Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

The Story of Cosmetics

The Story of Cosmetics


This is a story about a world obsessed with stuff. It’s a story about a system in crisis.
We’re trashing the planet, we’re trashing each other,
and we’re not even having fun. The good thing is that when we
start to understand the system, We start to see lots of places to step in
and turn these problems into solutions. Can I tell you, I love my Pantene Pro V. Of the dozen or so personal care products
I use everyday, it’s the one I can’t live without. Says it gives my dull hair “the ultimate cool shine.” How does it do that? I was wondering that, while I was
lathering it into my hair one day, so I read the ingredients right here: Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Tetrasodium EDTA, Methyl-iso-thiazo-linone… What is this stuff? I took this list to some scientists
who know how to read it. Turns out my Pantene contains
a chemical linked to cancer. And lots of other products in my bathroom from
sunscreen to lipstick and even baby shampoo also contain chemicals linked to cancer or
other problems like learning disabilities, asthma, and even damaged sperm. Like most parents, I try to keep my family safe but now I find out my bathroom is a minefield of toxins. What are we supposed to do? To find out the answers we have to go back to one of the key features
of our materials economy: Toxics in, toxics out. If, at the factory, you pour toxic chemicals
into a product – like baby shampoo – you’re going to wind up with… toxic baby shampoo … AND toxics in workers, communities, and, duh, babies. So let’s take a closer look at this toxic outrage
where it seeps into our lives every day – in the bathroom. The average woman in the U.S. uses about
twelve personal care products daily. The average man, about six. Each product contains a dozen or more chemicals. Less than twenty percent of all chemicals
in cosmetics have been assessed for safety by the industry’s safety panel so we just don’t know what they do to us when we use them. Would you fly on an airline that only
inspects twenty percent of its planes? Of course, not all of these
chemicals are dangerous. But we know that many are. Some are carcinogens – that means they can cause cancer. Others are neurotoxins
and reproductive toxins; proven to mess up brain development
and reproduction in animals. Wait a minute, we’re animals too! It’s like a giant experiment. We’re using all these mystery chemicals
and just waiting to see what happens. One thing we do know is that
they’re getting inside us. I had my body’s toxicity levels tested, and I’m
loaded with things like mercury, flame retardants, triclosan and lead! We all are. Even babies are being born pre-polluted. Now I know we can’t live in a lead free world,
but do they have to put lead in our lipstick? I don’t know. Maybe it’s my fault. Maybe I just bought
the wrong thing. At the store, the choices seem endless. I can get lipstick in 49 shades or shampoo for hair that’s too
dry, oily, fine, limp, or frizzy. But what about the choices that really matter? Like the choice to buy products that are
safe? It turns out the important decisions
don’t happen when I choose to take a product off the shelf. They happen when companies and governments
decide what should be put on the shelves. So who are these companies? This is Procter & Gamble. They’re the ones offering me “Herbal Essences,”
the number two shampoo in the country. It contains toxic petrochemicals – made from oil. Since when is oil an herb? On cosmetics labels, words like “herbal”, “natural”, even “organic” have no legal definition. That means anybody can put anything
in a bottle and call it natural. And they do. I mean, can you imagine a top
seller called “petro-essences?” Gross. What’s even nastier are hair
relaxers marketed to 5 year olds, and skin whitening creams. These are super toxic both in their ingredients and in the message they
send about what beauty is. Ooh, here’s Estee Lauder offering me a
chance to help find a cure for breast cancer. That’s nice. But wait…they’re also using chemicals linked to cancer. Don’t you think the best way for Estee Lauder to fight
cancer is to stop using those chemicals in the first place? So really, I get to choose between
meaningless claims on a bottle. But these guys get the real choice
about what goes into those bottles. And that happens back here at the
factories where they’re formulated. Why do the makers of these products use all
these toxics, are they trying to poison us? No, they’re just working from a 1950s
mindset when people were totally swept up in “better living through chemistry”. In all that excitement, they forgot to worry about
human health impacts. That was years ago, and they are still using these same old toxic chemicals. Today big cosmetics companies say the doses of poison
in their products are small enough to be harmless. Yeah maybe if you use them once a year! I guess they never get out and see
that their products are being used and combined with other products every day:
a little toxic dose under your arms, a little more on your hair, on your lips. And workers in nail and hair
salons get dosed all day long! So the industry is used to doing things this way. And they can, because even now that scientists have linked
the chemicals they’re using to all sorts of problems, there are no laws to get rid of them. You’re thinking – Really? Come on.
Nobody’s making sure that the stuff we smear all over our bodies is safe? No! The FDA doesn’t even assess the safety of
personal care products, or their ingredients. Since 1938, they’ve banned just eight out of over
12,000 ingredients used in cosmetics. They don’t even require that all of the
ingredients be listed on the label! Now this is an example where we can all agree
a little more government action would be helpful! This lack of regulation leaves a
huge hole that the cosmetics industry is all too happy to fill. They set up their own committee
to self-police their products. And compliance with their
“recommendations” is voluntary! So, the cosmetics industry is making the rules
and then deciding whether or not to follow them. So, you see, it isn’t our fault that
these toxic products are in our bathrooms. It’s a whole broken system
that’s ignoring the simple rule: toxics in, toxics out. But we’re not helpless. There are resources online that we can use
to protect ourselves by identifying the best possible choices in the store. But the real action is with people
working to change the system. Because, if we really want to solve this problem, we gotta start here with these guys. Women, parents, workers,
people all over the country are demanding that Congress pass a new law giving the FDA the power to make sure
that our personal care products are safe. We need common-sense laws based
on the precautionary principle. That means that when we’re
dealing with hazardous chemicals, just err on the side of caution. Let’s not debate how much lead
should be allowed in lipstick… Just get toxic chemicals out of our products. Smarter laws would force companies
to get past that old 50s mindset and figure out how to get us all clean
and shiny without toxic chemicals. Can they? Totally. Many responsible cosmetics companies are
already putting safer products on the market. Green chemists are developing substances that are
designed to be safe and non-toxic in the first place. European governments have required
the removal of many toxic chemicals and companies have figured out how to comply. When cosmetics are reformulated
to be safe and labeled honestly, then we can feel comfortable with
the choices available at the store. We can choose bouncy hair or full hair. Shiny lipstick or matte. We can even choose to feel beautiful
without using twenty products. But we’ll know that whatever we choose, the most important choice, the choice to be safe and healthy,
has already been made.

