially if you’re going camping. When choosing the right Insect Fogger for
your needs, TopProducts knows that budget can be an important consideration and our
number 2 pick, the Repel Propane Insect Fogger takes the spot for best value. Repel is a brand that focuses on manufacturing
personal insect repellents and products you can use outdoors. The Repel Propane Insect Fogger is designed
to cover a large surface area, dispersing in about five minutes so you can start partying
or barbecuing. This insect fogger is compact and effective,
using extra-fine microscopic particles. Though this fogger is quite efficient, one
customer complained that the pump broke, which is something to keep in mind. And finally, the Burgess Propane Insect Fogger
made it to our Top Choice position because it provides a good array of features with
an affordable price. Burgess is a subsidiary of the Fountainhead
Group, Inc., and manufactures sprayers, foggers, and backpacks. Designed to disperse in five minutes, the
Burgess Propane Insect Fogger kills and repels all insects within a large surface area for
immediate use. This insect fogger is lightweight, effective,
and disperses quickly. It kills insects, repelling them for six hours. On the con side, this insect fogger only uses
insecticides branded Cutter, Black Flag, or Repel, hence limiting you to just a few options. These are our top 5 Insect Foggers. We hope you enjoyed watching our review. Until next time, take care. Click now to subscribe to our youtube channel
and like this video. Don’t forget to like our Facebook page and
visit us at topproducts.com for more everyday product reviews.

Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look

Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look


Pill bugs…… roly polies….. potato bugs… whatever you want to call them, somehow there’s something less creepy about these guys than other insects. More loveable, or something. Maybe it’s because they’re not insects
at all. Pill bugs are actually crustaceans. They’re more closely related to shrimp and
lobsters than crickets or beetles. Pill bugs even taste like shellfish, if you
cook them right. Some adventurous foragers call them wood shrimp. As early as 300 million years ago, some intrepid
ancestor crawled out of the ocean, sensing there might be more to eat, or less competition,
on dry land.” But unlike lobsters, pillbugs can roll up
into a perfect little ball for protection. If you look closely you can see the evidence
of where these guys came from. Like their ocean-dwelling cousins, pill bugs
still use gills to breathe. True insects — like this cricket — use a
totally different system. See those tiny holes on this cricket’s abdomen? They’re called spiracles. They lead to a series of tubes that bring
fresh air directly to the insect’s cells. But pill bugs don’t have any of that. To survive on land, they had to adapt. Their gills, called pleopods, are modified
to work in air. Folds in the pleopod gills developed into
hollow branched structures, almost like tiny lungs. In a way, the pillbug is only halfway to becoming
a true land animal. Because… they’re still gills. They need to be kept moist in order to work. Which is why you usually find pill bugs in
moist places, like under damp, rotting logs. They can’t venture too far away. Sure, pill bugs look like the most ordinary
of bugs. But they’re much more than that: evidence
that over evolutionary time, species make big, life-changing leaps. And those stories are written on their bodies. Hey, while we’re on the subject of oddball
crustaceans… check out this episode about mantis shrimp. Their eyes see colors we can’t even
comprehend. Their punch is faster than Muhammad Ali’s. And while we have you: Subscribe. OK? Thank you! And see you next time.

