Hogyan nevelj hangyakolóniát? – 1. rész


AntsHungary presents: How to raise an ant colony? the ant colony’s raising starts with a test tube. fill the clean test tube with some water theen put a piece of wool in it not too tight and not too loosely pull down the wool with a hooked wire expressly. only until the water level not along! than put the ant queen in this test tube. this test tube will guarantee the humidity for a long time the end of the test tube also close with a piece of wool it let through the air so gives the optimal breeze for the hatching test tube. the queen feels safe herself in this tight, closed test tube and the humidity imitate the underground conditions most of the claustral ant species don’t claim feeding at the first time, but we recommend to feeding every species from the beginning, to helps their successfull colony founding. most species needs to feed with honey and insects only some harvester species deflect from it. put a small honey at the side of the test tube with a hooked wire put only a few from it, less than a drop. we should think how big our ant, and how big her stomach possibly if we think this, we won’t make that mistake to give too much honey them and they stick in it. recommend to cut half the insects for the ants they will easily access to the soft parts in it. then put the test tube in warm, dark, calm and vibration-free place when the queen can laying eggs leisurely. can guarantee the darkness if package the test tube in a piece of cellophane. some days later the queen is laying down her first eggs. this time we don’t have much work, just to take care for the feeding and keep the test tube clean. give them half-cutted insect pieces 2 times a week and 1 or 2 days later clear off them before they deteriorate after a few weeks the eggs develop.. …first for larva, ..after for puppae. larvae eats protein already, so this time important the feeding regularly. first workers will hatch from the puppae. with the small and mediom sized ants it needs 4-6 weeks from egg to worker but with some big sized spices this time could be 2 and half months even. If the test tube became dirty during the hatching we have to move the queen and the brood into a new, clean test tube. it’s much easier now, than when have workers if the surface of the cotton covered by mould, or the water discoloured, it could be a dangerous habitat for the ants, so have to move them for a new tube. we need the following tools for the transfer: first top up the new test tube with the earlier mentioned method, then put the queen into the new one. finally have to move the brood carefully. need a small drop of water. watering a bit the hair of the brush, so the brood will stick to it and we can move them carefully to the new test tube. the brush has soft hairs wich don’t damage the brood. try to move all of the eggs. don’t have to put them for the same place, the queen will put them to a heap. 🐜 Subscribe! 🐜 – and check the next episode. 🙂

Élet 5 centiméteren! – Temnothoraxok gondozása FormiKIT micro hangyafarmban


If you don’t know Temnothorax species, you should know they are tiny species and found small colonies. They can live lifelong in the FormiKIT micro formicarium. Here can see the queen. The moister spoinge is a bit dirty in this formicarium, i should replace it to a new one. But how can we do this, to avoid their escape? Check this, here is the first trick! We will replace the sponge and the colony will stay in the formicarium during. The FormiKIT Micro include 6 screws we will get out 5 from these. We will leave only the roofing’s screw. The formicarium won’t come aparts, but we can slide carefully the nest’s top layer. Take out the old sponge, and put the new one into. Then slip back the top layer. We have some deserters of course. Don’t afraid, just put them back with a brush. Finally close and assemble the formicarium. You can see the new sponge is much cleaner! This sponge is really thin, as can see before. This is important. Don’t forget: it can store only a few water, so really important to moister it regularly, at least 1-2 times a week. Temnothorax species don’t need high humidity, but they also drink sometimes. Put a piece of tape on the moister hole, to slow down the evaporating. I raised up them a bit. They are trying to hide in the pole and guarding the queen. We can clean up the dirty arena with a humid cotton wool. I show you a mature colony too. The winged male ants this year appeared in this colony. You can see they have massive brood. This is how looks a mature colony in the Temnothorax species. But they are still no more than 5 centimeter. I show you the 2nd trick with this colony. Need a small piece of wool, and a hooked tweezer. When all ants in the nest-part, close the entrance with the wool. Take out the 4 screws from the arena. If you take apart the arena like this you can wiping and cleaning it, just how you want. Don’t have to worry about the escapes during the cleaning. The two screws still keeps in gross the nest-part. If we finished with the cleaning assemble it again and give food for the ants. You can see a new-born worker in this scene. They has this bright color after born, during the first day. She looks just like a “ghost-ant” 🙂 This colony get honey, … …cockroach pieces, … …and shattered nut pieces for food. It seems they like the cockroach mostly now. You can put the formicarium in different ways, but don’t forget: the water in the sponge will always goes downwards. Thanks for watching! You can find the own-designed FormiKIT Micro formicarium on our ant-site! If you enjoyed, don’t forget to subscribe to the AntsHungary’s YouTube channel! 🙂