People Drinking COCKROACH Milk In Crazy New Trend


People are drinking cockroach milk as part
of a new health trend. I don’t know about you guys, but I didn’t
even know cockroaches made milk. How do you even milk a cockroach? Find out now on IO. Welcome back to Inform Overload I’m Charlotte
Dobre. According to science, cockroach milk is really
friggin good for you. Its not just cockroach milk, milk found in
many different insects is supposed to be one of the most nutritious substances on earth. The Pacific Beetle cockroach, unlike other
insects, gives birth to babies instead of laying eggs. Its found on islands in the pacific, most
notably Hawaii. So, the burning questions, how do you milk
a cockroach? Cockroach embryos develop int heir mothers
brood sack. The mother’s milk develops inside her. The embryos receive all the nutrients they
need, amino acids and carbohydrates, from protein rich crystals inside the milk. To milk a cockroach is actually pretty difficult. First, you need a perfectly aged roach. It needs to be 40 days old, which is when
they begin to lactate. Then scientists kill the roach, carve out
its mid gut and extract the milk. Either that or they stick a filter paper in
the brood sack for the embryos and leave it there. The first option takes an entire day for 2
to 3 cockroaches. It takes 1 thousand cockroaches to make 100
grams of milk. That being said, cockroach milk is lactose
free, pale yellow and according to taste testers, it tastes the same as cow milk. A south African company called Gourmet Grub
is currently trying to develop cockroach milk, otherwise known as Entomilk from farmed insects. This raises the question, Would vegans and
vegetarians be down to drink cockroach milk? I mean…insects are different from animals. That being said, cows are pretty darn bad
for the environment, even though they produce 750 million tons of milk a year. They produce 39 percent of all greenhouse
gas emissions on the planet. Yes I’m talking about cow burps and farts. Cow burps and farts are worse for the environment
than cars, planes, and nuclear testing. Would it be such a bad thing for humans to
get their milk from another source? Yes I am aware that there are other forms
of milk like almond milk and coconut milk, but producing those types is expensive, and
it also hurts the environment because farming them takes up a lot of land, otherwise known
as wildlife habitat.. That’s why people are resorting to milking
cockroaches. They are cheap and they don’t take up space.,
and their milk is basically a super food. Here’s the kicker though, there’s no evidence
yet to suggest that cockroach milk is safe for humans. Because its so difficult to extract milk from
a cockroach, Gourmet grub is trying to genetically engineer a yeast that produces the same milk
as the cockroaches. Would you drink cockroach milk? Let me know in the comments. Gamergirl – when you chew on potato chips,
do they turn into smash potatoes. I mean I guess so but I wouldn’t chew potato
chips and then spit them out and serve it at dinner parties. Freyjah lolz love – hey Rebecca no hate
I love you too but where is Charlotte. Charlotte was in Europe seeing her family. I posted a vlog on my personal channel, ill
put it down below in the comments if you’re interested in seeing it.

