Hungry? A pop-up resturant sells bugs and insects for lunch


When you’re on-the-go and feeling hungry,
the idea of tucking into some fast food can be appealing. But at a pop up restaurant in Cardiff – the
food on offer may not be that appealing to everyone. On the menu are cricket chocolate chip cookies,
bug blinis, salt and vinegar crickets, locust and scorpion lollipops among some other delights. Deep fried insects are regularly eaten as
street food in places like Bangkok. Local delicacies include crickets and worms
which come in a range of flavours including, salt, cheese, seaweed and barbecue and cost
around 65 pence each. But for the British tongue – it’s safe to
say they’re an acquired taste.

The Bugs That Turn Strawberry Yogurt Red

The Bugs That Turn Strawberry Yogurt Red


Narrator: No one likes
finding bugs in their food when they’re not expecting it. But I hate to break it to you, you’re actually eating them all the time. I’m not just talking about the critters that end up in juices or jams by accident. Some bugs are in our food because, well, we put them there. If you think it’s fruit that turns this strawberry
yogurt red, think again. Yes, there are in fact
strawberries in there, but they’re there for flavor
and texture, not color. That bright red comes from
something else called carmine. Oh, and it’s made from squashed bugs. Squashed female cochineal
bugs, to be specific. They’re tick-sized critters
native to Mesoamerica where they suck the juice
from prickly pear cactuses. Greig: And if you squish them,
they are bright red inside and kind of a purply,
deep purple-red color, and that’s the source of cochineal, cochineal dye, carmine,
whatever you wanna call it. Narrator: For thousands of
years, people have been using these bugs to dye everything
from clothes to pottery. But it wasn’t until more recently that they made their way
into commercial foods. From 1955 to 2010, the
consumption of food coloring rose by 500% in the United States. That’s mostly thanks to artificial colors like Red 40, Yellow 5, and Blue 1. But in the late 20th
century, consumers became increasingly concerned
about synthetic chemicals in their foods and demanded
more natural ingredients. So many companies turned to carmine. It’s FDA improved and tasteless. It resists degradation from
light, heat, and oxidation, and unlike some synthetic colorants, it hasn’t been linked to
cancers or tumor growth. Greig: Now, some people
apparently have allergies to it, but compared with the downsides of the chemical dye, it’s very benign. It’s like using beet juice. Narrator: And just like
that, carmine ended up in strawberry and cream Frappuccinos and cake pops at Starbucks, in Tropicana grapefruit juice, and, yes, in Yoplait yogurts. Just look for carmine or cochineal extract on the label to see for yourself. But today, carmine is becoming
harder and harder to come by. Some companies like Campari Group, maker of the famous Campari
aperitif, have phased it out for economic reasons in the US. Greig: It’s expensive to
make. I mean, it’s easier to just make a chemical dye, and this is a very specialized, you have to farm these little bugs, and collect billions of pounds of them, and dry all them and all that, so I think that just wasn’t as practical. Narrator: Other companies
took it out because, well, people still don’t like eating
bugs, especially vegans. In 2012, a vegan news site outed Starbucks for using cochineal in its Strawberries and Crème Frappuccino, saying that it’s not vegan, and a month later, the
company said they’d switch to a bug-free alternative. In fact, Yoplait now remains one of the only major brands that sells food colored with carmine. But even Yoplait may phase it out after customers expressed concerns about eating bug parts. Greig: So I just think it’s ironic people are freaked out about
insects, about eating insects, even though we eat 2 pounds of insects a year
on average by accident. Narrator: And to show just
how harmless they are, we tried some. Jones: Nope, just tastes like yogurt! Not buggy at all, in fact. Not that I would know what
that would taste like, but I’m really just getting
plain Greek yogurt taste.

What Would Happen If All The Bugs Died?

What Would Happen If All The Bugs Died?


Hey there and welcome to Life Noggin. I took a visit to your human world the other
day, and was surprised to see so many of these little creepy-crawly things roaming around. Being so tiny, they can’t have much of an
impact on Earth, right? The answer to that just might surprise you. So, just how important are insects and what
would happen if all of them died? At first glance, it may sound like a pretty
good thing. No wasps to sting you when you go outside,
no fleas to annoy our furry friends, and no cockroaches to scare the daylight out of you… man those things look like creepy little aliens!. And there’s even some larger-scale benefits
too. We could say goodbye to insects that are invasive
species, like gypsy moths and the asian longhorned beetle. No more insects should also lessen the spread
of insect-spread diseases, like malaria. According to the CDC, malaria is a mosquito-borne
disease that gives a flu-like illness that, if left untreated, can even lead to death. They estimated that around 429,000 people
died from malaria in 2015, so stopping the spread of diseases like this could go a long
way for our global health! The benefits could also spread to our agriculture,
as it would make it so that farmers would no longer need to use insecticides to protect
their crops. Different pesticides would most likely still
be used though, as there could still be other threats to the crops, like weeds or rodents. But without insects, there would probably
be far less plants and food to protect in the first place. This is because around 80 percent of the plants
in the world are angiosperms, which are flowering plants. They directly provide us nutrition in the
form of foods like potatoes, beans, wheat, and many different fruits, vegetables, and
nuts. They are also indirectly part of our plates
by being commonly used to feed the animals we farm. While these plants can be pollinated by things
like wind and other animals such as birds, insects are often vital for their pollination. Common insect pollinators include bees, butterflies,
and beetles. Without another way to pollinate these flowering
plants, we could lose out on a pretty big supply of food! Losing out on insects would likely have a
widespread domino effect of making it harder for other animals to survive, which would
then make it harder for us to survive. Not just from their pollination contributions,
but insects themselves are also widely apart of the diet of animals like frogs, birds,
lizards, and many more! Adding up all the little things that insects
do for the planet both directly and indirectly could really lead us down a rabbit hole of
awfulness if they all died. That, and according to the UK’s Living With
Environmental Change Partnership, the global crop production attributable to insect pollination
was estimated to be worth about $215 billion dollars in 2005. That’s a lot of money! You could probably buy a couple of avocados
at Whole Foods with that much dough. Losing insects might also make it a little
harder for all my aspiring Sherlock Holmes out there. That’s because insects are drawn to a decomposing
body and may lay eggs in it. Through the study of insects and developing
larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate how long since a person died, changes in corpse
positions, and further insight into the cause of death. It’s super creepy to think about. So did any of this surprise you? Did you know such tiny things could be so
important? Let me know in the comments below! Make sure you come back every Monday for a
brand new video. As always, I’m Blocko and this has been
Life Noggin. Don’t forget to keep on thinking!

