Honey Bee and Wasp Sugar Water Preferences Open Feeding What Bees Use First


okay so today is Friday the 13th in
October and what we have is an abundance of foraging bees and wasps in the air
and the resources are low so competition is high now what a lot of beekeepers do
is they open feed and they open feed a variety of different materials the most
popular is 50/50 sugar water and sugar like C&H pure cane sugar and what I have
here for this test and you’re looking at the time-lapse sequence here 50% so
that’s the 50/50 sugar water all the way to the right and this is by volume 25%
second from the right and 10% second from the left and 5% sugar water all the
way to the left and the water resource is the pure P U R filtered water that
we talked about before in the last test and turned out to be the water that was
preferred by the bees so this four minute time lapse sequence shows that
the bees really pile on the twenty five and fifty percent sugar water now sugar
and water together just provides the carbohydrate that the bees need to have
the energy to warm the hive and to forage of course
so by open feeding what we’re doing is we’re giving something for those
foragers to do plus they are bringing resources to the hive and they won’t be
attacking other colonies of honeybees hopefully if there were no resources in
the environment and as you can see in the background there the corn is dry and
ready for harvest there are very few flowering plants left so the stronger
colonies tend to converge on weaker colonies and raid them out and take
their resources so by open feeding you do two things you give those foragers
something to do and get their energy away from weaker colonies that may be
robbed out and you provide resources that will help them keep their hives
warm now the more water percentage there is compared to the sugar the more
dehydrating they have to do so once the imitation nectar here is taken into the
hive the bees have to dry it out and
condense it so that it becomes honey now you want to do this open feeding well
after you’ve taken honey off of your hives because you obviously don’t want
to be taking sugar water honey off as a resource for your own consumption so do
this after you’ve done your last harvest and so as you can see here the 50% 25%
are equally consumed by the bees they are just taking it down now I wish it
were backlit better so that you could see right now they’re down by 1/3 what
goes on is the bees are taking this all off in just a day so the entire cycle of
what you’re seeing in this video happens within a 24 hour period and the
time-lapse sequence is what I’m starting off with but if you’ll continue watching
I’ll get over some close-ups of the bees and some more discussion about what
other insects come to these feeders and again we’re using highly filtered water
this is from a well because my house is on a well so that’s pre filtered and
then I use the PUR filters that we get from Amazon I’ll put a link for that
in the video description I’ll also put a link to these drinkers that I use these
are 1 quart plastic drinkers and that’ll also be in the video description now what happened during the day of
course it warms up we started this sequence right after sunrise and the
bees of course the activity picks up after noon most foraging occurs late
morning early afternoon and here we are in the final sequences 10% 25% and 50%
are completely empty now and you notice that they’re concentrated all the way to
the left and look what is predominantly present here these are all wasps for the
most part the honeybees have already gone into their colonies for nighttime
protection and the wasps continue to forage well after sunset now for those of you who want to know
the exact weather conditions I decided to take a picture of my weather station
here and the sensor for wind we’re at 4 miles an hour we have 74 degrees outside
and 67% average humidity rainfall of course has been light for the whole
month we only have three point four four inches so this gives you kind of a base
for when I started and did this test I guess I could also if you’re interested
in this weather station I’ll put a link to that I got it on Amazon now for the
time lapse sequences I use the GoPro Hero 5 I just had that thing up on a
tripod right in front of all four the drinkers and set it for a shot every 5
seconds so here we are first one is 5 percent 5 percent sugar to water by
volume and if you notice the honeybees really didn’t care too much for that
overall we went to 10 percent they did show moderate interest in this but so
long as 25 percent and 50 percent sugar to water ratio was made available they
really heavily concentrated on that and here you see a mix of the honeybees
which are from my apiary I know some people get concerned and have made
comments in the past when I open feed that bees are coming from other apiaries
and we’re mixing potential varroa mites and things like that
well my bees are isolated we are at least five miles from the nearest
beekeeper in my area so for me open feeding number one I’m not wasting my
resources feeding other people’s bees and number two I’m really not that
concerned about contagions passing back and forth bee to bee while they’re
concentrated at these drinkers and this just shows again the GoPros setup so
here they are they’re concentrating to the Yellowjackets here in the foreground
lining up and now Yellowjackets even though they do raid beehives when
they’re all at an area like this where there’s an abundant resource they
congregate without attacking each other the exception to that though is and
you’ll see them in here see that bald-faced hornet which is really a
wasp but she’s on the right there kind of in the middle of the pack they show
up for nectar resources which is the sugar water but they’re also here to
attack kill and fly away with some of the smaller wasps they don’t seem to be
very successful against the honeybees but they are definitely here as dual
purpose predators one for the nectar and the second is to get some protein by
capturing a smaller wasp tearing it apart and bringing that back
to their nest site so by sunset this future percent sugar water was basically
empty and twenty five percent went down pretty much at the exact same rate I