Wasp-Stung Lips?

Wasp-Stung Lips?


– Hello and welcome to The Doctors, and hello to this awesome crowd. (audience cheers) For bringing some great energy with you. Thank you for being here. We’re also joined by breast
surgeon, Dr. Christie Funk who is back in the house with us. – Good morning, thank you. – I love that blue. You two match actually. – We do. We’re very blue. – You didn’t bring a
necklace for me though. – I’ll get you some sparkles. – Okay, thank you. Alright ya’ll, we have a big show in store and what’s really cool is
we’re gonna tease this. It’s a five-dollar secret
that super model Adriana Lima uses for her beautiful long hair. We’re gonna reveal that,
her personal beauty tip, later in the show, but first, speaking of beauty, check out this guy’s solution for getting those full Kylie Jenner lips without any surgery. – Ladies, tired of spending
thousands of dollars on collagen lip injections just to get vibrant, luscious lips
you’ve always wanted? Well, here’s an easy tip: Have two wasps sting you. Boom boom. Right in the lips. And then kapow! Kim Kardashian’s gonna be looking at you for lips for days. Can’t handle all this. Totally free. You know what I just spent on this? Nothing. Went to chase some car keys, pow pow! Mm, two yellow jacket stings on the lip later and boom! Who doesn’t want some of that? Sad face. Duck lips. On fleek. – Please welcome, via Skype, Joe Rivas to the show. Joe, what happened to your lips? (laughs) – Well we were gonna go eat sushi hibachi with my wife and we were going downstairs from the apartment. And I realized that we
forgot to lock the door so my son had ran upstairs so I went to toss him the keys Needless to say, he didn’t catch em. He get’s that from my
wife’s side, not mine. Very athletic. Hit a yellow jackets’ nest under the steps and startled them. And I walked over to go pick up my keys and when I bent over, one of them stung the back of my neck so when I jumped up, I guess two of them decided to give me kiss
on the mouth real quick. (crowd laughs) It was not very fun. I was a little worried though because I’ve been allergic from when I was younger from getting stung by wasps. So the first thing I’m doing is running up the stairs
trying to Google remedies. I didn’t have an tobacco at the house because my mom used it when I was little. Put tobacco and I guess water on it to take down swelling and stuff. So as I was running up the stairs Googling and you can use baking soda and water, and then ice it, take Benedryl. So, I’m trying to do all
three of these things at once. – At what point, Joe,
did you take the video? Was that at a point when you realized- because I’m to right now. If my lip is that swollen, I’m starting to think of anything but doing a video. – [Dr. Orden] I would
have been scared to death. My whole face could have
swelled up like that. – [Dr. Funk] I think he had
the video right around then. – That is impressive. Drew’s a little that the wasps are gonna put him out of business. – Yeah, I mean, if they’d have gotten the bottom lip too, you really would have had a set of lips there. But it just goes to show that lips can really
swell up dramatically. And patients that we treat with fillers, treat their lips, those swell up. Not quite like that. But the good news is, and he’s proof, that the swelling does go away. – With the ice and antihistamine. I don’t think that the
baking soda and vinegar. That plan wasn’t so good. These venom things get
deep into the tissue and that’s just surface. So you need to get into your system with an antihistamine. Did you chase it with beer? – Yes ma’am. I was wondering when you’ll ask. – Was that just the remedy that you came up with yourself? It’ll probably ease the pain a little bit. – Oh yeah. – Well you don’t want to
combine sedatives and alcohol. – Well the cold beer can put on your lips that could have helped a little bit. – And then move it down and tilt it back? – Yeah! – Well needless to say, Joe, we’re very happy that you’re doing well. You are quite the comedian, I have to give you credit. And also, allowing us to
talk about some of the dos and don’ts so, Joe, thanks so much for being with us. And, incidentally, it’s really important to remember Joe was stung
locally on the lips. If you’re stung and
your lips start to swell like that and there was not a sting near your lips, you have to assume you’re having a massive allergic reaction. Those lips can swell, your tongue, that can compromise your airway. At that point in time it’s
a true medical emergency.