Community Ecology: Feel the Love – Crash Course Ecology #4

Community Ecology: Feel the Love – Crash Course Ecology #4


I wouldn’t be much of a teacher if I didn’t tell you that life is tough and that everyone’s looking out for themselves in this world. That’s just the way it is, people. You know how I always say that biology is
ultimately about sex and not dying? Well both of those things are more difficult
than we’d like them to be, because of competition. There’s a finite amount of resources on this
planet, so evolution drives us to compete for them so that we can survive long enough to spread
our genes all over the place And naturally, competition is a really important part of how different species interact when their habitats overlap. These interactions between species are what
define ecological communities. So it makes sense that community ecology studies
these interactions anywhere they take place, from a tide pool to the whole ocean,
from a rotting log to an entire forest. But just because inter-species interaction
is mostly competitive doesn’t necessarily mean that community ecology is all about big, bloody, tooth-and-claw scenes like from cable-TV nature shows. Actually, a lot of it is, but we’re not going
to get there until next week. For now, let’s just note that competition,
while prevalent and important, is also pretty dangerous, kind of a hassle,
and can, like, really hurt. So a lot of inter-species interaction is actually
about sidestepping direct competition and instead finding ways to divvy up resources,
or otherwise let species just get along. Can you feel the love? [Theme Music] Careful guys! Because right now we’re surrounded potentially lethal interspecific competition going on all over the place. Since we’re animals, we usually think of competition
as going on between animals, but really it happens between almost all members
of the four kingdoms of life. Whenever species compete, they’re going after
the same resources that they need for their survival and continued population growth. In this garden, the weeds are competing with the sunflower, the corn and the dill for nutrients and water in the soil. So these resources, because they’re finite in this area, are the limiting factors that we’ve talked about. The population can only get as big as these
factors will allow. Now, a particularly nasty weed could, over
time, eliminate the veggies entirely. Such elimination is known as competitive exclusion, and it’s one of the most fundamental properties
in community ecology, and also, like, life. Because the fact is, when two species are
competing for the same resources, one of them is eventually going to be more
successful and eliminate the other. This bitter truth is known as the Competitive
Exclusion Principle, and it was first identified in 1934 by Russian
ecologist G. F. Gause in a study of two closely-related species
of microscopic protists. When he was only 22 years old, Gause made
a name for himself by conducting experiments that pitted one species of protist, Paramecium
aurelia, against another, Paramecium caudatum. First, Gause grew each species separately
with the exact same resources, and found that each developed rapidly and
established stable populations. But, when he grew them in the same container, P. caudatum was soon driven to extinction by P. aurelia. Paramecium aurelia gained a competitive advantage because its population grew slightly faster than P. caudatum’s. So Gause’s experiment showed that, in the
absence of another disturbance, two species that require the same resources
cannot live indefinitely in the same habitat. The inferior competitor will be eliminated. Makes sense, but if competitive exclusion
is the natural law of the land, then why isn’t all of earth just a crazy crap-circus
of constant competition, predation, and ultimately, extinction of all those losers? Well, for a couple of reasons:
first, not all resources are limiting. Two species of sharks may compete for water
in the ocean, but the ocean is, you know, gigantic. So that’s not what limits their population
growth. Rather, the amount of food, like a specific
fish that they both eat, could be limiting, while other resources are plentiful. Second, as the overwhelming diversity of life in almost any community shows us, most species — even ones that are almost identical to each
other — are adaptable enough to find a way to survive in the face of competition. They do this by finding an ecological niche,
the sum of all resources, both biotic and abiotic, that a species uses in its environment. You can think of an organism’s niche as its job in the community that provides it with a certain lifestyle. We tend to keep jobs that we can do better
than anyone else in our community, and if we’re desperate, we do a job that nobody
else wants to do. But no matter what job we have, what it pays
in terms of resources dictates our lifestyle. So finding a nice, comfy niche that you have
pretty much to yourself not only provides a steady income of food and other stuff, it also allows a species to avoid competitive
exclusion, and this, in turn, helps create a more stable ecological community. It’s and elegant and peaceful solution, I wish that we humans could figure out something as good, but as with anything in life, this relative
security and stability comes at a price. The bummer is that it prevents some species
from living the lifestyle that they could have if nobody else competed with them at
all. This ideal situation is called a fundamental
niche, and it’s just that, an ideal. Few, if any species ever get to live that
way. Instead, because of the need to avoid competitive
exclusion in order to survive, many species end up with a different job,
and hence lifestyle. It’s not necessarily the job that they studied
for in college, but it makes a decent living, and that’s called a realized niche. This, my friends, is how nature does conflict
management. But it sounds kind of unnatural, doesn’t it? I mean, Gause taught us that competition, and winning the competition, was the natural order of things. So how could it be that part of the natural order actually involves letting everyone compete and win just a little bit? And how did we ever come to discover that
things actually worked this way? Well, it took a special kind of person, and to to tell you about him, I’m going to need a special kind of chair. Canadian born ecologist Robert MacArthur was
in his late 20s when he made a discovery that made him one of the most influential
ecologists of the 20th century. While researching his doctoral thesis at Yale
