How Pandemics Spread

How Pandemics Spread


(music) (music) We live in an interconnected,
an increasingly globalized world. Thanks to international jet travel, people and the diseases they carry can be in any city on the planet
in a matter of hours. And once a virus touches down, sometimes all it takes
is one sneeze to spread the infection throughout the community. When humans were hunter-gatherers,
roaming the wild savannas, we were never in one place long enough, and settlements were not large enough to sustain the transmission
of infectious microbes. But with the advent
of the agricultural revolution 10,000 years ago, and the arrival
of permanent settlements in the Middle East, people began
living side-by-side with animals, facilitating the spread
of bacteria and viruses between cattle and humans. Epidemics and pandemics come
in many shapes and forms. In 2010, for instance, a devastating earthquake struck Haiti, forcing thousands of people
into temporary refugee camps. Within weeks, the camps had become
breeding grounds for cholera, a bacteria spread by contaminated water, triggering a country-wide epidemic. But the most common cause
of epidemics are viruses, such as measles, influenza and HIV. And when they go global,
we call them pandemics. Pandemics have occurred
throughout human history, Some have left scars on the tissue
and bone of their victims, while evidence for others
comes from preserved DNA. For instance, scientists
have recovered DNA from the bacteria
that transmits tuberculosis from the remains of ancient
Egyptian mummies. And in 2011, scientists investigating a plague
pit in the city of London were able to reconstruct
the genome of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium responsible for the Black
Death of the 14th century. It is thought the plague
originated in China in around 1340, spreading west along the Silk Road, the caravan route running
from Mongolia to the Crimea. In 1347, the plague reached
the Mediterranean, and by 1400, it had killed in excess of 34 million Europeans,
earning it the title, the Great Mortality. It was later historians
who called it the Black Death. However, by far the greatest
pandemic killer is influenza. Flu is constantly circulating
between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. In North America and Europe, seasonal flus occur
every autumn and winter. As the majority of children and adults will have
been exposed to the virus in previous seasons, these illnesses are usually mild. However, every 20 to 40 years or so the virus undergoes a dramatic mutation. Usually this occurs when a wild flu virus circulating in ducks and farm poultry meets a pig virus,
and they exchange genes. This process is known as antigenic shift and has occurred throughout human history. The first recorded
pandemic occurred in 1580. The 18th and 19th centuries saw at least six further pandemics. In terms of mortality, none can compare with the Great
Flu Pandemic of 1918. The first indication of the pandemic came in the spring, when American
troops in northern France began complaining of chills,
headaches and fever. Then, the following September, at a U.S.
Army barracks near Boston, soldiers started collapsing on parade, prompting their removal
to the camp infirmary. As a surgeon there recalled, two hours after admission, they had
the mahogany spots over the cheekbones and a few hours later you can begin to see the cyanosis
extending from their ears and spreading all over the face. It is only a matter of a few hours
then until death comes, and it is simply a struggle
for air until they suffocate. On the S.S. Leviathan, a huge American transport
en route to Bordeaux, sick men hemorrhaged
blood from their noses, turning the decks between their bunks
slick with bodily fluids. Meanwhile, British soldiers returning
from northern France on furlough introduced the flu to Dover
and other Channel ports, from where the virus
was carried by rail to London. By the time the pandemic
had run its course in April 1919, an estimated 675,000 Americans and 230,000 Britons were dead. In India alone, some 10
million were killed, and worldwide the death toll
was an astonishing 50 million. But that was then. Today, planes can transport viruses to any country on the globe in a fraction of the time it took in 1918. In February 2003, for instance, a Chinese doctor arrived
at the Metropole Hotel in Hong Kong feeling unwell. Unknown to him, he was harboring a new
animal-origin virus called SARS, short for Severe Acute
Respiratory Syndrome. Within 24 hours of checking into Room 913, sixteen other guests had been infected, and over the following days five boarded
planes to overseas destinations, spreading the virus to Vietnam,
Singapore and Canada. Flights between Hong Kong, Toronto and other
international cities were quickly grounded and thanks to other emergency measures, a pandemic was averted. By the time the outbreak
was over four months later, SARS had infected 29 countries worldwide and more than 1,000 people were dead. For all that the virus
was rapidly contained, however, there was little that could be done
about the alarming news reports carried by cable news
channels and the Internet. As bloggers added to the hysteria by spreading unfounded
conspiracy theories, tourism in Hong Kong and other
affected cities ground to a halt, costing businesses more
than 10 billion U.S. dollars. One business, however, did very well. Above all, SARS was a reminder that pandemics
have always been associated with panic. If history teaches us anything, it’s that while pandemics may start small, their impacts can be as dramatic
as wars and natural disasters. The difference today is that science gives us
the ability to detect pandemics right at the very beginning and to take action
to mitigate their impacts before they spread too widely. (music)