Elképesztő hangyaváros szövőhangyákkal! (Polyrhachis dives)

Elképesztő hangyaváros szövőhangyákkal! (Polyrhachis dives)


Hello everyone, this is a new antsite video In this episode we are going to rebuild an ant city. Keep watching until the end – i promise it will be super exciting… This is an old formicarium A thriving weaver ant colony lived in it before. You can saw this colony in some previous videos, or even personally on terraristic exhibitions. This colony lived 2, 2 and half year long in this formicarium. So the goal is to populate again this formicarium with a thriving ant colony. We have chance now to rebuild this system, so why don’t we upgrade a bit this whole formicarium to be more spectacular? You know i have plenty of creativity, so i find out a cylinder shape instead of the previous brick. This is more elegant and even more spectacular. Then I want something more in my mind.. If the weaver ants can get an own tower, why don’t they get an own city instead? This is the story how comes the idea to build an ant city. The structure build up from three different towers, with three outside gallery between them. There are three escape-prevent edge, and three openable ventilation grid on the top of the towers. There are more ventilation grids on two place at the sides, for the better breezing. There are many carcase laying on the floor of the old formicarium. Also can find tainted, unhatched larvae somewhere. The diameter of the biggest cylinder was planned for the size of the old bonsai tree. Meanwhile we get a big family of weaver ants so they will move into the new place. You can see what a massive nest they built in their previous home. They weaved almost everything for nest in the left formicarium, and there are many of workers in the left formicarium also. The ant city looks much amazing after the furnish. The old bonsai tree also looks epic in it, and i put another, smaller bonsai tree inside. Ants can hide between it’s roots. The ant city looks like a real metropolis after the ants have moved in. Every ants working on it’s own task busily. Some of them are building new home and others throwing out the garbage from the old nest. Every ants run fast to their work on the busy trails. After the settlement the ants moved in the old nest at the top of the tree immediately, and they start to throwing out the old larvaes and garbage from it. I didn’t record video from the settlement, because I have put them through almost one by one during an afternoon. It wasn’t too interesting for a video you can believe. An now let’s see the freshly building new nest. One day after the settlement some ants gathered spectacularly between the roots. At that time we could guess what they planning, and a few times later the first strings just appear. The ants just start to weaving their new nest. Catch their larvae in their mouth and working busy on the building operations, so they pass so much with the building on the first day! A few days later the new nest starts to equal to it’s final form. The walls became more stronger as the ants wave more and more layers on it. They use every kind of building material, this reason there are black and green threads in the walls which comes from the fake grass which covers the floor. Meanwhile they start to renew the old nest at the top of the tree. They have repaired the entrances, and they start to build together the nest with the wall of the cylinder. Can see well the fresh silks with brighter color than the old weaves. We can see inside the nest through the formicarium wall. There are many of workers and larvae working hard inside. That workers who don’t work, they guarding in a typical position on the most important strategy places. Sometimes we can notice winged males (drones) in the colony. The smallest, sloping tower still empty, because I give them food and water here. I put a test tube with full of water here, and they start to use it ardently. Hopefully they won’t drown in the open water, if this happens i have to find out another method for watering. There is a build in thermometer at the side of the formicarium. The back of the thermometer have to cover with grid, to avoid them to move inside it. Those areas where the ants feel the ventilation of the air, they try to discover new places. They stick out their antennae often through the dish to find out what is at the other side. A few workers waiting standby on the only door where no any escape-prevent oil around. But don’t worry, i never open this door. If they thirsty or hungry many workers start to raiding in their territory to find food or water. But of course their activity depends from the temperature and light also, in cooler temperature they goes inside the nest instead. And it seems they try to reach the lighter places – i think this could be some escaping instinct. It is such a catching sight, as these tiny insects organizing their society and living their everyday. We can admire them for hours, and can observe more and more interesting ant-things, but unfortunately our video is ending now, hope see you again next time! Don’t forget to like, subscribe and hit the 🔔 icon to get notifications for our new videos! 🙂