University in 1958, he was studying five species of warblers that live in coniferous forests in the northeastern United States. At the time, because there were so many different species of warblers that lived, fed, and mated in such close quarters, many ornithologists thought that the birds
occupied the exact same niche and thus were an exception to Gause’s competitive
exclusion principle. But MacArthur was not convinced. A mathematician by training, he set out to
measure exactly how and where each kind of warbler did its foraging, nesting, and mating. In order to do this, he studied each tree the birds lived in, dividing them into zones, 16 zones to be exact, from bare lichen at the base of the trunk, to new needles and buds at the tips of the branches. After many seasons of observing many birds
in many trees, he found that each species of warbler divided its time differently among the various parts of the tree. One warbler, called the Cape May, for example, spent most of its time toward the outside of the tree at the top. Meanwhile, the Bay Breasted fed mostly around
the middle interior. MacArthur also found that each of the warblers
had different hunting and foraging habits and even bred at slightly different times of the year, so that their highest food requirements didn’t overlap. These differences illustrated how the warblers
partitioned their limiting resources, each finding its realized niche that allowed
it to escape the fate of competitive exclusion. The phenomenon he observed is now known as
resource partitioning, when similar species settle into separate
niches that let them coexist. Thanks in part to this discovery, MacArthur
became known as a pioneer of modern ecology, encouraging curiosity and hypothesis driven research, championing the use of genetics in ecological study, and collaborating with biologists like E.
O. Wilson and Jared Diamond. Sadly, he died of renal caner at the age of
42, but his study of northern warblers remains a classic example of community ecology that is still taught today. So, if organisms can do this, if they can
behave in ways that help minimize competition while increasing their odds for survival, it follows that traits associated with this
behavior would start being selected favorably. After all, that’s what natural selection is for. When this happens, it’s known as character displacement. To demonstrate, let’s go back to some other
famous ecologists, our favorite couple of evolutionary biologists
and love birds, Peter and Rosemary Grant. I told you before about how they observed the process of speciation among Darwin’s famous Galapagos finches. Well on the same island, Daphne Major, in 2006, they witnessed character displacement in action. For a long time, a small population of finches
had the island to themselves, where they ate a variety of seeds, including
seeds of the feverplant, which were bigger and more nutritious than
the smaller seeds that were available but were harder for the little finches to open. Then in 1982, a group of much bigger finches
showed up on the island, and they began to commandeer the island’s
abundant supply of feverplant seeds. Within just 20 years, the Grants found that
the small finches’ beaks shrunk to allow them to specialize in eating only the smaller,
less nutritious seeds. But now the little finches had those seeds
all to themselves. The traits of the two populations had actually diverged to help facilitate the partitioning of resources. See? Competition can be hard on us, but it
also can make us better people, or you know, finches or warblers or kangaroo
mice. But there are also kinds of interspecies interaction in which species actually join forces in the fights for survival. This is the ultimate in conflict-avoidance. In these cases species in a community actually
manage to avoid competition altogether by forming downright tight relationships that
benefit one, if not both, of the parties involved. You may have heard of both of these cases:
First, mutualism, where both species benefit, and commensalism, where one species benefits
and the other is kind of like, “Whatever.” Mutualism abounds in nature, and for those
who’ve been paying attention to Crash Course, you’ve heard me talk about it many, many times
before. A prime example [of mutualism] are mychorrhizae, the fungal root that we talked about a few weeks ago, where fungi and plant roots get tangled and essentially rub each other’s backs for nutritious favors. Others you may have heard about include flowering
plants that produce nectars to attract pollinators, and that bear fruit to attract animals to
help spread the seeds inside. Oftentimes these relationships become rather
needy, like in the case of termites — they can’t break down the cellulose in the
wood they eat without the enzymes produced by the microorganisms that live inside their
digestive systems. Without the little critters, the bigger critters
would die. Such a needy relationship is called obligate
mutualism. By contrast, commensalism is where one species definitely benefits and the other isn’t really hurt or helped. Such neutrality, of course, is difficult to prove because even a seemingly benign interaction probably has some effect. Barnacles, for example, hitchhike on gray
whales, getting a free ride through swaths of plankton-rich water for feeding. While clearly a benefit to the barnacles,
the relationship is often considered commensal because the whales probably don’t really care
whether the barnacles are there or not. Or do they? The barnacles might slow down
the whale as it swims through the water, but on the other hand, they might also serve as a type of camouflage from predators like orcas, in which case they confer an advantage. So it probably comes down to “meh” for the
whale. And when you consider all the other possibilities out there when species interact, “meh” isn’t such a bad option. Especially considering that next week, we’re
going for the throat, by which I mean we’ll be investigating the
kill-or-be-killed world of animal predation and all of the fantastic evolutionary changes it can trigger that lead to even greater diversity in ecological communities. There probably is going to be a lot of blood
though, so you might want to bring your poncho. Thank you for watching this episode of Crash
Course: Ecology. If you want to review anything, there’s a
table of contents over here for you to click on any of the parts that you may want to review. Much love and appreciation to all the people
who helped us put this episode together, and if you have any questions or comments or ideas, you can leave them for us on Facebook or on Twitter, or, of course, down in the comments below.