The epidemic of the “I Know All” expert | Mikhail (Doctor Mike) Varshavski | TEDxMonteCarlo

The epidemic of the “I Know All” expert | Mikhail (Doctor Mike) Varshavski | TEDxMonteCarlo


Translator: Thành H. Châu
Reviewer: Leonardo Silva You wake up. Before you even grab your cell phone, you say, “Today is the day. Today is the day
that I’m going to be proactive. I’m going to take control of my life. I’m going to go see the doctor. I’m going to get healthy.” So you sacrifice a day off work, you sit in one-hour standstill traffic, you even wait 30 minutes
in the office to see the doctor. Finally the doctor walks in, and all of that built-up
anxiety begins to fade. In the midst of your conversation, you ask the doctor a few questions, “Doctor, what’s the healthiest diet?” You get back, “I don’t know.” You say: “Okay, doctor.
You say I have a respiratory virus. Which virus is it?” Again, you get, “I don’t know.” Your mind begins to wonder whether or not this doctor
was properly educated. Finally, you ask, “Doctor, what is the reason
that the rate of autism is increasing?” You hear, “I don’t know,”
and your frustration hits a peak. Let’s stop this hypothetical for a second. I’m going to explain to you right now
why you need not be frustrated, and instead celebrate those who are not
afraid to say, “I don’t know.” The theme of this conference
is “License To Know.” But hopefully after this talk, you’ll be proud to say that you have
a license to say, “I don’t know.” My name is Doctor Mikhail Varshavski. Like it was mentioned earlier,
most know me as Doctor Mike. I’m an actively practicing
family medicine physician out of Overlook Medical Center
in the United States. I also happen to be the most
followed doctor on social media, with 3.5 millions subscribers. This gives me unique vantage point to witness an epidemic
within the healthcare space that receives so little attention, and that’s the epidemic of IKA, the epidemic of the “I Know All” expert. There are too many
of these experts out there, claiming to have all of the answers when the rest of the scientific
community has questions. Now, this may surprise you. But you and I are both
partially, if not more so, to blame for this epidemic. When someone says to us
they don’t know, we’re quick to judge,
we’re quick to dismiss. And in even a less cognizant way,
we support them with our clicks. We click on the catchy headlines, we click and purchase
those miracle cure-all products. Within medicine, there are two specific situations
where these IKA experts flourish. The first is the gray zone. That is when a question
within the field of medicine has not yet had a complete answer
by modern science. Take the increased rate of autism. You ask an honest, up-to-date doctor,
they’ll tell you, “We don’t know.” Now, you ask an IKA expert,
they’ll throw you a theory, and they’ll do it
in a very convincing fashion, so much so that they might even further
their career in one way or another. That’s the problem with these IKA experts. The second way that they do this is they do it in moments
where good medicine has proved that tangible positive effect
is only achieved through hard work and dedication. Take diet, take exercise, take sleep. The way to improve all of these things
is through hard work. But the IKA expert
will give you a shortcut. And I’m sure many of you here today
have heard of these shortcuts. Take, for instance, the shortcut
of the miracle weight-loss diet known as the cookie diet. Or better yet, the miracle detox plan that will detoxify your body
through a juice cleanse, will boost your immune system. How do these IKA experts cause you to ignore legitimate
scientific evidence and advice and listen to their theories? They do so through stress. When your mind is stressed,
your mind is very easily influenced. There’s a great book called
The Influential Mind. And there was a great example
from this book I’d like to share with you. Take September 11th, 2001,
in New York City, one of the worst
terrorist attacks of all time. The day after those terrorist attacks, distress in New York City
has an all-time high. It takes only one person to run and scream
to get hundreds to do the same. Now, if you take that same person
one day prior to the terrorist attacks, what will you get? You’ll get a lot of New Yorkers
looking at this person running and saying, “Ah, just another crazy New Yorker.” Your mind does not respond well to stress. As a survival mechanism, your mind uses stress as a way
to be influenced by the majority. So what these IKA experts do is they throw around words