Collecting Insects in Rotting Logs

Collecting Insects in Rotting Logs


One of my favorite places to look for insects is inside rotting logs. You might think there’s not a lot there, but with some tips and techniques and the right tools you’ll be able to find a wide variety of these special treasures. So i’m going to go ahead and start chopping into this log I know this is a good log because if you listen to that sound, i’ll get closer with my microphone. You can hear its kind of hollow and you can tell it’s not hard. What you do not want is hardwood like this over here. So this wood you can hear that’s extra hard. That extra hard wood is not going to have hardly any insects in it. What you want is this really hollow stuff and inside of here we’re going to find all sorts of larvae and also different types of insects. So what we actually have for a tool here today is a hammer, and this is even just a small hammer. So you could get just about any hammer and use that to be able to accomplish this task. If you want some nicer tools you could use like a wonderbar is what i’ve heard them called or like a crows foot or even use a crowbar, a big one if you wanted to get some really good leverage, but in reality i feel like you don’t even need that good of tools you just have to find the right type of wood and have lots of patience to be able to find insects. So i’m gonna go ahead and start chopping into here and let’s see if we can find anything interesting and we’ll see what we can find. I like to… So what i like to do here is I like to get a nice good hit in and then I like to peel it back in a way and see what I can find. So if you look right here we actually have stumbled across one of the most common wood dwelling insects that you’re ever going to find. This here is a termite soldier. You can tell this is a soldier because it has those extra big jaws and it is a little bit different from the others. So this is what a worker looks like right here. Termites are commonly found in moist wood. They’re an essential part of the environment because they actually help break down the rotting logs, and an interesting thing about them is that they’re able to feed on the wood because of the help of bacteria that are inside their stomachs, and these bacteria allow them to break down cellulose which is the main component of wood. If you do plan on adding termites to your collection make sure and collect either soldiers or alates which are the ones with the wings. Identifying termite workers is very difficult and professionals suggest collecting the other castes if you’re planning on adding them to your collection. You’re going to have to put them in alcohol and you’ll want to watch this video that just popped up on the screen so that you can find out how to properly preserve them. Termites are mostly blind and use chemicals primarily to communicate with one another, and also when you’re ripping off the wood look at both sides. On this side of the pieces there is a spider. You can also find scorpions too which I find quite often in rotting logs so make sure to be really careful.Today I didn’t have any on, but I typically will use gloves when I’m digging around in logs just in case I run across a scorpion or some spiders or something that could be venomous. Now if you’re in a rotting log and you run into ants like i did just now then it’s best to just pick another area of the log to work on. Ants are notorious predators and they’re usually going to kill off most other insects in whatever area they are in. They could also sting you or bite you so you want to be careful as well, and this will be the last shot of the termites I promise I’m gonna show you because there’s just so many of them and if you go chopping into rotting logs and you’re in the right areas you’re going to just be finding these things all over the place. When you’re out collecting you aren’t just going to find insects you can find all sorts of other organisms to like this mysterious slime mold which can actually move very slowly … and look here hope we found a cockroach and cockroaches like these live in wood too. The nice thing about working with wood is that insects that live here usually don’t fly so they don’t get away as often. The only problem is that they will usually go deeper into the wood so you have to keep after them and be quick. I also just want to mention that most roaches like these species are harmless to humans and actually helps out in the environment by recycling nutrients by feeding on rotting plants or animal material. I’m sure everyone who has ever picked up a rock and looked under it has seen what i like to call a rollie pollie and these are actually not insects they’re crustaceans so we’re not going to worry about them for our collection and i’m just going to put him back. Sometimes when you’re chopping into a log you might damage an insect just by chance. I have found with my experience that this rarely happens unless of course you are a termite and there are 5000 of you clustered together in a small area like here. So I’ve moved on to another log. In this log I found a funny-looking caterpillar and some caterpillars like this deadwoodborer moth caterpillar actually feed in wood, but these guys are actually feeding on fungi that is growing in the rotting wood so they’re not actually feeding on the wood like the termites are. Later on i came across this strange-looking larvae which is actually a young bess beetle and I’m really excited about this because bess beatles are just awesome. They’re the best, but they’re actually called best beatles. B-E-S-S. Anyways so there you go. I kept looking around and digging through the log nearby to see if i could find an adult. I’m going to keep digging because i really want to find an adult they’re pretty cool. So we just got an adult bess beetle too which are awesome for a collection or they can be really fun pets to raise. This one I’m going to raise in the lab to share with fellow insect enthusiastic and insect hunters at schools. So i’ll be taking this guy around with me for a while.So as you can see in less than an hour we found a lot of cool things so while out collecting in the logs you can find a lot of stuff. To finish off this episode I’m going to show you some other things that I have found while out collecting to give you an idea of what types of things you could find. One insect you might commonly find are Zopherid beetles which are also called ironclad beetles and these types of beetles are said to have some of the toughest exoskeletons of all insects, and I personally just think they look really neet. They’re kind of like tanks. I’ve also ran into mice before too. These guys I have to admit were pretty cute. Where there are insects they’re bound to be animals that feed on them. This lizzard was found in a huge rotting tree trunk. Even though our encounter was brief it was quite enjoyable. Last of all i had to show you my rotting log insect diamond that i found last year. This is a scarab beetle larvae perhaps of a Goliath beetle or something similar the day I found this thing I honestly had to stop and breathe for a moment because I was so shocked to find it I couldn’t believe that here in texas i could find a larva so big. Wow! This thing was huge and it was bigger than my thumb and I have pretty big thumbs my wife will testify to that. It took me quite a while to get used to holding this guy because I was so afraid of those big jaws because this thing is just a huge insect larva. These things actually feed on rotting logs too. As you can see from their feces. It goes to prove that even in rotting logs you can find exciting and amazing insect treasures just like this one! Thanks for coming along the journey with us. Here are some recommended videos for fellow insect hunters like you please comment and ask questions below and subscribe to stay tuned for all things insects!