What is an Epidemic?

What is an Epidemic?


Epidemics and pandemics, are when you get a sudden burst of an infection. It can be a relatively small outbreak. It can be a fairly severe one in a localized area. For example, the Ebola epidemic that hit West Africa a few years ago or it can be massive like the flu pandemic of 1918 This is the centenary year of that epidemic which actually killed somewhere between 50 and 100 million people. Some epidemics are passed on by insects like mosquitoes or fleas. Some are passed on by airborne methods some are passed on by food and water. Some are passed on sexually and some are passed on by touch and depending which of these it is we can do different things to try and control them.

Insects: food of the past and food of the future | Lars-Henrik Lau Heckmann | TEDxLakeComo

Insects: food of the past and food of the future | Lars-Henrik Lau Heckmann | TEDxLakeComo


Translator: Michele Gianella
Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs Let’s talk about food. If we look at food
from a biological perspective, it’s one thing. If we look at it
from a cultural perspective, it’s another thing. So, for us now, food – it’s pizza,
it’s pasta, it’s panini, to keep it a little bit Italian. But it’s not that many years ago,
at least in geological terms, only a few thousand years, that food for us,
when we roamed to the savannah, was leaves, roots, berries, insects. And occasionally,
when we got lucky, big game. So you can see, there’s a huge divergence between what we consider food now
and what we used to consider as food. So, what happened in Europe? Why is insect not part of our food, when we have been eating insects
for thousands of years? Well, it was part of our food culture,
at least in Roman times, and sometime into early medieval times. But then we had other things
that shaped our food culture, like agriculture, providing
steady supply of crops, animal livestock. And also during medieval time,
there’s another theory that tries to explain
why we forgot eating insects, which is that we had the Little Ice Age. That’s not a theory, that’s a fact, at least if you believe
geological records, but it meant that temperature dropped. And insects are cold-blooded animals, so they need energy
from their surroundings to keep their metabolism going. And for them, that was a huge blow,
when temperature dropped. So species diversity and abundance
dropped accordingly. So our food supply and hence influence –
insects into our food culture diminished. So, it’s not something
that is completely forgotten. Actually, it’s just in Europe;
North America as well. Around the globe, still about two,
two and a half billion people, it’s difficult to count, but on an average day,
millions are eating insects. Over 2000 species of insects
have a known history of being eaten. When you start counting
the cows and the pigs and the poultry, you don’t even get into the hundreds. And in Mexico, for instance, which is probably
the world’s leading country, regarding eating insects, they eat more than 500 different species. And here, a very common picture
from a food market in Mexico, where women are selling locusts. So, why should we start
eating insects in Europe again? I mean, it’s going so well
with the pizza and pasta, right? Well, there are several reasons
why we might want to consider that. And one of them could be climate change. And at this moment in our history, our food production, agriculture at large, has about a fourth of the climate impact, so about 25 percentish
of all greenhouse gas emissions, globally, comes from agriculture. And even from animal
production alone, it’s 15%. If you accept the notion that we have an influence
on global change, and that food production
surely contributes a large part of that, well, here is a place
where we can make a difference. We can start producing more sustainably, producing it in a way that at least it’s more good
to the environment and to our climate. And this is where insects come into play. Because insects have
some competencies from nature. They are really, really efficient. And I’ll give you a comparison
with cows just in a minute, because that’s the most
extreme example, really. So it’s not that I’m against cows,
I do eat steak, now and again. But it’s just the best example. Insects are cold-blooded animals,
as I mentioned just before. So just that fact makes them,
like fish, really efficient. So if we can keep
the right temperature around them, then what we feed them
is being converted into food at a far higher rate than if we fed that same amount
of feed to a cow. That’s my first example, really,
when we compare insects with cows. But we are working on making
special diets or feeds for insects, so this will be better, but roughly now we get
five times more insect biomass, if we give that feed to them, than if we gave it to a cow. Also, what is interesting about insects
is regarding land use. Already now, we can produce
10 times as many insects in the same space that it would require to produce a cow. This is because with insects
we can have vertical farming. Just like many of you
maybe know from plants, vertical farming
is also possible with insects. We’re not talking square metre production,
we’re talking cubic metre production. So if you have a facility
that is 10 or 20 meters high, you can really have
a lot of kilograms coming out – or tons, even, coming out
per month per square metre. And then there is the use of water, which is also a resource
that is really, really valuable, and on decline in many parts
of the world, or – the distribution of water is changing, due to our impact on water systems
as well, unfortunately. Insects use in general, and it is a very generic comparison
when you take insects, because they constitute
a million species, really, but I have to keep a little generic – about 100-fold less water is being used as would have been used
for producing a cow. And when we talk of hundreds,
the emission of greenhouse gas is also a 100-fold lower
with insects than with cattle. So, looks delicious, doesn’t it? What’s not to like? It’s good for the planet,
also nutritionally, it has, like an animal product,
a high protein content – 40 to 60%, when we look at it
at a dry matter level; good fats, actually, a lot of unsaturated
fatty acids, like omega-6 – not so much omega-3, a little bit,
but they are terrestrial, so if they had been from the sea,
that would have been a little better; and they have good vitamins
and minerals, iron, zinc; on the vitamins, vitamin B12, vitamin D. So yeah, it sounds delicious, doesn’t it? I mean, it maintains our body really well. But because we have forgotten
to eating these types of foods, culturally, this is revolting. Maybe I could have wrapped it
in a nicer shape for you, but, yeah, there are products out there. So really, we need to close
this cultural gap. And how do we do that? For my own sake, it’s the biggest change management effort
I’ve ever been part of. And it’s really, that it is what it is,
so we need to let it take time. But we can influence
how it will be implemented. Because it has to be
implemented, I will argue. So, right now, as it’s not
part of our culture, we are skeptical towards it. That’s a natural response. We haven’t seen this before.