think during this sequence we do still have some of the water in those
reservoirs and you can still see as the sun’s back lit twenty-five and fifty
percent are at fifty percent and the ten and five percent are down by about 20
percent now bees have to drink their food any
insect that you see that has that thorax and then the very thread thin
connection between the thorax and the abdomen meat protein isn’t gonna pass
through that so they can only drink now insects of different styles can handle
thicker liquid than others I hope some of you enjoyed those
slow-motion sequences they are a lower-resolution of course we will
improve on those at another time but these are cool in slow motion and here
we are again we’re just gonna continue to show the bees and wasps kind of
cooperating here at the drinkers now if you look closely there are a
variety of wasp species here and the ones when you see their abdomens and
they’ve got the yellow and black stripes going across them now we’re going into
nighttime so even though the video looks well lit this is actually after sunset
so what’s left at the feeders wasps so and wasps are not all the same I have
to tell you that you know like mud dobbers and some of the smaller
Yellowjackets woodland Yellowjackets they are pretty gentle to be around but
what we’re looking at here this nice large black and white one is what’s
known as a bald-faced hornet now they’re really just a wasp themselves but they
are really at the top of the food chain when it comes to wasps in our area and
some of them are here licking up the sugar water that’s remaining if you
notice all of these reservoirs are empty except for the 5% sugar water by now and
these boldface Hornets if you’ve seen my other videos I am NOT a fan of these
wasps they are really aggressive they can fly at night they navigate at night
they can squirt venom in your eyes they are just I don’t know what to say they
are a very very defensive and capable flying stinging insect and the cool
thing is here now that we’re after sunset and most of the honeybees have
gone to their hives you get to see on these reservoirs all these different
varieties of wasps and some of these again they’ve come from the woods some
of them are meadow some of them come from ground nests and
others are paper wasps there’s a honey bee real quick they’re like look at this
curious looking Los long and slender and they’re pretty docile I’m close to these
things they don’t have any protection on and they’re just pretty passive at this
point of course it’s cooling down it’s nighttime there’s a honey bee there on
the left but again as I said most of the honey bees have gone there’s a bee fly
there right in front of us that’s an imitator now I’m showing you my
bug-zooka this is what I use to collect sometimes Yellowjackets if they’re
really getting pesky I’m trying to work the bees but tonight
you know I just can’t let these boldface Hornets go so I’m gonna have to go after
them these are Yellow Jackets these are not my target species right now but I am
collecting bald faced Hornet so that I can look at them up close the bug-zooka
lets you catch things alive if you get something that you don’t want to kill
you can release it later after observation and for me in my case I can
photograph them but look at these different wasp species they’re really
interesting five percent the only thing that’s left
to drink from and you can see the honeybees are
congregated there to the right side of the screen these bees are staying kind
of grouped together and they’re gonna stay on these feeders overnight which is
interesting too now look at these boldface Hornets I
just can’t let him sit there look there you go taking them out with my bug-zooka
oh there’s another one she’s aggressive just you know they’re not like any other
wasp goodbye and these are what I would call you know passive friendly wasps
here those of you know your wasp species very well could chime in in the comment
section and share with all of us again it’s it’s fairly dark now don’t be
fooled by the exposure of the video camera that I’m using which makes it
look well lit we are well past sunset and of course these honey bees have
moved up underneath this brick to protect themselves from heavy dew and of
course the cold temps overnight in the morning they’ll find their way back to
their hives another bald-faced hornet got that one and there’s a bald-faced
hornet if you’ve ever had an encounter with bald-faced hornet so you know
exactly what I’m talking about they come at you like nothing else just look at
her going after all the other wasps that are just there to drink she is not a
friendly wasp when it comes to the drinking hole here yeah got you too! so we’re putting away
everything packing up the GoPro and of course here’s a little wasp on it very
timid you know we’re out here we’re not at their nest so keep in mind wasps when
they’re out of the feeding space are not defending that site so they’re very easy
to approach and here’s my collection for the evening a bald-faced hornet so i’m
gonna take these back and get some close-up photographs of them and again
my least favorite wasp I’ll put a link to the bug-zooka – if you’re interested
in that now here we are this is the following morning actually right at
sunrise it’s cold and it’s rainy and who’s out flying around the Yellow
Jackets Yellow Jackets have a huge advantage over the honeybee they fly in
colder temperatures I’ve seen Yellow Jackets flying around in 38 degrees
Fahrenheit and they are able to gather resources before the honeybees are even
out and about and if you look at the ones that have the abdomens with the
independent dots on left and right going down the back that’s a queen so this
time of year a lot of the Yellowjackets that are going out and about are the
newly hatched Queens that are gonna hope to winner over here because the
temperatures are getting colder and they’ll be the ones that will establish
new colonies in the spring of next year so they are definitely hungry for
carbohydrates thank you for watching this video I hope you got something out
of it and I hope you enjoyed seeing these wasps up close and what sugar
preferences the bees and wasps have thanks again

