First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Yellow Jacket Sting on Someone Who is Allergic

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Yellow Jacket Sting on Someone Who is Allergic


Few things can cause the amount of fear and
discomfort that come with an allergic reaction from a yellowjacket sting. Hi, I’m Captain
Joe Bruni. Now what I’m going to talk about is how to deal with and treat the allergic
reaction to a yellowjacket type of sting. Yellowjackets will leave some type of stinger
in the area that must be removed with the backside of a credit card or dull object like
the backside of a butter knife. Scrape the stinger away from the skin to keep from further
injecting any toxin into the body. The allergic reaction known as anaphylacsis will surface
by hives forming on other areas of the body, a swelling of the face, tongue our throat,
and also difficulty in breathing, and in sever cases a loss of consciousness. If the person
has an epi-pen because they know they’re allergic to yellowjackets, help this individual administer
the epinephrine through the device known as the epi-pin into the thigh area. If the person
is showing signs of an allergic reaction, and is not aware that they have an allergy
towards yellowjackets, if possible administer some type of oral antihistamine and then transport
to a medical facility. Few things can be as scary as an anaphylactic reaction. Knowing
the proper steps to take can help with a positive outcome when dealing with an allergic reaction
to yellowjackets. I’m Captain Joe Bruni, stay safe and we’ll see you next time.

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Brown Recluse Spider Bite

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Brown Recluse Spider Bite


You know, one of the common insect bites that
can be very frustrating to deal with is that of the brown recluse spider. Hi, I’m Captain
Joe Bruni, and what I’m going to talk about is how to treat the bite that has occurred
from the brown recluse spider or fatal back spider. The brown recluse spider will form
some type of reddening area or possibly some type of pussy, pustule area followed by necroses
of some tissue after a brown recluse spider bite. Apply some type of antiseptic cream
or lotion to the bite area and then apply ice or a cold pack in intervals of twenty
minutes on, twenty minutes off to reduce swelling and pain. It would also be advisable to take
some type of pain reliever like Ibuprofen and not aspirin, as aspirin will thin the
blood. And then seek medical attention. If the pustule forms do not pop it or break it.
However, if it breaks on its own, re clean the area with soap and water, and antiseptic
as you seek medical attention. I’m Captain Joe Bruni. Stay safe, and we’ll see you next
time.

Can PEE Cure Ant Stings?!

Can PEE Cure Ant Stings?!