It could be from Mars, we don’t know. But as you know
from other foods, there’s hope. Like Sushi, I hear now
is getting popular in Italy. This could be the same with insects. Maybe it’s not the the older generations
that will take this on, and particularly, perhaps,
not in this shape, but younger people
like the millennial generation who care a lot about climate change, they are really keen on this. And in Northern Europe
this is a hot topic, I can tell you. Also younger children,
like my own children, six and nine – well, they may have been
a little indoctrinated, I admit that. But it’s nothing like, ‘You have to eat your insects today,
otherwise you won’t have your dessert!’ They really took this on
very instinctively, really. And I’m sorry to say, but it was far easier for me
to having my kids eating mealworms, like you’re seeing here –
beetle larvae – crickets and locusts, than it was convincing them
eating pasta bolognese. I’m not kidding. So I think this also shows
that this is a natural food to us. But culture has messed it up
a little bit for us and therefore we need to rely, as always,
on the children to implement this. So within 10 to 20 years, I’m hopeful, and I will still keep on
indoctrinating my children to make the future a better place, there’s hope for change. But, there are still a lot of challenges,
for this new industry. It’s been around for maybe
five, seven years in Europe, in an industrial form,
or a form that wants to become industrial, where we can produce large quantities that can substitute some
of the red meat in particular. And we are facing
some real big challenges, so – Upscaling, it’s a huge challenge. Right now, it’s a few thousand tonnes
that are being produced in Europe. We need that to be a million tonnes. That will likely happen in 2030, according to the IPIFF,
the trade association, where lots of insect
producers are organised. Consumer awareness or acceptance,
I think we covered that. And then legal framework. Insects are being put into boxes right now
that have been made for pigs and poultry, but they need their own boxes, really. But right now, that enables us to produce and sell insects
as fish feed, but also as food. And then, particularly in northern Europe, there are many countries where it’s legal
to market insects as food. But we need innovation
to help us gain critical mass, or build critical mass. And one of the projects
which I’m part of, the inVALUABLE project, which is [short for] insect value chain
in a circular bioeconomy, looks at consolidating the value chain. So we focus on producing,
in this case, mealworms, how do we process them and how do we then apply them in products
that also consumers are willing to eat. This is a relatively huge project, and there are luckily, also,
other big projects in Europe. And is through these projects
that we gain momentum and can hopefully build
this critical mass. And at the same time, of course, also hoping for some private funding
being invested into the companies that want to implement this commercially. That is also happening. I think at present,
several hundred millions euros have already been invested
into this new sector within just five years. But, there’s more to insects
than just food, as I’ve also mentioned. And I’m sure many of you
are right now thinking, well, it’s ok, but let a pig eat it,
or let a fish eat it, and then I will consider
eating that product instead. And that’s totally fine, it’s also culturally,
how can I say, understandable. Insects can really help us
implement circular economy in our food production systems. Right? This is a strategic effort
in Europe, by the way. The commission has set a goal that they want to implement
circular economy and they also want to fight food waste. And here we can have
a win-win situation with the insects. The commission is also open towards changing
different legal frameworks to implement the circular economy, which is needed, as we’ll get back to. So at the moment food waste,
it’s more than just this apple. It’s actually, in the entire region, 88 million tonnes of food
that is being wasted annually. You can’t even imagine how much that is. This equals over 140 billion euros
that we lose just by wasting this food. Maybe that’s more easy to imagine,
I don’t know; still, two very big numbers. So, what can we do about it? Well, of course, we need
to waste less food or we need to make sure
that more food is being eaten. I think there would still be
millions of tonnes, so what can we do about that? Well, legally we can’t do
what I’m supposing on this slide yet because insects have been put
into some legal framework in the EU. And now, for instance,
they are considered farmed animals, which is a huge win for the insect sector, otherwise they would not be able
to feed them to fish, when they have been fed on feed material
that is considered safe as we would just use for poultry or pigs. So a huge win. And we also have legislation
that enables us to to eat them. But when we use materials
that are considered unsafe, like waste, then, because insects
are coined as farmed animals, we cannot feed them this waste. I’m sure most of you will have,
at some point in your life, found a few fly larvae in some food
that had been left for too long. It’s a perfect substrate for them, really. And they are very diverse, some of these. And one of the superstars
in the insect industry is the black soldier fly. It’s very general in its diet – of course, it need certain nutrients, but it’s very general
in how it gets those nutrients. So food waste, it’s the perfect substrate
for black soldier flies. We’ve done many experiments with that
at the Danish Technological Institute, where I do my work on a daily basis. So right now it’s not legal.
It might be unsafe. We need to document that, of course,
before we can commercialize it, for sure. But there’s a huge opportunity
for letting these black soldier flies, or other competent insect species,
use food waste as a substrate. Roughly, they can convert
10 kilograms of fresh food waste into 1 kilogram of dry larvae. This is as efficient as the most efficient
fish producing systems, which are some of the most
efficient in the world. And then we can take this insect meal
and feed to fish, or poultry. Of course, having documented,
before we do this, that it’s all safe. And I’m quite hopeful
that we will be able to document this because in theory that should be possible. And we need, of course,
to supplement this with testing. But these black soldier flies,
as do other insects, they actually eat some of the bacteria
that might be harmful to us, so pathogen bacteria
that could make us ill. That’s part of their diet
in this whole process. So they completely take them apart, and just use the nutrients
from these microorganisms. So, to wrap up, I think it was – well, I’d like that that fear myself, because it makes a nice
little circle on my talk – that climate change, with the Little Ice Age
in early medieval times took insects off our dinner table. But now climate change, and we can blame ourselves
for that, I believe, is bringing them back on the table again. So insects may have been food of the past, but I would put my money on that they are also going to be
food of the future. Thank you. (Applause)