like “cancer,” “disease,” “death,” even get your family involved at times. And that’s how they get you. Now, because of my social media fame, I find myself at a very
interesting crossroads between marketing and medicine. A marketer’s job is to sell product
or to push a brand, and they do so by studying
your human psyche to figure out the best way
to accomplish that. They often pair celebrities with products
in order to get better results, because they know that when you hear
advice from a familiar face, they’ll sell more products. I’m going to be honest
with you here today. I’ve received some of these offers
in near seven-figure totals to support the IKA products. Me! Imagine what a true celebrity gets
if I’m being offered these deals. Forget that. Imagine what these companies
make from IKA products that they’re able to pay
these huge sums of money. Look, I get it. We live in a fast-paced world. We want quick answers
and even faster results. But before you go on this desperate search
for answers and shortcuts, let’s talk about what a true expert is. A true expert not only looks at the current, most up-to-date
scientific evidence, but also looks at history as a guide. How many times have you heard
doctors go back and forth on the health benefits
and risks of coffee, something we all drink every day? In 1981, the New York Times
published a study that said two cups of coffee
increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. In 2017, we claimed
that coffee extends your life. Doctors used to advocate smoking
as a stress reliever. We used to believe that bloodletting,
a.k.a letting a patient bleed out, was a way to cure an infection. This doesn’t mean
that doctors are not smart. What this means is that expert opinion is and should be
considered the lowest form of evidence. That is what our job as a true expert is:
to explain that to the general population. Take any PhD in this room
and they’ll all tell you the same thing. The more years they’ve spent
studying a subject, the more they realize they don’t know, the more questions you have, because they more questions you have, that’s the sign of intelligence. Now, look, this isn’t just
a theoretical discussion, where we’re going to talk
about philosophical change and things of that nature. I’m going to have some
practical tips for you as well. Number 1: ask better questions. A doctor prescribes a treatment
or tells you not to go for a treatment. Ask, “Hey, doc, why do I need
these antibiotics? Do I even need these antibiotics?” When an IKA expert claims there’s
a miracle cure for whatever ails you, ask how is it possible that there are
millions of doctors across the world, whose sole mission,
and it’s the same mission, to eradicate diseases
and restore optimal health, don’t agree with them. Why is it the same five IKA experts
you see appearing in documentaries, talking about doom and gloom
from all the things that ail you. Second: understand basic research. Oftentimes these IKA experts
will tout a single study, and try and convince you
of their theories. Take the recent uproar of autism
and childhood immunizations. This uproar started from a single study, with 12 subjects, which was done by a doctor who’s been discredited
and lost their license. And yet, children are dying. So it’s your job to be
aware of this research. And here I’ll tell you how to do that. Know that the best form of research
is a metaanalysis. It’s a combination
of studies, not just one, which allows for the decreased likelihood
of chance and bias within the results. Note that newer studies are not
necessarily better than older studies. Know that studies
that focus on disease markers are not nearly as good as studies
that focus on outcomes and developments of disease. And no matter what media tells you
is a breakthrough, there is no single study that will influence
the field of medicine enough to change the standard of care. It can guide us, it can put itself into the context
of the entire body of evidence. to allow us to figure out what the true results are
and what they mean. And lastly, third: do not write off health professionals
who say “I don’t know.” Instead, what you should infer
is that this doctor is self-aware, this doctor acknowledges
scientific limitations. And most importantly, this doctor is not interested
in slimming your wallet. Let’s move away from the era
of juice cleanses, and move to an era we judge doctors
not by the answers, but by the quality of their questions. Do not be afraid to say, “I don’t know.” Thank you. (Applause)

What causes wound infection?

What causes wound infection?