– I’m Coyote Peterson,
and I’m about to enter the strike
zone with the fire ant. You guys ready? Your shot good? – [Camerman] Yup. – One, two, three. Holy cow. Ow, ow! Holy cow that’s a lot
of stings already! Okay, I’m gonna have
take my hands out pretty quickly guys. – [Cameraman] You can do it man! – [Coyote] So much worse
than the harvester ants. – [Cameraman] You
got it, 30 seconds! – I can’t, I can’t, I
gotta stop, I gotta stop! (buzzer) – [Cameraman] You alright? Tell me what you’re feeling. – A lot of pain, ah! They’re still on me! (intense drumbeat) Nine, ten, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, oh hey, what’s up? 26, 27, 28, 29. – [Cameraman] Too many to count? – It’s too many to count. I’m about 30 just on my
hand here, I’m guessing I probably took somewhere
in the vicinity of 100 to 150 ant stings
can you see that? – [Cameraman] Yeah your
skin is like all tight. – My skin is tight,
swollen, and it itches and burns right now. Okay, so if you are
ever out in the wild, let’s say you’re out
there for a picnic, put your picnic
blanket right down on a mound of fire
ants, worse thing that could possibly happen, and you don’t have a
first aid kit with you, there’s a little simple
remedy that you can use. It’s kind of gross, but it’s
also kind of interesting. You can actually pee
on fire ant stings, to neutralize the sting. – [Cameraman] Wait what? – Yeah, you can actually pee. The ammonia in the pee will
actually the neutralize the stings and neutralize
some of the swelling. – [Cameraman] Okay, hold
on, wait, we can’t… I mean how are we gonna
have shots of this? – Well, I’m not gonna just
pee on my hands for you guys right here, I actually
brought with me, an entire bottle of Coyote pee. – [Cameraman] No you did not. – Yes I did. – [Cameraman] That is
colored water guys. – That is not colored
water, you wanna smell it? – [Cameraman] Mario! I need you to smell this. – [Cameraman] He says
he’s got a bottle of pee and I don’t believe him. – No I’m not gonna
make Mario smell it, I’ll smell it though. Yup that’s my pee, 100%. – [Cameraman] See now I
really don’t believe you. – Just smell it, you guys
can smell it at home. – [Cameraman] Ugh! – Yeah, gross right? I know, totally gross. It is a bottle of Coyote
pee, but believe it or not, the ammonia that is in
your pee will actually help to reduce the swelling
and neutralize the venom. So what I’m gonna do right now, as gross as it seems, is I’m going to
dump my own urine all over my arms and on
my hands, to try to reduce the swelling and the burning
from these fire ant stings. You ready? – [Cameraman] Not really. – Here we go… – [Cameraman] Hold on, I’m
gonna back up a couple steps. – I’m not gonna
splash you, come on! Alright you ready? – [Cameraman] Yeah, go for it. – [Coyote] Oh yeah that’s pee. And I left this bottle of pee
sitting in the sun all day, and I know this seems
incredibly gross, right, and it is, it’s super gross, I am literally rubbing
pee into my hands, and into my arms. But this is going to help keep
down the swelling from all of the stings. – [Cameraman] Do not pull my
leg, that wasn’t just a bottle of colored water? – Nope, that is pee,
that is pee 100%. That is pee. That is pee 100%. And I left this bottle of pee
sitting in the sun all day. Look at that, my hands have
actually totally cooled down, and I think that the urine, it’s brought out the bumps
in a little more definition, but I think that the swelling
is actually going down at this point. And it’s only been
a couple of seconds. I can tell you this
much, my arms are not burning at the moment. They still itch, but I
definitely feel like the urine is doing the trick. That’s pretty cool. – [Cameraman]
That’s pretty gross. – It is, I agree, that
was completely gross. Probably one of the grossest
things you guys have ever seen me do, but
hopefully this serves as a great example of
what to do if you ever find yourself in
this worst case scenario. I’m Coyote Peterson, be brave! Stay wild! We’ll see you next week. Now while the urine did
act as a temporary relief to my anguish, unfortunately
it did not completely stop the effects
of the ant venom. In total we counted
over 300 stings, and within 12 hours
of the fire ant swarm, my hands have swollen to
nearly double in size, and were covered in
unsightly white postulates. Moral of the story, do whatever you can
to avoid fire ants. If you thought this behind
the adventure was wild, make sure to go back and
watch the full episode. And don’t forget, subscribe,
to join me and the crew on this season of
Breaking Trail.