How Close Are We to Saving the Bees?


A world without bees would… sting, to say
the least. It would be a place where up to a third of
our crops could be affected. A world without the sweetness of honey, or
its medicinal properties that can heal wounds and could guard against everything from allergies
to cancer. A world where our entire economy, health,
and even your second cup of coffee are all in jeopardy. But with beekeepers losing up to half their
colonies each year, scientists, farmers, engineers and, of course, beekeepers are foraging for
answers and creative solutions. So, how close are we to saving the bees? The last time you heard about bees in the
news, it might have been connected with a mysterious phenomenon called “colony collapse
disorder.” CCD was a series of strange, sudden disappearances
of entire colonies, where workers left behind a queen, some young, and plenty of
food, but not so much as a note. – Which makes it really hard to know what
happened, as if you’re trying to do kind of an autopsy without a body. We still haven’t pinned down the exact cause
of CCD. But researchers agree that a mix of the perilous
four Ps was likely to blame: parasites, pathogens, pesticides, and poor nutrition. And though reports of CCD itself have waned,
those four factors combined are still a major threat to bee health. – The Department of Agriculture makes surveys
every year to see how many colonies survive the winter months. The rate of losses for the beekeepers are
approximately 40-45%. Evan Henry’s research team believes that
the first step in saving the bees is to know, in real time, what the status of a colony
is. That’s why they developed Nectar, an in-hive
sensor and data management platform for beekeepers. – So here’s this beacon, our sensor device
that we installed a couple of weeks ago. It collects temperature, humidity, sound,
position data and sends it to the gateway here, which is solar powered. And it sends everything over 3G or 4G to the
cloud. The ability to remotely monitor and manage
their hives in real time is immensely valuable to commercial beekeepers, who might have as
many as 1000 hives spread across large areas. – We can help tell if the hive is queenless,
if the queen’s laying eggs are not, if the hive got knocked over by a bear or a predator…
we’re developing sensors that have longer batteries that are more affordable and more
durable to survive the inside of the beehive for a year on end, without recharging. We analyze that data using various machine
learning and AI algorithms where beekeepers can see the status of all the hives that are
connected as well as perform different management operations online or on their phone. This allows the beekeepers to be alerted immediately
to any changes in their hives, giving them more time to visit a colony, see what could
be affecting it, and save the bees in danger. Or, it can show them that everything’s okay. – So you can see here this is a brood pattern
of a healthy queen who lays eggs in every cell. When the queen is failing or less healthy,
she misses cells and has more of a shotgun pattern of the brood. But here we see the queen’s very healthy,
productive. This hive is clearly healthy. With information like this, beekeepers can
better monitor which of the four Ps are affecting their colonies. But we also want to prevent these problems
from happening in the first place. Pests, like the wax moth and hive beetle,
feast on everything the bees make… including their young. And they leave behind a rotten-orange-smelling yeast that smothers the hive. But even more  destructive is a tiny mite,
aptly named “Varroa destructor.” When the Asian mite encountered European bees,
it became an insidious pest, slowly wearing down their immune systems over time. – And with that compromise of the immune system,
those diseases have increased several fold. Some strains of those viruses became more
abundant and more lethal. Pathogens, like these viruses, are a nasty
threat of their own. In particular, a disease called Deformed Wing
Virus causes a baby bee’s wings develop too curly and shriveled to function. And even if bees don’t show signs of the
disease, they can still carry and spread it. This leads to trouble foraging and shorter
lifespans, which can be disastrous for a colony trying to make it through a long winter. – A lot of colonies come out with very, very