What causes wound infection. The cause of surgical wound infections are generally bacteria rather than other bugs such as viruses The skin is the first barrier of defence against infection if during or after surgery harmful bacteria get into the wound or if normal bacteria get mixed up with unhealthy or damaged tissue the wound can become infected. Sometimes there may be some gaping of the wound incision and this increases the risk of infection. Your body will respond to bacteria in a similar way as it helps itself to heal with inflammation. Red and white blood cells will be brought to the area to fight off infection so if you notice new or spreading heat redness pain or swelling around the area where the surgeon cut your skin the wound may be showing signs of infection. These signs would usually occur after a number of days or even weeks after your surgery. Other signs of infection include pus which is a thick green, yellow or brown liquid coming from the wound. It is very important to watch out for these signs and symptoms as well as for high temperature or fever in the months after your operation. Please contact your GP or hospital immediately if you think your wound might be infected. Treating an infection early stops it from becoming worse or lasting longer than it should. If your doctor suspects you have an infection take the antibiotics as advised. If you don’t take antibiotics at the right time or complete the course of antibiotics there is a risk that the bacteria will become stronger and harder to treat.

4K CC. Big Scorpion Cow Pie Home, Catching Amazing Pet Insects & Reptiles  NM AZ TX CA USA Herping

4K CC. Big Scorpion Cow Pie Home, Catching Amazing Pet Insects & Reptiles NM AZ TX CA USA Herping


Giant piles of poo out here um lol Next to the river For my amusement I thought I would just kick em over and see if anything was actually hiding underneath them and to my surprise there was Lets see if we can get him here Right there, Little Scorpion Yeah you can see he’s not to big but considering he was hiding underneath a piece of poo Ya know, I never seen that before Haha The search is on Gotta get back to finding other things Bigger things, Smaller poo tho I hope

Organic Insect Control: Snails, Earwigs, Aphids, Woodlice & More

Organic Insect Control: Snails, Earwigs, Aphids, Woodlice & More


Hi I’m Tricia a California organic gardener My first vegetable garden ever I planted some curly spinach harvested it washed it three times made a
beautiful salad we all sat down out of the bowl crawled an earwig I was mortified and determined to get those critters early in the season from then on These young tender starts are like delectable morsels to earwigs and slugs and other crawling insects so a non invasive and effective way to
control these crawlies is to make periodic tours of your garden and pick off any that you might see if you have evidence that your plants are
being eaten but you’re not sure by what take a stroll of your garden at night and
you’ll find out who’s doing the damage You can also set out traps to catch sow bugs earwigs and slugs this slug saloon attracts them with a
bait that’s made of malted barley, rice, yeast
and sucrose harmless to humans but deadly to these
creatures if you’re problem persists you can put bait directly on the garden i like this “Sluggo Plus” because it kills
earwigs slugs and a whole bunch of other types of crawling insects its made out of iron phosphate a naturally
occurring soil element and spinosad which is derived from soil dwelling bacteria another option for destroying crawling
insects is diatomaceous earth this is made from a ground-up fossilized
material and it’s kind of like crawling through broken glass for the
insects it’s not effective if it gets wet so
don’t use it where you have overhead sprinklers So before Ginger moved in this was a pasture of tall grasses and I had a lot of grasshoppers eating my vegetables So I used Nolo bait which is a biological
control that kills grasshoppers Everyone knows how helpful ladybugs are
in controlling pests in the garden so make sure and plant plants that
attract them in fact heres one now What I have here is a little cocoon or egg case filled with two hundred praying mantid
eggs and when I was a little girl my Papa told me
that it was illegal to kill praying mantids and it probably should be because this beneficial insect will eat just about any pest you have in your garden I’m going to hang this little egg case right here on my grape vines and in a couple weeks they’re going to hatch and they’re
going to be hungry if you can’t wait for the beneficial
insects to take care of any problems with white flies, aphids, thrips the first line of defense is just to wash
the plant off with water It might be difficult for beneficial insects
to enter your greenhouse so a good alternative are these sticky traps
The yellow and blue color are attractive to different types of harmful pests simply hang the trap and expose the sticky side you can also attach lures to attract
and trap specific types of pets like cucumber beetles if your plants are still getting munched
there’s a variety of organic sprays that you can use for persistent pests one of them is insecticidal soaps these are made from potassium fatty
acids and they must be in contact in order to
kill They work best on soft bodied insects
like aphids, white flies, and thrips they’re relatively harmless to
beneficial insects like ladybug adults and bumble bees another category of organic sprays are oils and these smother the eggs and larva of pest
insects they also will control some soft bodied insects as well as some
scales and fungus Bacillus Thuringiensis commonly known as
bT is a biological control for caterpillars We have the Safer caterpillar killer
for home gardeners and the Dipel for commerical farmers The Neem tree is in the mahogany family and
its native to India, Pakistan and neighboring countries and they view it
as a wonder tree because of the oil that you can extract from it Neem oil is a broad spectrum insecticide
miticide and fungicide but you should use it only as a last
resort because it can kill your beneficial insects Neem also acts as a pest repellent so it will keep bugs out of your garden and of course read the label carefully follow directions to a T Wear your protective gear and usually
spraying less is better if you’re acommercial farmer make sure and check
with your county Ag department before spraying any of the commercial products So if you have any problem ID-ing what kind of pests are eating your plants just check out these pest ID cards
they’re great so here is to no more bugs in your
spinach salads and Grow Organic for Life!