These Ant Paramedics Save Their Injured Comrades

These Ant Paramedics Save Their Injured Comrades


♪Intro♪ If you’re ever seriously hurt, you can probably
go to a hospital and get help. But animals don’t have doctors. If they’re injured, wounds can get infected
pretty quickly or mean impending doom. Except… that might not necessarily be true
for one species of ant. In a paper published this week, researchers
from Germany have discovered that the African Matabele ants tend to each other’s open
wounds after vicious battles with termites. And they think it’s the first time a behavior
like this has ever been observed in insects. Two to four times every day, Matabele ants
hunt termites. A scout ant finds a vulnerable nest of termites
and then leads a raiding party back to it. But termites have powerful jaws, called mandibles,
so these raids are pretty dangerous for the ants. They often end up with one or more of their
six legs bitten off. Scientists already knew that these wounded
ants secrete pheromones from glands in their mandibles that act as calls for help, attracting
their friends to carry them home. And now, thanks to a combination of lab and
field experiments, we also know what happens next. Very badly injured ants — who have lost
almost all of their limbs — are left behind, because they thrash around so much that helper
ants can’t carry them. Ants that are less badly injured — like
if they’re missing one or two legs — keep still, cooperate with their rescuers, and
are more likely to be carried back. This keeps resources from being wasted on
lost causes. Once an injured ant gets home, other ants
lick their wounds for several minutes. Ants don’t really have tongues, but they
carefully clean the injuries with their mouthparts. According to these experiments, ants that
lose limbs and don’t receive this treatment have about an 80% chance of dying. But with the licking, that number drops to
10%. The researchers think this treatment helps
reduce the chance of infection in open wounds, removing dirt and debris that could carry
pathogens. And while this hasn’t been tested yet, it’s
possible the ants could be applying some sort of antimicrobial substance as well. Once they heal up, ants that still have four
or five legs left can get around just fine and contribute to the colony. So this treatment isn’t just out of the
goodness of their hearts — it’s a useful adaptation. Those wounded veterans are still expected
to earn their keep. Ant medicine may be full of surprises, but
we’re still learning a lot about human medicine, too. And a study published in the journal Science
this month gleaned some new insight into brain disorders. Many medical conditions can be diagnosed based
on physical signs, like a rash or a tumor. But psychiatric conditions are different. Doctors can’t spot them on a brain scan;
they have to be diagnosed based on feelings and behaviors. We know that certain gene variations are linked
to risks for certain psychiatric disorders, but that part of biology involves a lot of
questions, and not very many answers. All of your cells have the same DNA, so sequencing
your genome can reveal what gene variants you have. But analyzing all the RNA in a cell, which
is called a transcriptome, actually shows which genes are being expressed. That’s because the information stored in
DNA is decoded into RNA to make all the different proteins our bodies need. Cells in different organs need different proteins,
and therefore different active genes, to do their jobs. But other things, like environments you’ve
been exposed to, could affect gene expression too — including genes in brain cells, where
tiny chemical changes can affect how you think, feel, and act. This new study combined data from nine previous
studies to form a meta-analysis of 700 brain tissue samples from deceased people. Specifically, the researchers were looking
at RNA in cerebral cortex tissue — the surface structure in the brain that’s involved in
a lot of information processing and decision making. The tissue samples came from patients with
autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism, and some brains of people
without any diagnosed disorders for comparison. Using a lot of math, the scientists used all
this transcriptome data to look for patterns of gene expression. These are all different disorders with different
symptoms, so it would make sense to think that their causes and effects in brain cells
would vary, as well. But learning if and how these conditions overlap
might give scientists new hints about how to help these patients. And some patterns the researchers found caught
them by surprise. For instance, bipolar disorder and depression
were fairly distinct, even though they’re both considered mood disorders and share some
symptoms. Alcoholism also had basically no overlap with
any of these other disorders, despite previous studies that suggested that alcoholism and
depression might share some genetic risk factors. Schizophrenia and autism, on the other hand,
showed some similarities. With both disorders, patients seemed to express
fewer genes for communication between neurons and more genes related to inflammation. And inflammation-related genes were extra
active in the autism brain samples, adding to evidence that gene overexpression could
play a role in that condition. There are other small results too, but no
huge takeaways yet. Mostly, this study is another step toward
learning how brain functions can go wrong. Transcriptome research won’t actually help
with diagnoses and treatments until we do a lot more of it, and on more specific parts
of human brains. But by gradually learning about how psychiatric
disorders might affect brains biologically, researchers hope to develop more effective
treatments someday. Thanks for joining me for SciShow News, and
a special thanks to Patreon President of Space Matthew Brant. Without Matthew and all of our patrons on
Patreons, we wouldn’t be able to make SciShow and bring you all up to date science news. ♪Outro♪

Bullet Ant Kryptonite?

Bullet Ant Kryptonite?