Hogyan nevelj hangyakolóniát – 3-6/B. rész

Hogyan nevelj hangyakolóniát – 3-6/B. rész


antsite.eu presents: How to raise an ant colony? – part: 3/B If the colony grows out the test tube, and it gets dirty, we possibly keep them in an open test tube. This is a “velvety tree ant” colony with hundreds of workers. Normally it’s a bad idea to open this test tube, but i show you a technique which we can use this time. Temporarily we can use a simple container box for it, but the best will be the formicarium – i will tell you later why. As first step we should put on some escape-prevent oil to the top of the container. This will prevent the ants to run away. Oiling only a few, otherwise the oil will leak down, and the ants will stick in it. Put the colony into the container, and open the test tube carefully. Ants will flooding out immediately, but they can’t run out from the box. Much easy to feeding such a big colony in this box than in the test tube. Even the ants have more space, and they can react if someting goes wrong in the test tube. In a closed test tube the water can flooding the ants, but with this open test-tube keeping method the whole colony can escape out from the tube. Put tinfoil on a clean test tube setup. Put this into the box and the ants will moving into this one later from the old and dirty test tube. They do it because they feels the darker and cleaner test tube more safety and comfortable. We can hurry them if we tip them out from the test tube, but this species spray formic-acid during stress so we don’t want as many ants to be suicide. Carefully get out the wool-pieces. The ants find the honey immediately – they really need enough food now. Throw some cutted worms also to give them protein. You can see the workers not really successfull on the escap-prevent oil. They can’t walk on this oiled surface. Few days later the ants has moved to the new test tube, so we can get out the old one. But make sure to tip out all of the workers from it. If we check them closer, we can see they moved all the brood with eggs and larvae to the new test tube. So this is a really effective method for moving a colony. The ants did it themselves, we only has to give the ideal conditions for them. Now let’s see the detriments: The escape-prevent oil will disappear from the top of the container within a few weeks. It goes dry or the ants put some dust on it, or somehow fight themselves through. So time to time we should put some fresh oil on it, and could be a good idea to close the container with a cap. But now i have to say another problem! If the box hasn’t got enough ventilation the colony inside can be suicide during stress with their formic-acid, or can choke without enough fresh air. Better ventilation or some soil could help on this, but the best final solution if we keep the ants in a formicarium. In this the ventilation optimal for sure, and we can observe the nest much better than in a test tube. So if we have a bigger formicarium we can use the arena-part similarly like the container before. But first we have to close the nest-part to prevent the ants to move in too early. Then put the test tube in the arena-part. We can use test-tube holder to prevent the rolling. Now open the test tube and let the spotters out. We put the food in the arena not into the test tube anymore. Can feed in small bowls or just simply on the ground of the arena, because acrylic formicariums are easy to clean. We can put in different kind of foods, and we can learn the ants to find the food themselves everywhere in the arena. If the test tube gets dirty or goes dry we can put in a new, clean test tube near the old, and the ants can move themselves within some days. If they don’t want to move Just tip them out from the old test tube and let the new one inside the arena, so they have to move into the new one. But with this method we will loss some brood, because some of the eggs and larvae will stick into the test tube, so we have to put them back carefully with a brush. So better if the ants move themselves. Our colony number will raising because of the more space and more food. It could happen some weeks or some months later – depends of the species. When they have enough workers to find every food in the arena the ants are ready to move in the formicarium’s nest-part. Important to wait until they have enough workers, because if we let them in too early the colony could move in, but maybe they won’t have enough workers to go out searching for food. It could emerge a crisis in the colony because they don’t have enough food to grow workers, but even don’t have enough workers to find food. The recommend worker number to open the nest is different – depends of the species. It could around 30-50 workers with a smaller species, but with a bigger species maybe 20 can be enough. After we open the nest-part the spotters will scout their new territory. If they find it suitable the whole colony will move in. Sometimes needs days for the moving – it depends from the colony number. Bigger colonies has more workers so they find the new place faster and moves themselves faster. After that we only have to feed and drink the colony, so we can observe as they grow more and more workers, and our ant-society grows up slowly. Don’t forget to like and subscribe, and hit the bell 🔔 icon! Click for the next episode!