Charlie Hunnam Sprinted Naked Through a Forest to Escape a Wasp Attack

Charlie Hunnam Sprinted Naked Through a Forest to Escape a Wasp Attack


-You just got back
from traveling. Where were you? -I was all over the place,
but for the last few months, few months leading up to the
holidays, I was in India. -Yeah, you were in India.
-Whoo! -What were you doing there?
Can we say what you were doing? -I was —
I’m shooting a TV show, a new TV show for Apple.
-Oh. -An adaptation of the novel
“Shantaram.” -Ah. And how —
It didn’t really go — I mean, the shooting went well,
and the project is great, but you didn’t have
the best time in India. -No, there were some challenges. I had a series of pretty
significant health issues that, as they went on,
seemed like a series of
assassination attempts. I got a — I got
a lung infection which turns into
a sinus infection. And then I got conjunctivitis
in both my eyes. [ Audience groans ]
Then I got an ear infection. Then I got strep throat,
then a bacterial gut infection. And then I got bitten
by a mosquito and contracted dengue fever. [ Audience exclaims ] -It is —
[ Laughter ] -Thank you.
[ Applause ] -They should have
put you in a box, and I had to touch you.
I mean, wow. -It was kind of confounding,
’cause I kind of pride myself on having impeccable
personal hygiene, but I think some of those things
sometimes go against you. I think my immune system
was too delicate because I’m too clean. -You’re too clean, so you got to
get out there and just start — -You got to roll around
in the mud a little bit. -Yeah.
-Yeah. -But you have a weird kind of
history of almost dying. -I do. I do. This year particularly. It was a strange year. -Hopefully it’s over with. -Well, we’ll see. I mean, I had a mosquito
in my room last night. -That doesn’t count.
That doesn’t count. -But it’s New York,
and it’s January, and I was on the eighth floor. -Think he’s, like,
a super mutant mosquito? -You know, I was worried,
because I don’t — I don’t know the ins and outs
of dengue fever. You have it for a period of
time, but then the antibodies
stay in your body, obviously, ’cause you have to get tested, and that’s the way
antibodies work. And I wondered,
if that mosquito bit me, does then that mosquito
contract dengue fever, and then the next person
who checks into that hotel — These are the things
you got to ask yourself. These are the things that I stay
up late night worrying about. -You’re trying to save lives
out here. -I am. You know, I’m doing
what I can for the people. -[ Laughs ] Wow. -It was a weird year.
It started off getting a — I went camping, and I got a deer
tick that burrowed into my leg, and I did not contract
Lyme disease, ’cause I once
had gotten a deer tick in the highlands of Scotland, which I didn’t even know
had Lyme disease, and I got Lyme disease. But I didn’t get Lyme disease. But a very strange thing
happened to me when I went camping
a few months later. I went out looking
for firewood one day, and it was end of the season.
It was kind of picked dry. And so I was pretty far
from my camp. And I was just wearing
some sweatpants and a t-shirt. And there were three trees
fallen into a triangle, and in those trees
was a mother lode of firewood. So I said,
“Alright, here we go.” And I got up, and I was… crouched down like this
picking up firewood, and all of a sudden, wham, like, a snakebite
in the perineum. -Where’s — The perineum,
where is that? -The perineum is that sweet
piece of no man’s land between the anus
and the scrotum. -Okay.
[ Applause ] -Alright, so —
-That is a suboptimal place to get bitten by a snake. -Yeah, yeah, yeah.
So, a snake jumped out and — -So, I —
That’s what it felt like. And I look down,
and there was no snake. So I was trying to process
what could have happened, and, bam, another shrill pain
in my ass cheek. -Okay. -Then one
in the back of my head, and then one under my armpit, and I realized I was under siege
from yellow jackets. I’d kicked over
a nest of yellow jackets. And as I was processing
this angry swarm coming at me — Sorry. I’m very bad
at microphone etiquette. As I was processing
this swarm coming at me, I got stung about another
10 times in about 5 seconds. So I took off running, as any,
you know, heroic figure would. I took off sprinting
through the forest and ran for about
a minute and a half and stopped to see
what was happening and immediately bam, bam, bam, got stung about
another five times. Now I’m starting
to get really worried, you know? I don’t know much
about yellow jackets. But I assume 20 bites
is probably — or stings is probably reaching
the threshold. -[ Laughing ] Oh, my God. -So, I ripped
all of my clothes off. I kicked my shoes off,
and I took all my clothes off. -Yeah.
-And then — And then put my shoes back on
and continued sprinting completely naked. [ Women cheering ] And this is all true. I realized at that moment I was
actually inside a nightmare, a recurring nightmare. I for many years had had this
recurring dream that I was — a nightmare that I was sprinting
for my life naked in a forest. In that moment, I was literally inside —
-Living — -I was living
my recurring nightmare. -Oh, my goodness. -And I haven’t had
that dream since. So it was something of
a prophecy or something, right? So I’m going to start — I’m going to start taking —
[ Cheers and applause ] I’m gonna start taking these
dreams a little more seriously. -That is unbelievable.
-Yeah. -So it was not a snake at all. -No.
-But, gosh, that’s awful. Did you have to go
to the hospital? -I did, but I —
Well, you know, it’s funny. I was very sick that day. And
my — I was with my girlfriend, and she went and got the park
ranger. I mean, we were way out. And she went and got a ranger,
and he came and looked at me. He said, “You’re probably
going to be okay.” And I was sort of okay that day, and then two days later,
I got very, very sick. And I spoke to my doctor,
and he said, “You had probably so much venom
in your system that your body starts to create
antibodies to fight the venom.” And then if I got stung again, because I have those antibodies
in my system now, I could have a bad reaction. So I’m supposed to carry
an EpiPen, but of course,
I’m an idiot, and I don’t. -Maybe you got superpowers
for a day. -Maybe.
-Like, maybe you — -They didn’t do me much good
in India, let me tell you. -No, that’s true.
[ Laughs ] I forgot about India.
Never mind. Yeah. -So it was a strange year, 20– But we’re in a new decade now. -Here we are. Yeah.
-We’ll see. -Oh, please. It’s going to be
the best year for you yet.

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

Honey Bees Need Salt and Minerals, Sea Salt Preferences, Pink Himalayan Salt Honeybee nutrition

Honey Bees Need Salt and Minerals, Sea Salt Preferences, Pink Himalayan Salt Honeybee nutrition