MEXICO: EATING INSECTS

MEXICO: EATING INSECTS


When you think of meat, you
might think of: meatballs, and bacon, and
chicken breast, but depending on where you go
in the world, meat has different meaning. When you travel you see things like octopus
on the menu, and duck, and here at México, it’s actually insects. There’s a long history of
eating them here in this country, so today we’re in San Juan Market,
in México City, looking for some of the more strange
things on the menu, and we’re gonna learn
how to cook them. Let’s go find some bugs. -Ok, back at the hotel, and, I’m meeting my two team mates for
this challenge, that will be coming with me for the rest
of the trip. It’s Ale Ivanova and Alex Tienda, and they should be waiting at me
in front of the restaurant, there they are. Let’s sneak up on them. They don’t see us yet.
Let’s see if we can surprise them. -Hey! -What’s up, that’s them. -What’s up, that’s them.
-Hey! -Hi! -This is Ale. -Hey! -And Alex, -And Alex,
-Hi, Alex Tienda. Let’s do it! Here we go! Hey guys, we’re back in the restaurant
called Chapulín, in the Intercontinental Presidente Hotel
in Polanco, Got it. This is our Chef Josefina, -Hello, welcome to Chapulín, and today we are cooking some insects. On this table we have a lot of tasty treats
that you may have never seen before. Josefina is gonna coach us through
what exactly we’re eating, so: -This is escamoles, this is the rice,
this is chapulines, chicatanas, -And the flower?
-And the flower, of pumpkin, -a pumpkin flower -This is a chicatana, it’s a big ant. -We will make a mole with this one. -Lime, salt. -They’re salty? -A little bit, yeah. It’s got some kick. -Fish, with grasshopper. Today we’re cooking some bugs,
we’ve talked about that already but, this particular one is called escamole,
Josefina was talking about it already, that’s to have it -by itself- in a “tortilla” so I wanted to figure out
what ant eggs tasted like, I think it’s gonna be good,
it’s called the caviar of México. Actually is really nice, just like
a pasty kind of texture, but, really quite tasty. We’re gonna put it in risotto
and it’s gonna be delicious. Ok, we just finished in the kitchen,
cooking with Josefina, now is the best part which is sitting back
and enjoying the food we just made. So, first we have risotto with escamoles, -3, 2, 1, -Oh, yeah, yeah! -Tastes like delicious risotto, -It’s really really good. -But just the idea that you’re eating ant eggs
would make most people go: -Exactly.
-Yeah, here it looks like you cannot see them, It’s actually, they kind of look
like risotto anyway, -It just looks like risotto, it doesn’t
look like escamoles, -Like you could tell what are you eating.
-You should definitely try them. -Ok, this is a taco, with suckling pig, and a little of mole chicatana, -Looks good. -Ok?
-Perfect. -Ok, after a day of adventures and eating
we’re dancing, -We’re dancing.
-And, -also eating some dessert. -So, what do you guys think
¿Would you eat bugs? We did and we liked it, -We loved it. -We definitely liked it, -Actually it was really tasty, -you got to get over the fact you’re eating insects, and then is actually really tasty, So, if you don’t know Alex Tienda, check him out.
This is Ale, their’s channels will be in the link below,
and I wanna say thank you we’ll also saying thank you to Grupo Presidente
and Aeromexico for putting this togheter for us. -Thanks -you know- all of you for watching
the video, to make this possible, -Yeah, thank you guys too. Experiences over possessions, Kick the Grind,
you guys know it, and I’ll see you later, -Bye!
-Bye! Translated & subtitled by Luciano Orlievsky.

Day 2: Bugs on a Stick – 5 Days of Bug Eating

Day 2: Bugs on a Stick – 5 Days of Bug Eating


Greetings my lovelies! Hi, it’s Emmy! Welcome back to the second day of Bug Eating. Today I have this one for ya — and it’s Two Bug Kabob. Two Bug Kabob. Yes. If you missed my three previous days of bug eating, I shall put the links down below to those. They include earthworms, tarantulas and giant water beetles. So Two Bug Kebob: I bought these from Thailand Unique. This is not a sponsored post. I just was curious
about these things, so I purchased them. It doesn’t say what they are. I think they’re crickets and mealworms, but I’m not exactly sure. Oh! Wow! Wow! Look at that! That’s huge. Those are some huge bugs on there. Will you look
at that! So it looks like a giant cricket maybe, or a locust and then these are kind of like…worms of some kind. Smells like an attic. A bit musty. And a little bit mushroomy. But, not bad. I love this presentation. Love how it’s on a stick. And, yeah, let’s…let’s take a few ot these off and see how they taste. So they look very crispy. Let’s give one of these little wormy things a taste. Oh, look, it has a little face — I think this is silkworm pupae — that’s what it looks like — it looks exactly like silkworm pupae. I’m not exactly sure. Nice impalement whole. All right. Here we go! Itadakimasu! Hm! Wow! Very, very salty — and not much of a crunch at all. Mostly air. Kind of light. And, in terms of flavor…kind of tastes like a suitcase or something. Just…just starchy, salty, and a little bit mushroomy. Let’s try this
grasshopper, kind of locust-like thing. Let’s just eat the whole thing. Here we go! [Crunch. Chew.] Mm… MmHmm. Again, very salty. Much saltier than some of the other insects I’ve had. And the flavor is not bad at all: nutty, and crisp in texture; very light; not a lot of stuff to get through in terms of biting and — it goes down pretty easily too. Pretty nice snack actually. So far, all of this entomophagy or bug eating has been actually surprisingly pleasant. It’s the initial, gross kind of bite that you have to get through that’s the worst part. And mostly that’s psychological, cuz I’m not accustomed to eating insects, or bugs or creepy crawlies but they’re actually not so bad. Yeah, I’ve also eaten silkworm pupae in a tin before, and I’ve eaten some mealworms and other things like that — so I’ll put the links down below if you missed those videos as well. All right! That’s it! So
that’s Two Bug Kebab. If you’ve missed the three previous days of bug eating, I shall put the links down below, and yeah, Happy Holidays! I hope you guys enjoyed that; I hope you guys learned something; so let me know in the comments below what you think of
entomophagy. Do you think it’s totally gross; or do you think it’ll save the
world? Let me know! I wanna know! All right. I hope you guys enjoyed that; I hope you guys learned something. Happy Holidays to you and I shall see you in my next video. Too-da-loo! Take care! Bye! And this is actually not a bug — it’s an arachnid and its a….zebra tarantula. There it is.