#1 How to move a queen ant into a test tube? / Királynő kémcsőbe költöztetése – ENGLISH SUB

#1 How to move a queen ant into a test tube? / Királynő kémcsőbe költöztetése – ENGLISH SUB


Let’s see how can we moving a queen ant into a test tube! Here are the ingredients. Here’s the queen, the empty test tube, the hooked wire, and two pieces of cotton wool. Load up the test tube about this level, as you can see, or maybe a little more. Then put one of the cotton wool into the the test tube. It has to close so tightly. Then with the hooked wire – carefully but with smoothly moves push down to the water level. Don’t make any bubbles if it’s possible. This wool will close the water from the queen. And finally you can move in the queen. This is her new home. And with the other wool we can close the tube. It breath a little, so the queen will have enough air inside.

Ottoman Wars – Siege of Buda 1541 and Eger 1552 DOCUMENTARY

Ottoman Wars – Siege of Buda 1541 and Eger 1552 DOCUMENTARY


It often seems that the Ottoman-Habsburg war
over Hungary was a slogging match, and trust us,
we feel the same. However, even this conflict, which brought minor changes to the territory,
is crucial, both because of its importance to
the history of Hungary and Europe, and for a cast of
colorful characters that deserve multiple TV shows to be created. Welcome to our video
on the siege of Buda and Eger! Shoutout to Squarespace for sponsoring today’s
video! Learn more about Squarespace and their offer at the end of the video! The 1530s brought constant warfare to Hungary,
as the king, John I Zapolya, supported by the
Ottoman Sultan Suleiman, fought against the brother of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles
V Habsburg – Ferdinand. Although Suleiman’s
military assistance allowed John I to control most of
Hungary, the latter was pressured by the neighboring Christian monarchs to reconcile with
Ferdinand. The king of Poland Sigismund I Jagiellon was
eager to secure his southern border against the
Ottomans by having a strong Hungary, while his wife, the daughter of the duke of Milan,
Bona Sforza, traditionally opposed the Habsburgs,
and wanted to marry her daughter Isabella to John I
in order to form another Polish-Hungarian alliance. These two parties, alongside envoys
from the Holy Roman Empire and the local clergy, forced
John I to sign the Treaty of Nagyvárad in secret
from the Ottomans in February of 1538. According to the treaty, Ferdinand accepted John I as
the king of Hungary, while John I conceded Western Hungary to Ferdinand, and promised
to make him his successor.
John, who was in his 50s, was expected to remain unmarried and without offspring, but
in February of 1539 he married Isabella Jagiellon. That
was a shock for the Habsburgs, and forced Ferdinand to inform Suleiman of the treaty
in hopes that the Sultan would abandon John I.
Suleiman’s reaction is unclear, but it seems that he decided to wait and see what this
new situation would bring. Simultaneously, Ferdinand’s
supporter Stephen Majláth started an uprising in Transylvania in Spring of 1540.
John marched against the rebels and won an easy
victory. Back home, his queen was with child, and in July of the same year, she gave birth
to a son – John Sigismund. The birth of a son changed
John’s outlook on the treaty, and in his new
will dictated to bishop George Martinuzzi, John Sigismund was made the heir of the Hungarian
throne. John I passed away just 2 weeks later. Many Hungarian nobles, led by Martinuzzi,
had no desire to be ruled by the Habsburgs, and in
August they rejected Ferdinand’s demand to give him the throne. Less than a month
later they declared John Sigismund the king, with Queen
Isabella as his regent. Letters were sent to
Krakow and Constantinople to gain the support of Poland and the Ottomans. However, the
queen’s party was not strong enough, and many Hungarian feudals defected to the Habsburgs.
This allowed Ferdinand, who started his campaign to take the Hungarian throne in early October,
to capture Visegrád, Pecs, Székesfehérvár, and other cities, with relative ease. On the
21st of October 1540, Ferdinand’s general Leonhard
von Fels besieged the capital of Hungary, Buda.
The details are unclear, but the sources claim that a plague struck the besieging army almost
immediately, while the Imperial and Hungarian leaders were bickering about everything. At