(tense music) – [Coyote] Here we
go, are you ready? – [Mario] I’m ready. – I’m Coyote Peterson
and I’m about to take on the bullet ant challenge. Are you ready? – [Mario] Le’ts do it. – One. Two. Oh my gosh, this is it. Three. (screaming) Oh, it’s stuck in my arm,
it’s stuck in my arm! The stinger’s stuck in
my arm, look at that! It’s off, it’s off, it’s off! Oh my gosh, oh my gosh. Oh my gosh. Oh my god, it is really bad. It is like (grunting) it’s hot. I can feel the venom
already right in my forearm. (screaming) It is, it’s number one. (adventurous music) – [Mario] Coyote? – Yeah? – [Mario] How you
feeling, buddy? – Sweaty and out
of it, actually. We are about two and a
half hours in at this point and I’ll tell you what,
one of the toughest aspects was hiking 45 minutes back
out of the rainforest. I just keep sweating profusely. My arm, currently, is very sore. It’s red, it is
swollen, check this out. That right there is the mark
where the stinger went in, it’s like this permanent welt
that just isn’t going away. And you’ll notice all
of the blotchiness around the sting zone. Very, very similar
to the velvet ant. Now when I was stung
by the tarantula hawk, my arm just swelled up
like it was full of water, almost like a water balloon. This is different. Not as much swelling,
but very, very tender. All I have to do is touch the
skin around the sting zone and it feels like a bunch
of little, tiny needles going in and out. And I’m having this after effect
where every 10-15 minutes, it feels as if I’m
being stung again. And then you have these waves
of pain that are throbbing, it’s like whoo, whoo. There’s a lot of venom
in my arm right now. We know that cause
I probably took, I’d say two to three
times the amount of venom because the stinger actually
got stuck in my arm. How crazy was that shot, can
you believe that we got that? – [Mario] Definitely was
not an average sting. – No. If you’re just
stung by a bullet ant, out there walking, one
just whap, tags you and you do everything
you can to get it off, you’re not getting as much venom as would go in if the
stinger was actually stuck. So it’s definitely fair to
say I’ve taken more venom than the average
sting would yield. But that’s good,
cause it’s giving us the full opportunity
to see the effects of this venom on my system. Now I know a lot of you
at this point are thinking okay, Coyote, we’re so
glad that you’re okay, I know everybody’s worried every time I take
one of these stings. And as we always show you,
we have an epinephrine pen with us just in case I go
into anaphylactic shock. Now the other the thing
that we often have that we haven’t shared with
you guys before is this. That’s a satellite phone. All you need to do is press
a single button on this and a Life Flight helicopter
will come pick us up anywhere in the world. So don’t worry, if
anything tragic happens, we’re gonna get me out of
danger as quickly as possible. Now whenever we do one of
these bite sting episodes, I like to show you guys
the basic first aid that you could have right
in your medicine cabinet or that you would get
from the pharmacy. But today we’re
gonna do something just a little bit different. – [Man] Are you gonna
pee in a bottle again? – Oh, I didn’t even
think about that. Does urine work on
a bullet ant sting? No, sorry guys, sorry Mario, no pee for this aftermath video. – [Man] Mario’s disappointed. – That’s fine with me, man. (laughing) But what we do have is a
product called Sting-Kill. Now this is a company that has
been around for a long time and it’s a basic remedy for
any insect bite or sting. Now this one here is
an actual sting wipe. It’s got benzocaine and menthol. Menthol is gonna be fantastic
because that’s a cooling agent and my arm is on fire right now. Don’t believe me? Mar, go ahead and touch the
skin there on my forearm and tell everybody is
that warm to the touch? – [Mario] That is really hot. You can even tell from
the side of your arm to right at the sting. – So what I’m gonna
do is open this up and let’s see if the sting
wipe helps to cool off my arm. This is nice, these are perfect, this could fit right
in any hiking backpack. And this is for any
basic bite or sting. Could be a honey bee,
could be a hornet. In this case, it is
going to be a bullet ant. Oh, woah, that’s
strong, look at that. Okay, here we go,
apply it to the skin. That’s pretty nice. That is cooling and I
can actually feel it slightly numbing the
surface of my skin. There is definitely a
cooling factor going on here, I can still feel burning
deep within my arm but the actual, yeah, the surface level of
my skin feels cool. Yeah, that’s
actually really nice. Wow, okay. Now the other product that
I have with us is that guy. This looks like a magic remedy
right there, check that out. Is that bullet ant kryptonite? We’re about to find out. Maximum strength sting kill. To use this, what you
want to do is just crack the glass tube that’s inside
it, ooh, look at that, that’s cool, you see that? Look at that, yeah,
you can see it seeping right down into the tip there. First drop, I’m gonna
just gently apply that to the sting zone. Cool, kind of looks like mutagen from Teenage Mutant
Ninja Turtles. Wow. It is numb. – [Mario] Is Sting-Kill
the real deal? – Sting-Kill may have
just taken away the pain from the bullet ant. Wow. That did, I can’t believe that. That actually just worked. – [Mario] Really? – It really did. I won’t lie, I was
expecting it to be like oh, okay, kind of works. Yeah, my arm is completely
numb right there. Wow, yeah, look at that. Just a minute ago you
couldn’t even touch the skin, when you just touch my arm, it felt like sharp
little needles. – [Mario] Nothing? – Nothing, no, totally numb. That is unbelievble. I’ll tell you this much,
we will definitely be using sting wipes and the
maximum Sting-Kill in our first aid kits in all
first aid kits moving forward. I’m Coyote Peterson, be brave, stay wild, we’ll see you
on the next location. If you happened to miss
the bullet ant challenge, make sure to go back and
watch the most painful sting I’ve ever taken. And don’t forget, subscribe so
you can join me and the crew on our next location. I can’t imagine how
nervous I’m going to be to be actually stung by it.