okay so this is a video that a lot of my
YouTube followers and the honeybee enthusiasts have been asking for for a
long time and we’re gonna do a sea salt comparison to see what the honeybees
prefer when we mix it with water so that they can get the benefits of all these
fantastic minerals and I’m introducing the sea salts here first celtic sea salt
I have to say has the most elaborate packaging and the most extensive claims
to the health and nutritional benefits of any of the sea salts and I’m testing
here today the nutrition facts they also say it’s non-gmo when it comes to
minerals I don’t know how you genetically modify them but maybe somebody else knows
better sea salts are sodium and we also have Morton natural sea salts it’s
another one that I grabbed and just like it says here on the box it’s for all
cooking now all the salts that we’re using are suitable for human consumption
so I’m guessing that they’re good for the bees the reason that we’re on this
in the first place is because the bees showed a preference for water that had
salt content over regular pure filtered water and again the nutritional facts
here for the morton salt and this comes from the bahamas so these are you know
distilled from natural seawater it’s dehydrated down until we have the salts
and minerals left over and i’m just giving you a brief look at each of the
packages so that you’ll kind of know what they look like where they came from
who’s making them and providing them so we’re out here by my pond and here’s the
one pure Himalayan pink crystals salt 84 minerals so we know that the bees need
minerals and salts and that they need all these things they find them in the
environment where do they find them I don’t know but we’re gonna make it easy
for them to get at this in solution so these are finely ground sea salts and
all of these I purchased from Amazon and I’ll give you the link so that you can
look at them read reviews of course reviews are based on human consumption
and what it tasted like this pink Himalayan sea salt some people
even question whether or not it has some sugar added or something but that is not
the ingredients it just apparently has a really good flavor so again the labeling
on the back here and it even has a shelf-life 2023 and then of course the
nutritional facts so these are packaged nice and fancy don’t forget you always
have to keep pure filtered fresh water that’s free of anything and that’s what
these feeders have in them so aside from the sea salts we’re going to have
filtered water available as always in the Bee yard
here’s how we’ve laid it out as always based on my past testing we have 4 1
quart containers they started off with fresh pure filtered water and the water
source is well water and the filter system is PU R which was the highest and
filtering medium that I could find for again intended for people to drink so
the Bees showed a preference for that in the past that’s our baseline the reason
that the water is a little colored here is because this time I added two drops
of green food coloring per quart so that we could see the levels better and the
bees are going after these sea salts right away and as you can see they
actually prefer this over fresh water that does not have the high mineral
content now we arrived at the one teaspoon per quart based on my last
experience which was done with just table salt and we added different
amounts of table salt per quart and the bees preferred the 1 teaspoon per quart
of salts over other content levels so here the bees are just going after
everything here and you might be surprised that these end results as to
what the bees show up reverence for but I will say overall the preference of the
honeybees is to go after water that has mineral content this is number one they
chose Morton sea salts over the others and number two in the lineup is the most
popular crystal sea salt Himalayan pink crystal and this is the one that
everyone has been asking me to try out with the bees so I did
number three in the lineup is one teaspoon per quart of Celtic sea salt
that was the most expensive by the way and of course last on the list no big
surprise one teaspoon per quart of stone mill iodized table salt this is a
regular table salt that most people put on their table there are extensive
benefits claimed regarding the sea salt over table salt the bees really don’t
show a huge preference of any of these over the other as you can see the levels
here now the duration of this test was actually four days and one teaspoon per
quart of Mortain sea salt was preferred but look across the board it’s not like
they chose it two-to-one the bees are gonna go after water that has mineral
content and they need it and they use it and there’s some discussion about how
the bees might be using mineralized water as part of their dehydration
process inside the hive when they’re dehydrating honey and nectar that does
not mean that they’re putting these sea salts into the honey and nectar cells
they’re using it as a coolant process but of course for health nutrition and
well-being of the bees themselves having access to minerals is going to benefit
them and they definitely if we’re looking to the bees for guidelines on
what’s good for them if we’re making all these options available they’re telling
us pretty conspicuously that they want water with minerals in it and again if
nothing else is available of course you’re gonna take that iodized table
salt but it is their last of the four tested sea salts here and here we have
it so that’s the summary just closing out with a slow-motion look here of my
landing board we have a lot going in the bee yard right now we just installed the
flow hive two and I put it in the bee yard without anything except swarm
commander I’m trying to find out if a swarm of bees is gonna home in there and
just take it over and just before I started editing this video I was on in
the apiary and there are guard bees and Scouts already checking out the flow
hive two it has no resources in it in has acorn waxed frames in it and of
course the flow hive frames it’s gonna be interesting to share with you how
that goes I’d like to attract a swarm to it without doing any honeybee install at
all so look for that in upcoming videos it’s going to be interesting I promise
they are actually setting up shop the Scout bees are even guarding the empty
hive so I think they’re acting as placeholders keep watching thanks for
watching this video and I hope you found the information helpful thanks for
watching