the same time, Martinuzzi managed to spread the
rumor that the Ottoman army would soon be near
Buda. All that forced the Habsburgs to retreat. However, the Habsburg prince wasn’t going
to give up easily. Between February and March, the
Imperial army in Hungary was reinforced to almost 40 thousand troops, and command was
given to a veteran of the first siege of Vienna,
Wilhelm von Roggendorf. In response, Suleiman I’s
quickly assembled army, which numbered anywhere from 20 to 50 thousand troops, started
marching from Edirne. Von Roggendorf reached Buda, which was defended
by less than 3000 Hungarians and Serbs, on the 3rd of May. The Queen and her
supporters had used the last few months reinforcing the walls and building fortifications.
The Habsburg commander wasn’t eager to besiege or assault these new fortifications,
and attempted to negotiate with Isabella, promising her and her infant son safe passage
to Poland, if Ferdinand’s claim to the throne was satisfied. Although the Queen was willing
to accept, Hungarian lords vehemently opposed this and imprisoned her.
The Imperials decided to use their artillery to soften up the defences, and between 4th
and 6th of May their cannons managed to damage
portions of the walls, however the defenders were able to repair the fortifications every
night. Von Roggendorf ordered the troops to dig trenches
in order to bring the artillery closer to the city walls. By June 1st, these trenches
were dug and the cannons, now brought closer, made two breaches in the walls. On the next
day these breaches were attacked by the Habsburg units, but the resistance was so
effective in these areas that the Hungarians not
only managed to repel the attack, but counter-attacked, killing many before they retreated
to the city. Unfortunately for the defenders, by the end
of June they had lost more than half of their numbers, while supplies were running out.
That is when a letter from Suleiman, saying that
his vanguard will soon be within the reach of Buda, arrived. A few days later, Hungarian
noble Bálint Török succeeded in breaking into the city with supplies and some
reinforcements. Von Roggendorf concluded that he had to starve the city.
Sometime in early July a group supporting the Queen attempted to open the gates for
the Habsburg troops, but the defenders stopped
this attempt. On the 10th of July, the cavalry vanguard of the Ottoman army started to harass
the Imperials from the south. Von Roggendorf’s attempt to crush the small
Ottoman group failed, as the Ottoman commander Hosrov pasha’s cavalry proved
to be too quick, constantly retreating, pulling in smaller Habsburg units, and destroying
them. Throughout July, more and more Ottoman troops
arrived in the area, which forced Von Roggendorf to weaken the circle around the
city and concentrate troops on his southern flank. This proved to be a mistake, as Suleiman
reached the city on the 20th of August, but instead of joining his troops, attacked the
Habsburgs from the East. This attack came as a
surprise for the Imperials, and the Eastern portion of the besieging army was soon
destroyed. The Sultan, reinforced by the defenders of
Buda, then moved to the south using his vanguard as an anvil to disperse this group,
too. The details of what happened next are not
clear, but the Ottoman cavalry continued to harass the retreating Imperials, and in total
20 thousand Habsburg troops were killed, along
with their commander, who died of his wounds.
Over the next few days Suleiman celebrated alongside his Hungarian allies. However, this
celebration proved to be a ruse. Hungarian nobles and the Queen spent days in the
Ottoman camp and the defenders of the city became complacent. Meanwhile, the Ottoman
troops were entering and leaving the city as they pleased. This was all a trick to take
over the city peacefully and it worked as intended
by the Sultan. On the 29th the Sultan declared to Isabella
that he would acknowledge her son as the king, but
the territory directly under John II would be limited to Transylvania and the lands to
the East of the river Tisza. Buda and all territories
to the west and south of Transylvania would be converted
into Ottoman pashaliks, administered by the Beylerbeyi of Rumelia. With that, Suleiman
returned to his capital. Neither the young queen, nor Martinuzzi were
