How to film insects on the cheap

How to film insects on the cheap


today I’m going to show you how to film
insects and other small things on the cheap. the first thing you will need is a toy
microscope so I have one here and what you want to do is basically smash it up
with a hammer and you want the lens. hopefully the lens will be plastic if
it’s a toy microscope because if its glass, you’ll have smashed it up. so you take the
plastic lens from here. here’s one I made earlier. you can see it’s actually quite
powerful. and then the next thing you need– blu-tack. you make a ring of it
around the edge like that, and actually as long as you don’t
obstruct the optical axis, it doesn’t matter too much if you get a bit of it
in the…on the actual lens itself rather than just round the edge. now next
take your phone, stick it on like so and then go onto your camera like so. I can now magnify anything and
you basically just move your phone back and forth as if it’s a magnifying glass
because that’s exactly what it is: a magnifying glass. and as you can see, I can now do that. that the next thing you want to do is either turn on your flash or your
torch like that. get something to magnify for example, this Metacanthina
trilobite, and look at that. you just… so that’s all there is to it. all you do:
take a toy microscope, smash it up, take out the lens, stick it on your phone with
some blue tack, and away you go!

Act Wild for Lord Howe Island Stick Insects

Act Wild for Lord Howe Island Stick Insects


>>The Lord Howe Island’s stick
insect was thought to be extinct until a handful of survivors
were discovered clinging to Ball’s Pyramid just
off Lord Howe Island. A single pair was
brought to Melbourne Zoo where the invertebrate
team managed to literally bring the
species back from the brink.>>So from the single pair that
was removed from Ball’s Pyramid in 2003, Melbourne Zoo has bred over 9,000 Lord Howe Island
stick insects to date. The size is quite remarkable
on these animals as well. An adult can weigh
anywhere up to 25 grammes. The young start out bright
green, and then they turn to a mottled green
and then brown. And that’s when they start only
coming out at night to feed and to mate and drink and things
like that in their glass houses that we have set up
here at Melbourne Zoo. [ Music ] The Lord Howe Island stick
insect hatching video that I did took me quite
some time, about two weeks to actually finally
get it in the end. It was just a matter of getting
some eggs that were close to hatching in that time, and
then the success was there. And next thing that you know I
am videoing this newly hatched animal coming out of the egg, and that was purely
amazing to watch. [ Music ]>>Lord Howe Island’s
stick insects, like some other stick
insects, are able to breed without the need for males. This is called parthenogenesis. When they do this, the offspring
will be entirely female and essentially clones
of their mum.>>The Lord Howe Island stick
insect was thought to be extinct for nearly eighty years. And the main reason for that
was in 1918 a ship ran aground on Ned’s Beach on
Lord Howe Island. It was stuck there
for nine days, and in those nine days ship
rats or black rats had escaped onto Lord Howe Island. And they found the Lord Howe
Island stick insect very tasty indeed. And by the 1920s, 1930s
they were presumed extinct on Lord Howe Island. We are now able to breed them
successfully, and we are able to transport lots of eggs
and young to other zoos and breeders around the world. Being an invertebrate keeper at
Melbourne Zoo, it’s very lucky that we have been able to hold
such an interesting species like stick insects, something
again that was thought to be extinct on the planet. What you can do at home is
to look after invertebrates. You can also keep
stick insects yourself. They are fascinating
animals to keep. There are lots of species that you can actually
keep at home as pets. And one day soon with a lot
of luck and support we hope to get these stick insects back to their rightful home
on Lord Howe Island. [ Music ]