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

The Story of Cosmetics

The Story of Cosmetics


This is a story about a world obsessed with stuff. It’s a story about a system in crisis.
We’re trashing the planet, we’re trashing each other,
and we’re not even having fun. The good thing is that when we
start to understand the system, We start to see lots of places to step in
and turn these problems into solutions. Can I tell you, I love my Pantene Pro V. Of the dozen or so personal care products
I use everyday, it’s the one I can’t live without. Says it gives my dull hair “the ultimate cool shine.” How does it do that? I was wondering that, while I was
lathering it into my hair one day, so I read the ingredients right here: Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Tetrasodium EDTA, Methyl-iso-thiazo-linone… What is this stuff? I took this list to some scientists
who know how to read it. Turns out my Pantene contains
a chemical linked to cancer. And lots of other products in my bathroom from
sunscreen to lipstick and even baby shampoo also contain chemicals linked to cancer or
other problems like learning disabilities, asthma, and even damaged sperm. Like most parents, I try to keep my family safe but now I find out my bathroom is a minefield of toxins. What are we supposed to do? To find out the answers we have to go back to one of the key features
of our materials economy: Toxics in, toxics out. If, at the factory, you pour toxic chemicals
into a product – like baby shampoo – you’re going to wind up with… toxic baby shampoo … AND toxics in workers, communities, and, duh, babies. So let’s take a closer look at this toxic outrage
where it seeps into our lives every day – in the bathroom. The average woman in the U.S. uses about
twelve personal care products daily. The average man, about six. Each product contains a dozen or more chemicals. Less than twenty percent of all chemicals
in cosmetics have been assessed for safety by the industry’s safety panel so we just don’t know what they do to us when we use them. Would you fly on an airline that only
inspects twenty percent of its planes? Of course, not all of these
chemicals are dangerous. But we know that many are. Some are carcinogens – that means they can cause cancer. Others are neurotoxins
and reproductive toxins; proven to mess up brain development
and reproduction in animals. Wait a minute, we’re animals too! It’s like a giant experiment. We’re using all these mystery chemicals
and just waiting to see what happens. One thing we do know is that
they’re getting inside us. I had my body’s toxicity levels tested, and I’m
loaded with things like mercury, flame retardants, triclosan and lead! We all are. Even babies are being born pre-polluted. Now I know we can’t live in a lead free world,
but do they have to put lead in our lipstick? I don’t know. Maybe it’s my fault. Maybe I just bought
the wrong thing. At the store, the choices seem endless. I can get lipstick in 49 shades or shampoo for hair that’s too
dry, oily, fine, limp, or frizzy. But what about the choices that really matter? Like the choice to buy products that are
safe? It turns out the important decisions
don’t happen when I choose to take a product off the shelf. They happen when companies and governments
decide what should be put on the shelves. So who are these companies? This is Procter & Gamble. They’re the ones offering me “Herbal Essences,”
the number two shampoo in the country. It contains toxic petrochemicals – made from oil. Since when is oil an herb? On cosmetics labels, words like “herbal”, “natural”, even “organic” have no legal definition. That means anybody can put anything
in a bottle and call it natural. And they do. I mean, can you imagine a top
seller called “petro-essences?” Gross. What’s even nastier are hair
relaxers marketed to 5 year olds, and skin whitening creams. These are super toxic both in their ingredients and in the message they