Librarians On Front Lines Of Philadelphia’s Heroin Epidemic | NBC Nightly News

Librarians On Front Lines Of Philadelphia’s Heroin Epidemic | NBC Nightly News


BROUGHT BACK ARE
GRAPHIC.
>>COME ON, POPPY, WAKE UP, DUDE.
>>Reporter: IT’S A
LIFE AND DEATH MOMENT. >>I GOT TO GET TO THE
OTHER NOSTRIL.
>>Reporter: A MAN OVERDOSES ON HEROIN
AND METH AT A PARK IN
PHILADELPHIA. PEOPLE RUSHING TO HIS
SIDE INCLUDING A FIRST
RESPONDER WHO ADMINISTERS THE LIFE
SAVING ANTIDOTE
NARCAN. >>GO GRAB ANOTHER
DOSE.
>>Reporter: SHERRI KOWOLSKY IS SPECIALLY
TRAINED TO USE THE
NASAL SPRAY SOMETHING NOT IN HER JOB
DESCRIPTION.
KOWOLSKY IS A LIBRARIAN, ONE OF
SEVERAL IN HER LIBRARY
TRAINED TO USE THE DRUG.
>>ONCE SOMEONE IS
OVERDOSING, A MINUTE OR 30 SECONDS CAN MEAN
LIFE OR DEATH.
>>Reporter: SHE NORMALLY WORKS WITH
TEENS AT HER BRANCH,
ONE OF THE BUSIEST IN THE CITY.
>>WHEN I DECIDED TO
BECOME A LIBRARIAN I LOOKED AT IT FROM I
WANTED TO SERVE
COMMUNITIES. >>Reporter: THE
CENTURY-OLD BUILDING
IN THE HEART OF PHILADELPHIA’S
KENSINGTON
NEIGHBORHOOD SITS IN THE MIDDLE OF
McPHERSON SQUARE PARK
KNOWN TO MANY AS NEEDLE PARK.
>>KIDS AND THE TEENS
HAVE TO SEE THIS STUFF ON A REGULAR BASIS.
IT’S UPSETTING THAT
THIS IS THEIR NORMAL. >>Reporter: THE PARK
IS ON THE FRONT LINES
OF THE NATION’S HEROIN EPIDEMIC, WITH
EVIDENCE OF BATTLES
LOST, SCATTERED LIKE WEEDS.
>>WE PROBABLY PICK UP
WITH NEEDLES 50 ON UP MAYBE.
>>Reporter: 50 A DAY?
>>YES. >>Reporter: PARK
WORKER RAFAEL
FELICIANO FINDS HIMSELF HELPING
ADDICTS IN THE PARK.
HIS WORKLOAD IS INCREASED
DRAMATICALLY.
THE CITY’S PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT
PREDICTS ALMOST 1,200
OPIOID DEATHS IN PHILADELPHIA THIS
YEAR, UP 32% FROM LAST
YEAR AND THE PARKS SURROUNDING THE
LIBRARY HAS BECOME A
FOCAL POINT. >>THE OPIOID CRISIS,
THE HEROIN CRISIS WAS
KNOCKING AT THIS LIBRARY’S FRONT DOOR.
IT WAS CAMPING OUT ON
ITS LAWN. >>Reporter:
PHILADELPHIA ENQUIRER
COLUMNIST MIKE NEWELL STARTED WRITING ABOUT
IT WHEN HE LEARNED OF
A BIG INCREASE OF PEOPLE BUYING, SELLING
AND USING IN THE PARK
AND HANGING AROUND THE LIBRARY.
HE WAS MORE SHOCKED TO
LEARN HOW THE LIBRARIANS TOOK
MATTERS INTO THEIR OWN
HANDS. >>THEY GOT NARCAN
TRAINING.
THEY STARTED HAVING — MANY LIBRARIES HAVE
FIRE DRILLS.
THEY HAVE OVERDOSE DRILLS.
>>HALF A DOSE IN ONE
NOSTRIL AND HALF IN THE OTHER.
>>Reporter: AND IT’S
WORKING. SINCE APRIL, KOWOLSKY
REVIVED PEOPLE WHO
OVERDOSED SIX TIMES, INCLUDING THIS WEEK
JUST AFTER WE SPOKE
WITH HER, JUMPING OUT OF THE LIBRARY TO SAVE
THAT MAN, AS WE
WATCHED. >>CALM, LAY DOWN.
>>YOU’RE FIGHTING.
YOU CAN’T DO THIS, POPPY.
>>Reporter: WHEN THE
RIB BRAER SITS AT THE CROSSROADS OF A CRISIS
RAVAGING ITS
COMMUNITY, SERVICES HERE ARE A LIFESAVER.
>>IT’S LIFE OR DEATH
FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE. IT’S A SECOND CHANCE.
>>Reporter: STEVE
PATTERSON, NBC NEWS, PHILADELPHIA.
>>THE MAYOR’S OFFICE
SAYS THAT OUTREACH WORKERS HAVE BEEN SENT
TO THE NEIGHBORHOOD
AND THAT A POLICE MOBILE COMMAND CEN