Insect Exoskeleton: Structure and Molting

Insect Exoskeleton: Structure and Molting


In most insects, the integument forms a rigid
exoskeleton that surrounds the outer surface of the animal. The exoskeleton serves a variety of functions. It gives the insect structure,
prevents chemical and mechanical damage, protects against invasion by parasites and
infection by microorganisms, inhibits water loss
and serves as the attachment point of muscles for locomotion. It is also forms the trachea of the respiratory
system, forms a lining for the foregut and hindgut regions of the digestive system and forms
the wings in adult insects. This cut-away view shows that the integument
consists of a series of layers. The integument is separated from the hemolymph
by the basement membrane – a connective tissue layer comprised of glycoaminoglycans
and proteins similar to collagen. The epidermal cells are the living part of
the integument. Epidermal cells form a monolayer below the
cuticle, and they secrete the overlying structural layers, with the exception of the cement layer
which is a product of the dermal glands. Above the epidermal cells is the procuticle,
a layer of protein intermixed with chitin. Chitin is a complex polysaccharide comprised
of mainly N-acetylglucosamine subunits mixed with some glucosamine, and linked in chemically
resistant beta-1,4 bonds similar to the inert beta- glucose of cellulose. Chitin gives the cuticle strength and stability
and aids in water retention. The insoluble chitin chains pack closely together
to form microfibers of 15-30 chains lying parallel to each other and surrounded by protein. The chitin-protein chains are deposited in
the endocuticle as layers throughout the intermolt period. Pore canals are minute tubular channels that
extend from the epidermal cells through the procuticle and end below the epicuticle. The pore canals may be formed by cytoplasmic
extensions of the epidermal cells as the procuticle is formed following a molt. Pore canals may provide an avenue for the
transport of chemicals through the cuticle and probably play a role in transporting the
chemicals that comprise the structural parts of the cuticle. The chemicals may diffuse laterally from the
canal to form the procuticle at the time of molting. After the cuticle forms, the cytoplasmic extensions
retract and the remaining channel becomes the pore canal. After the molt, the procuticle differentiates
into the endocuticle and the exocuticle. The thick, inner portion of the cuticle is
termed the endocuticle. It is usually the thickest layer of the cuticle
and is soft and flexible. Endocuticle is deposited throughout the time
between molts. Above the endocuticle is the exocuticle. The exocuticle is the layer that gives the
cuticle its hardness and rigidity. Exocuticle becomes hard and rigid because
it undergoes sclerotization or tanning. Sclerotization is the cross-linking of proteins
by quinones derived from polyphenols. Sclerotization makes the exocuticle hard,
strong and insoluble so it is resistant to chemicals and mechanical damage and has low
water permeability. Sclerotization differentiates the original
procuticle into the endo- and exocuticles. Above the exocuticle is the epicuticle. The epicuticle is thin and consists of four
layers: Cuticulin is the innermost epicuticle layer,
and is composed of sclerotized proteins and lipids. Some layers of the cuticle may be absent in
regions of the body of some insect species, but the cuticulin layer is always present. A polyphenol layer is sometimes present above
the cuticulin layer that may serve as a source for the phenols used in tanning,
A wax layer protects the insect from water loss
Pore canals may transport wax to the epicuticle, and wax channels at the ends of the
pore canals deposit the wax onto the inner epicuticle. The wax consists of an inner monolayer of
organized wax molecules and an outer “bloom” layer of randomly mixed fatty acids and fatty
alcohols. Because insects are small animals, they have
a large surface area relative to their volume which means they have a potential for serious
water loss through the cuticle, and the wax serves to suppress cuticle transpiration. The outermost cement layer is a product of
the dermal glands and is comprised of lipids and tanned proteins. The cement layer is thought to protect the
wax layer from abrasion, but it is variable and may not always be present. The insect exoskeleton is an effective integument,
but, like a suit of armor, it restricts the size that insects can attain, and its rigidity
prevents growth except by replacing the existing exoskeleton with a new, larger one by molting. Let us see how an insect is able to molt to
remove an exoskeleton that has become too small, and replace it with a new one that
allows for growth. The molting process begins when cuticular
epidermal cells are stimulated by exposure to 20-hydroxyecdysone – the insect molting
hormone. The hormone enters the epidermal cells where
it stimulates genes related to molting and the formation of new cuticle. The activated epidermal cells undergo mitosis
or grow by cellular enlargement. This is the period of growth to form a new, larger
cuticle for the next instar. The existing structural cuticle separates
from the epidermal cells. This is termed apolysis. The ecdysial space between the endocuticle
and the epidermal cells is filled with a gel that contains inactive chitinase and protease
enzymes. A new outer epicuticle layer of cuticulin
is secreted. This new cuticulin layer protects the epidermal
cells and newly forming cuticle from digestion by the enzymes in the molting gel, which is
then activated and becomes fluid. The chitinase and protease enzymes of the
molting fluid begin to digest the old endocuticle As much as 90% of the chitin and protein breakdown products from the old endocuticle are re-used by the epidermal cells to form
a new procuticle. Digestion of the endocuticle continues until
it reaches the old exocuticle The old exocuticle layer is resistant to enzyme
action since it is sclerotized. The remaining molting fluid is re-absorbed. The wax layer and polyphenol layer of the
new cuticle are deposited by the epidermal cells. Just before the molt the cement layer is released
by the dermal glands Note that the section of old cuticle is smaller
than the present region from which it came. This is the result of the epidermal cell growth
in the region from which the old cuticle was derived. Molting, which is properly called ecdysis,
occurs when the old exocuticle and epicuticle are sloughed off. The shed cuticle is called the exuvium. A hormone called bursicon is released that
stimulates the new procuticle layer that was present at the time of the molt to undertake
sclerotization by polyphenols and be converted to the new exocuticle. Once sclerotization is completed, no further
sclerotization occurs during the remainder of the instar. During the time between the molts, new endocuticle
is deposited continuously. And the cycle starts over at the next molt.