send about what beauty is. Ooh, here’s Estee Lauder offering me a
chance to help find a cure for breast cancer. That’s nice. But wait…they’re also using chemicals linked to cancer. Don’t you think the best way for Estee Lauder to fight
cancer is to stop using those chemicals in the first place? So really, I get to choose between
meaningless claims on a bottle. But these guys get the real choice
about what goes into those bottles. And that happens back here at the
factories where they’re formulated. Why do the makers of these products use all
these toxics, are they trying to poison us? No, they’re just working from a 1950s
mindset when people were totally swept up in “better living through chemistry”. In all that excitement, they forgot to worry about
human health impacts. That was years ago, and they are still using these same old toxic chemicals. Today big cosmetics companies say the doses of poison
in their products are small enough to be harmless. Yeah maybe if you use them once a year! I guess they never get out and see
that their products are being used and combined with other products every day:
a little toxic dose under your arms, a little more on your hair, on your lips. And workers in nail and hair
salons get dosed all day long! So the industry is used to doing things this way. And they can, because even now that scientists have linked
the chemicals they’re using to all sorts of problems, there are no laws to get rid of them. You’re thinking – Really? Come on.
Nobody’s making sure that the stuff we smear all over our bodies is safe? No! The FDA doesn’t even assess the safety of
personal care products, or their ingredients. Since 1938, they’ve banned just eight out of over
12,000 ingredients used in cosmetics. They don’t even require that all of the
ingredients be listed on the label! Now this is an example where we can all agree
a little more government action would be helpful! This lack of regulation leaves a
huge hole that the cosmetics industry is all too happy to fill. They set up their own committee
to self-police their products. And compliance with their
“recommendations” is voluntary! So, the cosmetics industry is making the rules
and then deciding whether or not to follow them. So, you see, it isn’t our fault that
these toxic products are in our bathrooms. It’s a whole broken system
that’s ignoring the simple rule: toxics in, toxics out. But we’re not helpless. There are resources online that we can use
to protect ourselves by identifying the best possible choices in the store. But the real action is with people
working to change the system. Because, if we really want to solve this problem, we gotta start here with these guys. Women, parents, workers,
people all over the country are demanding that Congress pass a new law giving the FDA the power to make sure
that our personal care products are safe. We need common-sense laws based
on the precautionary principle. That means that when we’re
dealing with hazardous chemicals, just err on the side of caution. Let’s not debate how much lead
should be allowed in lipstick… Just get toxic chemicals out of our products. Smarter laws would force companies
to get past that old 50s mindset and figure out how to get us all clean
and shiny without toxic chemicals. Can they? Totally. Many responsible cosmetics companies are
already putting safer products on the market. Green chemists are developing substances that are
designed to be safe and non-toxic in the first place. European governments have required
the removal of many toxic chemicals and companies have figured out how to comply. When cosmetics are reformulated
to be safe and labeled honestly, then we can feel comfortable with
the choices available at the store. We can choose bouncy hair or full hair. Shiny lipstick or matte. We can even choose to feel beautiful
without using twenty products. But we’ll know that whatever we choose, the most important choice, the choice to be safe and healthy,
has already been made.