There Are Bugs In Your Food! Here’s Why You Shouldn’t Panic

There Are Bugs In Your Food! Here’s Why You Shouldn’t Panic


Mm, I love a glass of pinot noir during work. Mmm…notes of blackberry, chocolate, and
Ooo. What’s this? Ah, yes, a no-so-subtle bouquet of stink bugs. Hello winos, it’s Natalia for DNews! When it comes to producing wine, vineyards
have many elements to contend with like rainfall, soil conditions, and… stink bugs that hitch
rides into the wineries. Yes, brown marmorated stink bugs enjoy feeding
on grapes and end up becoming “one with the wine” as they are hard to find and remove
because they’re a similar color to the grapes. And when stressed during the pressing process,
the stink bugs, true to their name, emit an unpleasant smelling compound, (E)-2-decenal. It is said to smell like cilantro or coriander. Researchers from Oregon State University have
now determined that there can be up to three stink bugs per bunch of grapes before the
levels of (E)-2-decenal negatively affect a tasty bottle of wine. You think that’d keep me from drinking wine,
but it won’t. Almost no commercially produced food is going
to be completely devoid of ‘filth’. The FDA says, quote, “it is economically
impractical to grow, harvest, or process raw products that are totally free of non-hazardous,
naturally occurring, unavoidable defects.” So what other undesirable critters are in
your food? I hope you’re not eating. The “Filth” in our food includes insect
fragments, grubs, rodent hairs, and rodent excrement. For example… aphids love to get into your
garden, so it should come as no surprise they are in your produce. The FDA estimates that there are about 60
aphids per 100 grams of frozen broccoli, and 30 aphids per 100 grams of brussel sprouts. And that jar of peanut butter in your cupboard
has, on average, 30 insects fragments and 1 rodent hair per 100 grams. The FDA states there is an average of 9 mg
of rodent excrement pellets and pellet fragments in one kilogram of wheat. Anyone want a sandwich? To make sure food remains safe for public
consumption, the FDA has regulations in place to ensure commercially produced food isn’t
brimming with these undesirables. But even treated water can have a certain
degree of fecal matter in it. I mean it’s a very minute amount, but I
still call it poo water. You ok there, buddy? All this talk of insects in our food begs
the question, is eating insects so bad? Maybe it’s ok to eat a little bug or three. Heck, maybe it’s even good for us! According to anthropologist Julie Lesnik,
entomophagy, or eating insects, is not only an excellent source of protein, it’s also
something our human ancestors did. Researchers hypothesize that eating insects
contributed to brain growth, or encephalization, in primates, including our hominin ancestors. In terms of nutritional value, dried crickets
are roughly 60% protein and have more calcium than milk! Because of these stats, cricket flour has
become all the rage recently, with cricket protein bars and baked goods being sold throughout
the US. In fact, it seems the US is behind the times
because people throughout the world have been eating insects for centuries, from crickets,
to mealworms, to locusts, to flies. In 2013, the UN urged people to eat insects
in hopes to curb worldwide hunger stating that at least 2 billion people were already
using insects as a dietary supplement. Perhaps we ought to reconsider the idea that
eating insects is unclean or gross. So next time you’re at a restaurant let
your waiter know you’d like that extra fly in your soup. Love insects? Wanna know how they go number 2? Check out this video! And what about you? Would you or do you eat insects? Let us know in the comments below, subscribe,
and keep coming back here for DNews every day of the week!