SPIT ON MY ROSEMARY PLANTS? Spittle Bugs!🐛Plant Care


Doesn’t this look interesting? This is a
rosemary plant I bet you must think that we got a little fungus or something. What
are all these bubbles? Well, believe it or not it’s a bug
Yuck it’s called a spittle bug and the reason it’s called that is because the
bug will excrete bubbles and all of this froth from its hind legs, or, its
tushy and it’s a way for them to protect themselves from predators while they
feed. So what I can see right now on this rosemary plant is that the spittlebugs
are having dinner! Of course I want to have dinner too, Oh no! I cut some of this
and put it on the barbecue! Am I gonna be eating spittle bugs? Maybe! Yuck!
Have you guys ever seen this? It’s not commonly seen because it’s an insect
that hides very very well except for when it’s hungry and it comes out to eat.
Can you believe this? Okay so this can be taken care of you can make a homemade
remedy of garlic, pepper, water, and a little bit of oil and spray it on it or
you can get yourself a little neem. Neem oil! Oh my gosh, well I guess I won’t be
eating from this plant again! Oh man, that’s a bummer. Spittle bugs my friends
on rosemary .They also love junipers and yews, and other coniferous plants -pines.
course they’re pretty interesting huh look at that! You learned about it from
Shirley follow me!

পাতা নাকি পোকা  ||  Leaf Insect ||  News Valley

পাতা নাকি পোকা || Leaf Insect || News Valley


Don’t believe in things you haven’t seen. That’s what we always say. But everything seen may not be as true. How the noise is pushing, Is that so? But after watching the animal presented in this video, your faith will be shaken. Suppose a tree has 5 leaves. But you are told that there are only 4 leaves. You see, by the way, there are 5 leaves. But after a while it turned out that a leaf of 5 leaves was moving. So far you have certainly found what I’ve said about the matter. Yes, it does not look like a leaf, but it is actually a leaf. It’s a kind of insect. Its real name is in Phylliidae which we know as leaf insect or leaf insect. hey are also called walking leaves or moving leaves. Usually we know some green insects or grasses that can be mixed with green, But they can be recognized only if they are well noticed. On the other hand, you cannot recognize this leaf insect sitting on the actual leaf, unless it is moving. The leaves are not always fresh. Sometimes it gets torn up, eaten by insects. The amazing thing is that these leaf insects are so dense that they sometimes have to look like the leaves of these insects. And in a perfect way, they look like leaves or worms. In the animal world, there is no more perfect animal in the sample of camouflage power or camouflage. This ability to camouflage protects them from eating insect pests. About 50 species of insect leaves are found. The leafy eat plants and usually live in densely vegetated areas. Their natural range extends from the islands of the Indian Ocean to mainland South Asia and various regions of Southeast Asia to Papua New Guinea and the Western Pacific to Australia. The leaves are about 28 to 100 mm long in body length. The boy is smaller in size than the female insect. Their eggs are strange to look at and can not be easily identified in the soil. In the spring the baby will hatch from these eggs. New-born insects are not green to see at the beginning, After eating the leaves, their body becomes green. The amazing thing is that even in the absence of men, children can have children in a complex natural way. This leaf insect lives for up to ten years.