How Do Insects Poop?

How Do Insects Poop?


The crapper. John. Dunny. Latrine. Loo. Porcelain
throne. Potty. There are more than one hundred words for toilet, but did you know that more
people have cellphones than a place to go poo? Hey there science fans! Dr. Kiki from This
Week in Science here for DNews. A study in the Public Library of Science journal
PLoS One this week investigated the sanitation habits of Lasius niger, otherwise called black
garden ants. On observing colonies of the ants in the laboratory, the researchers noticed
what looked like dark patches in the corners. To see whether the patches were indoor lavatories,
they fed the ants colored food. The result is hard to deny… the ants dedicate special
areas within their homes for defecation. But, why would ants use a toilet when the
whole world could be their bathroom? Humans and other animals tend to separate
the places where they eat and socialize from the places where they defecate. The reason
for this is thought to be mainly for sanitation. Excrement, feces, what you might call poop,
has the potential to harbor pathogenic bacteria and parasites. Human feces is known to contain
E. coli, which causes disease. Highly populated areas with poor or no sanitation often suffer
from devastating water-borne diseases because people live too close to waterways, and excrement
gets into the drinking water supply. So, good health and survival depend on the drive to
not poop where you eat. Social insects, like ants, have been observed
in many studies removing waste materials from their nests. And, like humans, it’s thought
to keep things clean, and provide for the health of the colony. Honey bees take their defecation outside,
and like to poop as they fly. Bee larvae don’t actually poop until they take their first
flight, letting the waste build up inside of them until they become adult bees and are
old enough to venture outside alone. Adult cockroaches collect poop from their
nests and dump it outside. But, there are wood-boring beetles who just fill old, unused
tunnels with their bodily refuse. In this study the ants continued to remove
other solid waste to the outside, adding strength to the conclusion that these patches were
actually toilets. However, the ants did not seem to avoid the toilet area, so the researchers
wondered whether the indoor toilets might serve some additional beneficial purpose,
like providing healthful bacteria to young ants.
Leaf-cutter ants fertilize their gardens with their poop. Termites use their fecal matter
to build their homes. And, some ants use poo to not only mark their territories, but also
identify themselves as part of the group by wiping it on walls and themselves. Then there are insects like the dung beetle
who need the poop from herbivorous and omnivorous animals to survive. They are attracted to
and collect the poop from large creatures for use as food and a place to raise their
young. Although, at least one species lays its eggs on the mother’s own poop. If you are wondering after all this talk about
poop, whether insects like ants pee, the answer is that they do a little of both every time
they defecate. What we think of as pee, is our body’s way to get rid of excess water,
salts, and urea, which is liquid nitrogen waste. Insects don’t have a lot of excess water
remaining from their metabolic functions to excrete, and tend to produce an insoluble
solid called uric acid that gets mixed into the digestive waste via the Malphigian tubules
and pooped out the anus as a substance called frass. It’s not really known whether by
not making liquid pee insects are conserving water, or if turning it into a solid helps
with weight regulation since a water containing bladder would be big and heavy to carry around. And, if you want to know about the weirdest
not pee out there, woodlice, which are not insects but crustaceans, get rid of excess
nitrogen in a puff of ammonia gas through their exoskeleton. Anything else you wanna know about insect
bathroom habits?