Inside China’s Bug-Eating Industry (Part 1)

Inside China’s Bug-Eating Industry (Part 1)


This is Matthew
from VICE’s Brooklyn office. China’s tradition of insect eating
is far from mainstream. But recently there’s been
a resurgence in the culture. VICE China explores
this peculiar industry. This is What we Buy:
Bug Eating Industry – Part 1. His shoes should be fine. It’s ok if he wears
his own shoes. You have to change your shoes. It’s… It’s Josh,
I’m about to go into a wasp habitat. Yunnan Province is the spiritual home
of insect eating in China. And the area, which borders
Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar is almost as famous for edible bugs
as it is for tea and wild mushrooms. The area’s subtropical climate means you can pretty much
grow anything here. Pretty busy scene. There’s a huge variety of fruit. Different kinds of eggs,
vegetables, wild mushrooms. There are actually some
little insects here. Did you guys gather this
bee pupae yourselves? Can you eat them raw? Yes. We make them into a traditional
dish called Sadaluma It’s made from raw pupae. Is it good? Very tasty. It’s really sweet. Insects are kind of treated between
being a meat and a vegetable. They’re part of the land. So, traditionally
people have eaten a lot of insects. What kind of insects
do you have here? This is coconut worm. This one is bee pupa. And these are locusts. -Whoa, a brick of locusts.
-Yeah. This is rice grasshopper. It’s another kind of locust. This one is 60 yuan [$9] per bag. This one is 100 [$15]. This one is 50 [$7].
This one is 60 [$8]. 25 [$3.50].
20 [$3.00]. And this one is 80 yuan
[$12] per bag. 80 yuan for such a tiny bag? Yes. This is the tastiest one. It’s high in protein. They say the protein in one pupa is equal to four or five eggs. -Really?
-Yes. It’s really high in protein. When they’re frozen
they look a little bit like figs. I cross between a fig
and a magot. You just missed our local specialty, the “cow-dung beetle.” It lives in cow manure, and it tastes
a bit like manure, too. Does seem a bit crazy that
in a landscape that has so much to offer in terms of
produce and meat and foraged vegetables that insects are still
going to be on the menu. After the market
I headed to nearby Mangshi to meet a
professor of entomology who’s passionate
about insect cuisine. -Hi Professor Guo
-Hi. Where are we now? This is our laboratory. Our research is focused on
edible insects. Are these… are these wasps? Yes. This is the biggest wasp
in the world, the Asian Giant Hornet. And this is medicinal hornet liquor. -You can open it.
-Ok. Is the liquid sorghum liquor?
Or something else? It’s rice wine.
You can have a taste. How does it taste? How does it taste?
Of course I’ll say it tastes good. Take this one. It’s ok, I can drink yours. Take a fresh bottle. I know you foreigners don’t share
bottles with people. There’s a nice
floating wasp on the top. Okay. Relax, just have a sip. Your mouth feels
a little numb, right? Yeah. If it gives you a tingly numb feeling
in your mouth it means you’re affected
by rheumatism. This liquor helps treat the disease. If you don’t feel any numbness, it means you’re healthy enough. You can enjoy it as a drink, but you don’t need it
as treatment. In the very beginning, insects were the first protein
our ancestors could eat. Eating insects gave us
the strength to catch bigger animals. -They needed insect protein first.
-Right. That’s exactly what I mean.
Humans started by eating insects. What kind of nutrition
do insects provide? The main nutritional value of
insects is their protein. This insect protein
is also low in fat. Besides protein, insects also have
many active nutrients that can enhance the immune system. But right now, insect products remain
unacceptable to many people. The public, especially people from big cities, think we’re barbarians in the
middle of nowhere, who only eat bugs because
we can’t afford meat. That’s a misunderstanding. It’s superficial. Is the insect industry in China
becoming more modernized now? We’re not at that stage yet. Insect products don’t have
brand recognition yet. We need something famous like
Lao Gan Ma fermented soybean sauce… but for insect foods. Like “Professors Guo’s
Wasp Medecine.” -We need an iconic brand.
-Sounds good to me. I still don’t fully understand why insects are so expensive. In order to ensure
the quality of edible insects, we have to farm them in the wild. So the price of
insect products is higher than
other foods. Quality products
are always worth a premium. I wanted to see what
an insect farm actually looked like. So Professor Guo
took me to his wasp farm. Look, the wasps
are coming out for us. This looks like a joke. This one is a large? Right, large. This foreigner has big shoes. How stupid is this? I’m not totally clear on that yet. The small wasps aren’t
that dangerous, right? Yes. Now we only farm small wasps, and they’re less
aggressive than the big ones. -Are you ok with this?
-I’m ok. Kind of feel like I’m getting
ready to go diving. This one’s too big for me. He looks like a cartoon character. I was the first in Yunnan to start
wearing these wasp-protection suits. Ok? Hey, it’s Joshua
in Yunnan Province and we’re going to
check out a wasp farm. Someone is coming out. We’re heading out. Let’s go. Watch out. Here it is. Hello. This is pretty nuts. We’re just being
totally swarmed by insects. They’re all over me,