8. Insect reproductive systems

8. Insect reproductive systems


Most insects reproduce sexually and lay
many eggs. The female reproductive system consists of paired ovaries made up of separate tubules called ovarioles. Ovarioles are divided into chambers
called follicles. Each follicle contains an oocyte that is becoming mature by depositing yolk. Mature oocytes are present in the basal follicle. Mature oocytes are chorionated in the
follicle then passed into the lateral oviducts to the common oviduct. Sperm are released from the spermatheca
to fertilize the egg as it passes through the common oviduct for oviposition. Accessory gland secretions assist egg-laying. These products may be
venoms as in the case of wasps or cement to fix the egg to the oviposition site. In males, testes also consist of
follicles where the sperm are matured as they progress from the tip to the base
of the follicle. Mature sperm pass from the follicle to the vas deferens into
the seminal vesicle. Male accessory glands produce products that mix with
the sperm to protect and preserve the sperm. Some insect species produce a
spermatophore that encloses the sperm and is passed to the female during
mating. Other insects transfer sperm without a spermatophore. Accessory gland
secretions may prevent the mated female from mating again by forming a temporary
plug or by transferring chemicals that suppress mating behavior. Finally, the
sperm or spermatophore are passed through the ejaculatory duct during
copulation

9. Insect flight muscles

9. Insect flight muscles


Most insect species have wings as adults and are able to fly. Unlike birds and bats, insect wings are not modified fore limbs, but are extensions of the cuticle of the meso- and meta-thoracic segments. These two thoracic segments also have prominent muscles used for generating the wingbeat Flight muscles of bats and birds attach directly to the wings, and pull the wings up and down. In insects, only dragonflies and damselflies have muscles attached directly to the wing and these muscles only produce the downstroke for the wingbeat. In all other flying insects, both the downstroke and upstroke of the wingbeat are produced in response to contractions by muscles that attach to the thoracic cuticle and not directly to the wing. The downstroke is produced by a set of dorsal, longitudinal muscles attached to phragma. Phragma are articular invaginations of the meso- and metathoracic segments. The upstroke is generated by a pair of dorso-ventral muscles attached to the top and bottom surfaces of the meso- and metathoracic segments. These indirect muscles act by undergoing rapid, antagonistic changes in tensions that produce alternating changes in the length and height of the thoracic segments. These alternating changes in the shapes of the segments cause the base of the wing to move in and out over a lateral fulcrum point that flips the wing into the upstroke and the downstroke for the wingbeat. Many insects species are able to move their wings rapidly and can fly at wing beats of 100 to 700 per second. By comparison, hummingbirds fly at approximately 50 wing beats per second. Muscles that attach directly to the base of the wing cause wing folding or may control the pitch and twisting of the wing in some species. you

Insect Sting Allergies: What You Need to Know

Insect Sting Allergies: What You Need to Know


Stinging insect allergy generally involves
an allergy to the sting of what we term the Hymenoptera which are the stinging insects
generally includes hornets, wasps, bees, even fire ants can cause a similar type of allergy. Symptoms of Insect Sting Allergies And certain individuals will be allergic to
the venom from the stinging insect whereas other individuals will not. In a nonallergic individual, you can still
get redness, pain, local swelling. That’s pretty common with any stinging insect,
if it starts spreading in a limb beyond the elbow, for instance, beyond the wrist all
the way down the hand or you start getting symptoms elsewhere like hives on the leg when
you are stung in the arm, swelling which can be especially relevant in the face, tongue,
throat that can cause trouble breathing or even a full blown allergic reaction where
multiple systems get involved and some individuals will even feel their blood pressure drop,
feel like they’re going to faint. Stinging insects can be very serious in terms
of allergy and can cause even fatal reactions. How to Diagnose Insect Sting Allergies We will start with a clinical history which
can give us some clues. And often times patients will know exactly
what they were stung by or that they were stung right next to a wasps’ nest so that
we can guess that it was the wasp. But, we’ll generally do a full panel of
testing, both with skin prick testing, where we put an extract to every stinging insect
that we know. And then we will gradually increase the concentration
of the prick and move into an intradermal tests where it is injected under the skin
and then we’ll separately also do specific IGE testing which is looking for the specific
IGE which is the allergic antibody against each of these stinging insects. Treatment Options for Insect Sting Allergies The most important thing for patients who
are truly allergic to insect stings is to carry an epinephrine auto injector and to
know how to use it. So, making sure that they themselves know
how to use it other loved ones who will be around them at a time when they might get
stung also knows how to use them. In addition, we advise avoidance of some areas
where we know that stinging insects tend to hide. So, for instance, a soda can at a picnic. There might be a stinging insect in there
and drinking that stinging insect could cause you problems in terms of an allergic reaction. In addition, there actually are allergy shots
against stinging insects so that is something that a lot of people are not aware of, but
certainly in patients who have had severe insect sting reactions, some of which have
been life threatening, or people who work in areas such as golf courses or as bee keepers
where they really can’t practice avoidance, then we’ll try to make them tolerant of
the stinging insect venom by doing allergy shots. Visit njhealth.org/allergy for tips on how
to avoid stinging insects.