Tracking the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: Part 1 History and Identification

Tracking the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: Part 1 History and Identification


The brown marmorated stink bug is a very
serious pest throughout the mid-Atlantic. It’s native to China, Japan,
Korea, and Taiwan, and it feeds on many important
agricultural crops including tree fruit, small fruit, legumes, vegetables, and
ornamentals. This insect is believed to have been introduced into the United
States in the mid-1990s. It was first collected in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in
1998. But indeed the first properly ID’d specimen did not occur until 2001
from a collection made by Penn State Cooperative Extension. In 2002, it was
confirmed in New Jersey, and this is the first specimen that I ever encountered.
Actually, I found it on a gas pump of all places. I was told to be on the
lookout for this invasive insect, so I grabbed the specimen, and I took photo-
graphs and sent it to DC the following day, and they confirmed that this was indeed
brown marmorated stink bug. The question was, of course, was this just
a hitchhiker that arrived through trucking or something like that? —
So this was actually the only time I’ve ever done field scouting at an
outlet mall, and within about 15 minutes we determined that there were
established populations. We confirmed specimens in Maryland in 2003,
and subsequently in West Virginia in 2004. And since that time, this insect has
continued to spread. Now we were interested in the brown
marmorated stink bug because we also had been studying our native stink bug
species that we find throughout the mid-Atlantic, and there are 3 species
that typically attack tree fruit. These include the brown stink bug,
Euschistus servus, the dusky, Euschistus tristigmus, and the
green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare. Brown marmorated stink bug is a large
stink bug, about 17 millimeters in length, and that’s nearly twice the length of
our native dusky stink bug. Females are typically larger than males,
and also brown marmorated stink bug can be distinguished from many of our
other native stink bugs, first of all based on the white banding
patterns on their antennae, the white banding on their legs,
and that marbled appearance, that alternating black and white pattern
on the sides of their abdomen. In fact, marmorated means marbled, and hence
that’s where we get the common name. Through about 2007, we really weren’t
seeing any problems from the brown marmorated stink bug. However,
in about 2007 things began to change, and how they began to change was an increase
in population numbers each year annually. One of the aspects of this insect is
that it is an incredible nuisance pest. And really one of the most amazing
photographs — it was taken by the New York Times — and what you see is
these homeowners literally sweeping up piles of brown marmorated stink bugs
that were covering their home into a five gallon bucket. I have thousands in my attic that
are up there right now, and these homeowners probably had millions and
millions. Then by 2009, we had nymphs and adults in commercial orchards
midseason, and by the end of 2009 we had a number of growers that were incurring
serious injury. Now in 2010, this is where we have really seen serious early season
injury as well as season-long injury from this pest throughout the region.
So the question was, “Was there economic injury?” Well, there certainly was.
We have a large grower in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. It’s
a family farm. They have 1,100 acres of commercial fruit and they produce
about a half million bushels annually, and by late 2009 nearly 10% of all of
their fruit harvested, about 45,000 bushels, had to be redirected from fresh market
to processing because of the brown marmorated stink bug injury. And of
course for growers, that loss of value is somewhere between 80% and 90%,
and certainly they can’t tolerate that level of injury.