they’re all over his phone, they’re all over the camera. This guy in super high-tech gear. Which looks much better
than what we have. What’s he doing? He’s digging out the wasp pupae
from the beehive. How dangerous is this? It’s definitely dangerous
without a protective suit. Before we had the wasp suits, we had to torch the
wasps to kill them. Now you can take the pupae directly. Yeah, we can take the pupae
without hurting these wasps. Then we leave the wasps
to breed and rebuild their hive. It’s sustainable. Is wasp farming
really that profitable? Yes. Very profitable. The price of pupae is
100 yuan [$15] per 500 grams, so a bag of 5 kilos can be sold
for 1000 yuan [$150]. The price is even higher
at restaurants. I can feel the bugs hitting me. Look, he’s taking out the hive. Come on, show the camera. Look, he’s moving more than us now, so the wasps are attracted to him. We’re standing still,
so the wasps ignore us. Now he’s peeling the hive open. Whoa, wow. -Sir?
-What? -Do you get scared?
-No. How long have you
been doing this job? About four or five years. What was your job before that? I’ve been doing this kind of
work all my life, harvesting wasps and bees. -Is it lucrative?
-Yeah. How much can you make a month? About 6000 or 7000 yuan [$1000]. They make more than us professors. It’s not just wasps that
are big business in Yunnan. I met up with Li Zengliang,
a chef that specializes in bugs in Mr. Li took me out to the jungle so that we can dig up
some grub for dinner. Here’s a fat one. Just like after a few seconds
of digging basically we found this
which is Shā chóng, like sand worm type thing. It’s quite gross looking,
but it can’t move fast at least. It’s just a pale white color
and it just looks like an alien. All-natural. It was kind of shocking
how easy it was to get them out of the mud. Mr. Li and I quickly gathered a
full dishes worth of sand worms. so he took me
straight to the kitchen. I kept trying to convince myself
they were no different from shrimp. But, in reality they looked like cold
shriveled fingers stuffed with mud. The first step of the preparation
is to throw them into boiling water. And then kind of
cut open the worms butt to scoop out all the dirt
and digestive tract. So they look a little bit like shrimp
because they’ve got a few small legs. And then kind of like a meaty part,
except what you can’t eat is the sack thing at the bottom
which is full of its’ intestines and the mud and stuff that it eats. So it is actually pretty gross. It’s not that appealing. Now we’re going to
stuff it with pork In here. You can add some more
meat to this one, till it’s filled up. It’s like worm dumplings
filed with pork. So I’m at a bug feast with 13 different
kinds of insects in Yunnan. Mr. Li is the chef responsible
for all these dishes. Almost all these dishes
are deep fried. Yeah, that’s right. If you don’t deep fry insects,
no one would want to eat them. If you boil or stir-fry them, the inside part of the insects
would stay soft. No one would eat that. But now, nutrition is the first factor
for many people, the second is curiosity. They really want to try
eating insects. Most of our customers are tourists. They’re curious
and want to give it a try. So, time to try it. Kind of just taste like
fried nothing. With a slight lemon grass flavor
which is actually pretty nice. These are the sand worms
we just dug up. How do I eat this? Eat the head first. The head? And then continue
with the pork part? That’s right. Ok. Alright. How is it? It’s still… full of juice inside. Kind of soft, right? Uh. What’s inside of its head? It’s a juicy part. Evidently. The fluid is good for you. Do you like it? Let’s drink, I need a drink. This one’s called… Sorry, my memory… This is “chestnut worm.” -“Chestnut worm.”
-Yes. Should I eat it in one bite or… Of course eat it in one bite. Not a fan. Not a fan at all. Why don’t you have one? Don’t you like it? You can’t handle it? I don’t really like it either. I see how it is. Even the chef doesn’t like it… Now I get why you’re
looking at me like that. He doesn’t want to eat them. These days only a few
people order the worm dishes. Because the worms are mainly
gathered in the wild, and it’s a bit expensive. How much would a worm feast
like this cost? Around 1000 yuan [$150]. I think it’s an interesting
paradox. I mean,
originally it would have been people who couldn’t afford other meat
who would have to eat worms, But now it’s more like a… -a high-class…
-Luxury. -Luxury
-Exactly. For a guy who runs
an insect restaurant Mr. Li didn’t seem too enthusiastic
about any of the bug dishes. But he was definitely
making good money off them. I can totally accept that
bugs are high in protein and amino acids. But, pricey bug dishes
seem to mainly be a novelty for Chinese tourists. Even in Yunnan insect eating
still isn’t mainstream. And while it might be
a tradition for some no one has quite figured out
how to make them taste that good yet. Elsewhere in China entrepreneurs
are starting to invest more money into insects as a luxury item
and food of the future. It turns like this, and slowly surfaces. It’s a tool for yourself
to become independent in your food production to just know
for sure what you’re eating. They’re just crawling everywhere
where it’s really warm and hot. It smells like
New York City sidewalk. This is Josh… That’s just demeaning.