People Drinking COCKROACH Milk In Crazy New Trend


People are drinking cockroach milk as part
of a new health trend. I don’t know about you guys, but I didn’t
even know cockroaches made milk. How do you even milk a cockroach? Find out now on IO. Welcome back to Inform Overload I’m Charlotte
Dobre. According to science, cockroach milk is really
friggin good for you. Its not just cockroach milk, milk found in
many different insects is supposed to be one of the most nutritious substances on earth. The Pacific Beetle cockroach, unlike other
insects, gives birth to babies instead of laying eggs. Its found on islands in the pacific, most
notably Hawaii. So, the burning questions, how do you milk
a cockroach? Cockroach embryos develop int heir mothers
brood sack. The mother’s milk develops inside her. The embryos receive all the nutrients they
need, amino acids and carbohydrates, from protein rich crystals inside the milk. To milk a cockroach is actually pretty difficult. First, you need a perfectly aged roach. It needs to be 40 days old, which is when
they begin to lactate. Then scientists kill the roach, carve out
its mid gut and extract the milk. Either that or they stick a filter paper in
the brood sack for the embryos and leave it there. The first option takes an entire day for 2
to 3 cockroaches. It takes 1 thousand cockroaches to make 100
grams of milk. That being said, cockroach milk is lactose
free, pale yellow and according to taste testers, it tastes the same as cow milk. A south African company called Gourmet Grub
is currently trying to develop cockroach milk, otherwise known as Entomilk from farmed insects. This raises the question, Would vegans and
vegetarians be down to drink cockroach milk? I mean…insects are different from animals. That being said, cows are pretty darn bad
for the environment, even though they produce 750 million tons of milk a year. They produce 39 percent of all greenhouse
gas emissions on the planet. Yes I’m talking about cow burps and farts. Cow burps and farts are worse for the environment
than cars, planes, and nuclear testing. Would it be such a bad thing for humans to
get their milk from another source? Yes I am aware that there are other forms
of milk like almond milk and coconut milk, but producing those types is expensive, and
it also hurts the environment because farming them takes up a lot of land, otherwise known
as wildlife habitat.. That’s why people are resorting to milking
cockroaches. They are cheap and they don’t take up space.,
and their milk is basically a super food. Here’s the kicker though, there’s no evidence
yet to suggest that cockroach milk is safe for humans. Because its so difficult to extract milk from
a cockroach, Gourmet grub is trying to genetically engineer a yeast that produces the same milk
as the cockroaches. Would you drink cockroach milk? Let me know in the comments. Gamergirl – when you chew on potato chips,
do they turn into smash potatoes. I mean I guess so but I wouldn’t chew potato
chips and then spit them out and serve it at dinner parties. Freyjah lolz love – hey Rebecca no hate
I love you too but where is Charlotte. Charlotte was in Europe seeing her family. I posted a vlog on my personal channel, ill
put it down below in the comments if you’re interested in seeing it.