happy with their reduced lands and influence, so
in December of 1541 they signed another secret treaty with Ferdinand at Gyalu, promising
to abdicate the throne to him if he managed to
retake Buda. Indeed, the Habsburg prince had sent a
50 thousand strong army under Joachim II of Brandenburg to attack in August of 1542.
However, their slow movement allowed the Ottoman pashas to concentrate some troops in Buda
and Pest. By the time Joachim besieged Pest it was fully defended, and the siege ended
in a complete failure.
Suleiman obviously had to respond, and he started his preparations in December of the
same year. The goal of the campaign that started
in April of 1543 was to take the strategically important Esztergom, as that fortress provided
the Habsburgs with a valuable springboard to
Buda. Between June and August, the Sultan managed to seize many important fortresses
to the north of Buda, capping the campaign off with
the occupation of Esztergom. The Habsburgs were exhausted by this war,
and as the situation on the Safavid frontier once
again was heating up, Suleiman also wanted peace, so a ceasefire, negotiated by the French
king Francis I, was enacted in 1545. In 1547 Suleiman
signed the Treaty of Edirne with Charles V and
Ferdinand – his conquests in Hungary were acknowledged, while Suleiman accepted Habsburg
rule over parts of Hungary in exchange for 30,000 gold florins annually.
We will describe the campaign against the Safavids in 1548 in a separate video, but
in short, Suleiman was able to move deeper into Iran,
but overall, the campaign brought no tangible results. However, it allowed Isabella and
Martunuzzi to regain hope. In 1549 Martinuzzi initiated
talks with Ferdinand to unite Hungary once again. According to the treaty, Isabella and
John Sigismund would abdicate in exchange for the
lands in Silesia. This caused the alliance between
the bishop and the queen to fracture. Isabella wrote a letter to the Sultan complaining of
Martinuzzi’s actions, but Suleiman didn’t do anything immediately, and after a short
military campaign Isabella was defeated and forced
to take the lands in Silesia. Still Martinuzzi tried to
play both sides, hoping to secure an even better deal either from the Ottomans or the
Habsburgs. In 1551 Ferdinand caught wind of this kowtowing
and ordered his execution. Nevertheless, the damage had been done, and
the Sultan had become aware of the treachery coming out of his vassal Kingdom to the north.
His response was quick, decisive and heavy- handed. Come Springtime of the following year,
the Ottoman army would once again launch a full-scale campaign into Hungarian territory,
rip out Ferdinand’s holdings root and stem, and end
any hope of a united Hungary under Habsburg rule. 
Two Ottoman armies were formed up in March of 1552. The first was a garrison out of the
occupied Buda, led by one Khadim Ali Pasha, while the second was sent by the Sultan himself
from Constantinople, led by Kara Ahmed Pasha. Contemporary accounts number the combined
Ottoman rally at over 150,000 men, but modern historians consider a number closer to 40
or 50 thousand to be a more accurate account.  
As expected, outposts and fortresses fell like dominoes to overwhelming Ottoman might.
Khadim’s force took the castles of Szeged, Veszprém, Buják, Drégely and Szécsény,
while Kara Ahmed rooted a force of Habsburg-Spaniards
out of Temesvár. The two armies rendezvoused outside Szolnok on September 4th, and together
captured the township with little effort. From a geopolitical standpoint, their next
objective was clear. The combined Ottoman armies
would advance upon the small fortress of Eger and seize it, thereby dividing Ferdinand’s
remaining western and northern holdings into two halves. 
The garrison at Eger Castle was only around 2,000 men strong, led by the fifty-year-old
commander, Istvan Dobo. The men and women within the fortress were native
Hungarians. Despite being sworn to King Ferdinand, they fought not for plunder or glory,
but to protect their home, a land which they had cultivated for generations.
The Ottomans arrived at the fortress on September 11th and set up their encampments,
preparing for a siege. Five days later, the bombardment began. Pasha Ali led the artillery
effort, inflicting major damage upon Eger’s walls despite having only four large siege
guns at his disposal. The Hungarian’s own cannons