How to Treat Insect Bites & Stings : How to Prevent Insect Bites

How to Treat Insect Bites & Stings : How to Prevent Insect Bites


Hello, my name is Dr. Susan Jewell. Now in
this clip I’m going to show you another way you can have to reduce the chance of being
bitten and stung by insect and poison snakes and animals out there. You go out camping
or just go out into the woods and it’s been found that chlorine which I have here, I bought
a nice big gallon of chlorine but you can buy smaller quantity of course. Chlorine has
an insect repellent properties to it. And insects seem to, do not like the smell of
chlorine so, you get less chance of being bitten actually if you have chlorine on you.
The smell of chlorine too. So what you can do is of course, not pour chlorine over your
skin, no no . Oh no what you can do is, you can add a little bit chlorine into your bath.
When you wash your clothes, so that the chlorine smell and the odor and some of it in stays
your wash, clothing or you can add a few drops into water before you go out camping or out
into the woods. And you can just rub this into your skin. I know it doesn’t smell good
and there are other ways but this is if you know you?re in a rush and you don’t have animals,
insect repellent spray or cream. And you just don’t want to get bitten. This is one way
you when can actually you know avoid as a preventive more than anything else it kind
of acts as a repellent. And make sure it’s just only few drops of chlorine in the water
because you don’t want to you know affect your skin and if your sensitive, very sensitive
skin, I don’t advise you to do this or if your out there you don’t have anything on
hand , this is one way to try to get a repellent on you. So you just dab it on your skin. So
like I said make it sure that it is very, very mild only one or two drops, you know
in a big bowl of water. So this is one way to do it so to address the insect bites and
the bee stings.

Insect erections (1997)

Insect erections (1997)


(Music plays0 (Narrator) What you are seeing here
is the erect penis of an insect, but don’t be offended, you’re not about to
see an In-Sex movie, for although it may appear
as if it’s ready for action, it is in fact very, very dead. One of the frustrations for
scientists working with insects is that many similar species
look exactly the same, even under a microscope, and often the best way
to distinguish them is to look at the tiny differences
in the shape of their genitalia. For instance, two species of Helicoverpa moths cause
billions of dollars worth of damage to the Australian cotton
industry each year. One of them is an expert at developing
resistance to insecticides, but the other isn’t, so growers need to know which
is which before they spray, because if they get it
wrong it’s both expensive and causes one of the
Helicoverpa pests to develop resistance
even faster. Scientists have known
for over 100 years that insect genitalia provides
some of the best clues to their classification, but examining them once
the insect is dead is often a difficult task, so they devised what is
called a Phalloblaster. (Dr. Marcus Matthews) The
Phalloblaster inflates the genitalia with a stream of
pressurised alcohol, so they have the same shape
as when the insect was alive. The alcohol dehydrates and
hardens the structure so that once the process is
over they remain inflated, rather like miniature balloons. It makes the genitalia
much easier to study. (Narrator) The development
of the Phalloblaster, or vesica everter, is being met
with excitement from universities, museums and insect
research centres, because not only is it helping to find
a way to save the cotton industry, it can also be used
by entomologists in many other areas of
research around the world. (Music plays)

Q&A – What bug is eating holes in my rose leaves

Q&A – What bug is eating holes in my rose leaves


What bug is eating holes
in the leaves of my roses? The leaves look
window pane like. This is not my question
but I have dealt with this in my own rose garden. And I have a lot
of roses at home. This would be the rose
slug, which is a sawfly larva. They eat the soft tissue
right in between the veins. And yeah, you hold it up,
it looks like a window pane. And it camouflaged very well
because they’re green in color just like the leaf. So, you have to look
underneath the side of the leaf. And sometimes they’re on top. But those things,
man, camouflage so well. This is what I’d do. Just a hose, some
water will knock it off. Because once you
dislodge it and, you know, soft bodied. Pretty much knocks them out. I don’t do any, you
know, spray on my roses. I just, you know,
knock them off. It’s just fine. Now if you want
to use something, you can’t use Bt. It’s the sawfly. You know, sawflies are in the
same order as wasps and bees, which is Hymenoptera. So, no Bt will
work on these larvae. So, you have to pull
out the heavy stuff, you know, if you’re
going to use it. Which is why I say, again, just
knock them off or pick them off. Yeah, I think that’d be better. But we do know there are
some other bugs out there that will attack roses. Want to mention a couple? (Walt)
Sure. Actually, the Tent Caterpillar,
you know, will do it. Also, the Japanese
Beetle and the rose chafer. I mean, they will. And they’ll kind of give more
of the skeleton look on the leaf instead of the window pane look. But yes. Japanese Beetles will
skeletonize leaves. They look lacy after a while. They will get at it. And there will be a
lot of them around. They definitely do
strength in numbers.