Wasp-Stung Lips?

Wasp-Stung Lips?


– Hello and welcome to The Doctors, and hello to this awesome crowd. (audience cheers) For bringing some great energy with you. Thank you for being here. We’re also joined by breast
surgeon, Dr. Christie Funk who is back in the house with us. – Good morning, thank you. – I love that blue. You two match actually. – We do. We’re very blue. – You didn’t bring a
necklace for me though. – I’ll get you some sparkles. – Okay, thank you. Alright ya’ll, we have a big show in store and what’s really cool is
we’re gonna tease this. It’s a five-dollar secret
that super model Adriana Lima uses for her beautiful long hair. We’re gonna reveal that,
her personal beauty tip, later in the show, but first, speaking of beauty, check out this guy’s solution for getting those full Kylie Jenner lips without any surgery. – Ladies, tired of spending
thousands of dollars on collagen lip injections just to get vibrant, luscious lips
you’ve always wanted? Well, here’s an easy tip: Have two wasps sting you. Boom boom. Right in the lips. And then kapow! Kim Kardashian’s gonna be looking at you for lips for days. Can’t handle all this. Totally free. You know what I just spent on this? Nothing. Went to chase some car keys, pow pow! Mm, two yellow jacket stings on the lip later and boom! Who doesn’t want some of that? Sad face. Duck lips. On fleek. – Please welcome, via Skype, Joe Rivas to the show. Joe, what happened to your lips? (laughs) – Well we were gonna go eat sushi hibachi with my wife and we were going downstairs from the apartment. And I realized that we
forgot to lock the door so my son had ran upstairs so I went to toss him the keys Needless to say, he didn’t catch em. He get’s that from my
wife’s side, not mine. Very athletic. Hit a yellow jackets’ nest under the steps and startled them. And I walked over to go pick up my keys and when I bent over, one of them stung the back of my neck so when I jumped up, I guess two of them decided to give me kiss
on the mouth real quick. (crowd laughs) It was not very fun. I was a little worried though because I’ve been allergic from when I was younger from getting stung by wasps. So the first thing I’m doing is running up the stairs
trying to Google remedies. I didn’t have an tobacco at the house because my mom used it when I was little. Put tobacco and I guess water on it to take down swelling and stuff. So as I was running up the stairs Googling and you can use baking soda and water, and then ice it, take Benedryl. So, I’m trying to do all
three of these things at once. – At what point, Joe,
did you take the video? Was that at a point when you realized- because I’m to right now. If my lip is that swollen, I’m starting to think of anything but doing a video. – [Dr. Orden] I would
have been scared to death. My whole face could have
swelled up like that. – [Dr. Funk] I think he had
the video right around then. – That is impressive. Drew’s a little that the wasps are gonna put him out of business. – Yeah, I mean, if they’d have gotten the bottom lip too, you really would have had a set of lips there. But it just goes to show that lips can really
swell up dramatically. And patients that we treat with fillers, treat their lips, those swell up. Not quite like that. But the good news is, and he’s proof, that the swelling does go away. – With the ice and antihistamine. I don’t think that the
baking soda and vinegar. That plan wasn’t so good. These venom things get
deep into the tissue and that’s just surface. So you need to get into your system with an antihistamine. Did you chase it with beer? – Yes ma’am. I was wondering when you’ll ask. – Was that just the remedy that you came up with yourself? It’ll probably ease the pain a little bit. – Oh yeah. – Well you don’t want to
combine sedatives and alcohol. – Well the cold beer can put on your lips that could have helped a little bit. – And then move it down and tilt it back? – Yeah! – Well needless to say, Joe, we’re very happy that you’re doing well. You are quite the comedian, I have to give you credit. And also, allowing us to
talk about some of the dos and don’ts so, Joe, thanks so much for being with us. And, incidentally, it’s really important to remember Joe was stung
locally on the lips. If you’re stung and
your lips start to swell like that and there was not a sting near your lips, you have to assume you’re having a massive allergic reaction. Those lips can swell, your tongue, that can compromise your airway. At that point in time it’s
a true medical emergency.