low numbers of workers that are not enough to get our colony going. So what do we do? – Let’s pump them up. Let’s feed the bee something that even if
he gets attacked by a mite, it can have the superhero strength to fight the diseases. Some think that “something” is a super vitamin of sorts derived from polypore mushroom extract. When administered to hives in a sugar water
solution, it resulted in a 79-fold reduction in instances of Deformed Wing. Others are using formic acid and menthol to
fend off the mites. Another solution? Neurotic queens. – People are looking into selecting queens
that their colonies are very clean, very, almost neurotic. They check on every cell and if they don’t
like the scent, if they think something’s wrong with that pupa, they’ll sacrifice that baby bee, they will interrupt that varroa mite breeding cycle. But there are more Ps to contend with. Pesticides may damage male drone bees’ sperm,
affecting their ability to reproduce. But the ultimate key to saving the bees could
be improving their poor nutrition. To build up the fat they need to make immune
proteins, bees require certain amino acids in their diet. – Bees that are fed on a variety of flowers
do better than those  that are fed on one or two crops. And as we simplify the environment, as we
create great landscapes for agriculture, we reduce the biodiversity of the forage. That’s why farmers are reserving parts of
their land for plants besides their primary crop. We haven’t even mentioned wild bees, but
there are ways to help them as well, like leaving part of your lawn overgrown. These little yellow critters provide an estimated
$15 billion service to U.S. agriculture alone and are an important piece of Earth’s ecosystem,
so we definitely want to keep them around. Between planting wildflowers, installing high-tech
sensor systems, and boosting their immunity, we have plenty of tools to preserve our furry
little friends. But will we do it in time? How close are we to saving the bees? – We’re closer to saving the bees than we were
ten years ago. We have sophisticated tools but we also create
a lot of disruption in the environment. Diet means a lot for bees. And so our success depends on how good we
make on the promise of keeping diversity and forage for bees. I’m actually encouraged by the concern overall
for pollinators and I think we are going to have to change the way we do some things to
keep them around. – In terms of securing our food supply, I think
we’re close. Next five to ten years, Nectar system and
other data collection techniques will be able to uncover and pinpoint sources of why honeybees
are dying. Using data, I think we’ll be able to improve
the efficiency and efficacy of the industry which will result in lower hive mortality,
higher productivity and better pollination services for the agricultural system. Fly on over to more episodes of How Close Are We? on this playlist. Don’t forget to subscribe, and come back to Seeker for your daily dose of science. Thanks for watching!

Alternative Treatment For Fibroids – Dr.  Su Yun An’s Story

Alternative Treatment For Fibroids – Dr. Su Yun An’s Story


My name is Dr. Su Yun An. I’ve always known that i’ve had uterine fibroids over the last seven, eight years
and I didn’t realize gradually that it was growing and interfering with my life, but
because these changes were so suttle I was trying to brush off to the side saying that
well everybody has mestrual cramps or everybody has this kind of problem. But just because everyone has it doesn’t make
it normal. My OBGYN was very sure that I should get a
myomectomy. I have some friends who’ve actually gotten
a myomectomy with some complications and they took a whole lot longer than me to recover
as well. It took me three days to fully recover. The first twelve hours was very difficult,
but gradually it went away relatively quickly. Within about forty eight hours I was able
to walk and do most of the chores and I even felt like I could go back to work that day
but I took an additional day off. You know it was nothing, it was everything
that I could manage. I almost want to call Dr. Doe’s office every
month, every time I have my cycle because it is so much better. You know my message to you is to really consider
this procedure because it has been a life changing experience for me and now if I talk
to any women who has uterine fibroids without hesitation I recommend Dr. Doe and his office.