Malnutrition: A Hidden Epidemic in Older Adults

Malnutrition: A Hidden Epidemic in Older Adults


We hear about malnutrition in the world news,
but it’s not just a problem in other countries. Malnutrition is a hidden epidemic in the United
States, that is under-recognized and under-treated. Malnutrition occurs when the body doesn’t
get the right balance of nutrients and calories that it needs to stay healthy. This doesn’t
just happen to people who suffer from hunger, or who don’t have access to healthy food.
Malnutrition can happen to anyone. So, who is at risk? Older adults are at an increased
risk because as we age our dietary needs can change, our sense of taste and smell may weaken,
digestive systems may slow, chewing or swallowing problems may develop, and the ability of our
bodies to absorb nutrients can decline. People with chronic disease are also at risk. These
diseases can reduce appetite, make it physically difficult to shop, cook, and eat, make it
hard to remember to eat, and change metabolism and digestion. And their treatment and management
can require dietary restrictions, as well as medications that cause appetite-reducing
side effects. Malnutrition can lead to hospitalization, and hospitalization itself puts people at
risk. Surgeries and other procedures may require that patients follow restricted diets, or
not eat. Illnesses and procedures can decrease appetite. And people may eat less because
they don’t like their food choices, or are worried or depressed. This can all happen
at a time when people may need more nutrients than usual to promote healing and recovery.
Living in a nursing home or other long-term-care facility also raises risk. Residents are more
likely to have multiple chronic diseases and conditions that complicate nutrient needs
and the ability to eat. They may also be socially isolated or depressed, or lack interest in
food, and depend on staff for help with eating. The consequences of malnutrition are serious.
Without proper nutrition our bodies can’t stay healthy, fight off disease, or deal with
illnesses that we already have. It weakens our immune systems and leaves us vulnerable
to infections, and slower recovery and wound healing. It also causes weight loss and muscle
loss that can lead to frailty, falls, and broken bones, disability, loss of independence,
and complication of other diseases. Disease-related malnutrition is often associated with protein
deficiencies which can result in loss of muscle mass and strength. This can be very serious
and cause or worsen sarcopenia, the progressive loss of skeletal muscle as we age. And the
consequences are far-reaching. Malnourishment while hospitalized often leads to longer stays,
higher infection rates, higher hospital readmission rates, worse outcomes, and death. And the
increased economic burden in the U.S. for disease-associated malnutrition in older adults
is more than 51 billion dollars each year. Thankfully, malnutrition can be treated. Involving
the whole health care team in treatment is vital and may include treating the underlying
cause of malnutrition if possible, changing the diet to work around restrictions or provide
foods with more calories and protein, offering social services like in-home support, meal
delivery, community-based nutrition programs, and access to food. People with disease-associated
malnutrition, or in hospitals or institutions, may take oral nutrition supplement drinks,
for easy access to needed nutrition. In some cases, tube feeding or IV nutrition is necessary.
With malnutrition it’s important to remember that people of any body size or type–even
those who are overweight or obese–can become malnourished. So it’s not the weight alone
that counts. Healthcare professionals may not always recognize the signs of malnutrition.
The symptoms may be subtle and may be dismissed as a normal part of aging. So start the conversation
if you or a loved one experiences sudden unintended weight loss and/or loss of appetite and decreased
food intake. Those are the two main symptoms but people who are malnourished may also experience
other symptoms. Request a consultation with a dietitian to be sure that you are getting
enough nutrients. If you have a chronic disease that impacts your nutrition, have regular
discussions with your health care team about your nutritional status. And be sure to ask
for a nutrition plan before a hospitalization so you can make sure you don’t lose weight
during your stay. Discuss a nutrition plan for home before you are discharged so you
don’t lose weight during your recovery. The hospital dietitian can help you connect with
community nutrition programs, such as home-delivered meals and nutrition counseling. For more information
visit the following organizations on-line. And visit the Alliance for Aging Research
at www.agingresearch.org/malnutrition.