This Killer Fungus Turns Flies into Zombies | Deep Look


We like to think we’re in control … that
our minds are our own. But that’s not true for this fruit fly. Its brain has been hijacked by another organism
and it’s not going to end well. It all starts when the fly is innocently walking
around, sipping on overripe fruit. It picks up an invisible fungus spore, which
bores under its skin. For a few days, everything seems normal. But inside, the fungus is growing, feeding
on the fly’s fat … and infiltrating its mind. At dusk on the fourth or fifth day, the fly
gets a little erratic, wandering around. It climbs to a high place. Scientists call this behavior “summiting.” Then it starts twitching. The fungus is in control. The fly sticks out its mouthpart and spits
out a tiny drop of sticky liquid. That glues the fly down, sealing its fate. A few minutes later, its wings shoot up. And it dies. Now that the fungus has forced the fly into
this death pose … wings out of the way … nothing can stop it. It emerges. Tiny spore launchers burst out of the fly’s
skin. Hundreds of spores shoot out at high speed,
catching a breeze if the fly climbed high enough. They’re the next generation of killer fungus. It continues for hours, spores flying out. These flies are in the wrong place at the
wrong time. And if spores land on a wing, which they can’t
bore into, they shoot out a secondary spore to increase their chances of spreading. So how does a fungus take control of a brain? At Harvard, Carolyn Elya is trying to understand
that. She thinks the fungus secretes chemicals to
manipulate the fly’s neurons, maybe stimulating the ones that make flies climb. But don’t worry: The fungus can’t hurt
humans. Scientists have tried to harness its power
for our benefit, to kill flies in our kitchens and farms. They haven’t had any luck though. The deadly spores are actually pretty fragile
and short-lived. It turns out, this lethal puppet master does
only what it needs to for its *own* survival. Hi, it’s Lauren again. If you love Deep Look, why not help us grow
on Patreon? We’re raising funds to go on a filming expedition
to Oaxaca, Mexico. And for a limited time, we’re sweetening the
deal with a special gift. Link is in the description. And if you’re craving more spooky videos,
here’s a playlist of our scariest episodes. Don’t watch ‘em after midnight. See you soon.

6. Insect circulatory system

6. Insect circulatory system


The roles of the circulatory system are
to transport essential metabolites from the fat body to the cells, carry waste
to the excretory system and provide immunity to harmful organisms. Insects have a simple open circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of a dorsal vessel running the length of the body. The dorsal vessel is divided into a posterior heart that contains intake valves called ostia and an anterior aorta The open space of the body is called the
hemocoel. The hemocoel is filled with insect blood called hemolymph. Since insect hemolymph does not transport oxygen, it does not contain hemoglobin and, therefore, lacks the red color that is characteristic of blood from
vertebrate animals. Hemolymph is pumped forward by the heart through the aorta, into the head and flows back through the body in the open hemocoel. Hemolymph re-enters the posterior heart through the ostial valves, and the cycle repeats. The hemocoel is always full of hemolymph, and the heart ensures it’s mixing. Auxilary, pulsatile hearts at the base of the antenna legs and wings pump hemolymph into those appendages.