were smaller, and had not the range nor firepower to put up an effective resistance. 
Yet, the resolve of the defenders did not waver. Dobo systematically sent out wave after
wave of light cavalry to sally and harass the Ottoman bombardiers. They dealt some
casualties, but these hit-and-run tactics proved ultimately ineffective, and the shelling
continued. Inevitably, the walls crumbled and a breach was created. 
The Ottoman infantry under Kara Ahmed seized their opportunity and launched a full
assault upon the walls. And yet, the overwhelmingly outnumbered defenders held the line,
fighting valiantly upon the breach due largely to the bravery and charisma of their veteran
commander. Hungarian engineering played a crucial role
as peasant and soldier alike repulsed the Turkish tide day after day. Dobo’s second
in command, Gergely Bornemissza, cemented his legacy as the inventor of a slew of anti-siege
weaponry. Thanks to his craftsmanship, the defenders employed a primitive form of hand
grenade that caused concussive destruction and spread fire through the enemy ranks. 
But, the most iconic instrument of destruction devised by Bornemissza was an improvised
vehicle of death, a set of two mill-wheels stuffed at the center with explosives and
lit aflame, then rolled downhill at the Ottoman ranks
during their many assaults upon the fortress breach. These firewheels caused panic and
mass-destruction, and played a major role in
keeping the attackers at bay. By the turn of the month, the Turkish commanders
had grown tired of their infantry’s ineffectiveness, and had refocused their efforts
beneath the earth. As they’d done in countless sieges before, the Ottoman sappers
began digging a network of tunnels that inched towards the fortress, setting explosive
mines to undermine the walls’ foundations. After all, if the Ottomans could blast more
breaches into Egers’ defenses, it would force the
already thinly spread Hungarians to defend on multiple fronts. Dobo, however, proved
highly competent at countersiege, and set a series of countermines that obliterated
the Ottoman sappers as they dug ever closer.
Meanwhile, moral in the Ottoman camp was at an all-time low. Food rations had been
reduced, and the heavy autumn rains had begun to fall, reducing their living conditions
into a muddy hellscape. To compound all this, the army’s two commanding viziers,
Khadim Ali and Kara Ahmed, began feuding heavily with one another, and rumours of
corruption amongst the Turkish commanders spread like wildfire.
On October 11th, the Ottomans launched one final, all-out assault upon Eger’s battered
walls, and once more, the defenders held. Here, the women of the fortress entered into
legend, stepping right into the fray alongside their sons and husbands, slinging buckets
of boiling oil onto the foe. After two days,
the Ottomans withdrew, having gained no ground against their resolute enemy. 
On October 17th, the dual Viziers ordered a full withdrawal from the fortress. Weather,
moral and infighting had all compounded, and the invading force, beaten and exhausted,
abandoned the fight. It was over. Against all odds, the Hungarian defenders had won.
Modern estimates account for only 300 defenders dead, while the Ottomans lost over 8,000
men. Thanks to the heroics of Istvan Dobo and his
unlikely group of underdogs, the Habsburgs retained their foothold in northern Hungary.
Suleiman had once more failed to remove his pesky
rivals from the region for good. Conversely, the Ottoman campaign of 1552 had still been
an overall success, as they had captured 24 other
Habsburg fortresses. Either way, the struggle for
domination over this war-torn kingdom would inevitably continue. Thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring today’s
video! Squarespace gives people a powerful and beautiful online platform for which to
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purchase. We are planning to cover every major battle
and campaign in Ottoman history, so make sure you
are subscribed to our channel and have pressed the bell button. We would like to express
our gratitude to our Patreon supporters and channel
members, who make the creation of our videos possible. Now, you can also support us by
buying our merchandise via the link in the description.
This is the Kings and Generals channel, and we will catch you on the next one.