Jellyfish Challenge!


– [Coyote] Here comes one. – [Mark Where? – [Coyote] Oh it’s too deep. – [Mark] Too deep for what? – [Coyote] I’m gonna
try to catch one. – [Mark] You’re gonna
catch a jellyfish? – [Coyote] I’m gonna
catch a jellyfish, ready? – [Mark] Is that possible? – [Coyote] I think so. – [Mark] Okay. – [Coyote] Let’s see
what happens, ready? Ahh! (jungle beat music) What’s going on guys? Well it is another day off
for the Brave Wilderness team. And instead of lounging around, what we’re gonna do is
take these sea kayaks out into the waterways
around the San Juan islands. We’re gonna be exploring and
see what we can come across. And if we’re lucky, fingers
crossed, maybe we’ll see some marine mammals. Approaching quietly
in a sea kayak, is a great way to
observe wildlife. So as long as we kept
a respectful distance, there was a good chance
we would have luck seeing some animals. Check this out guys. I just found, if I
can get it up here. Mario keeps balance, can you
turn it toward the right? Look at this. (suspenseful music) Look at that. Ow, he’s pinching me. Woo, that’s a big
kelp crab right there. Look at that guy. Wow, there’s all
these kelp beds. And look at those pinchers. That’s awesome and he’s
covered with seaweed on its back, and it’s
got algae growing on it. That is a kelp crab right there, and it’s just sitting there
pulling apart little pieces of the kelp, and then
forcing them into its mouth. Look at that. Woo, those pinchers
mean business. It’s actually the largest
kelp crab I’ve seen since we’ve been
here in Washington. Now they get significantly
bigger than this. Look, the plastron
underneath there, you see how thin that is? That means that this is
a male and not a female. Females have a much
more rounded plastron and the males are far pointier. Ooh, that guys cool
looking thought. Trying not to get pinched by it. He’s got a pretty good reach. Woop…almost got me there. Alright, I’m gonna set this
kelp crab back down here into the kelp and we’re
gonna keep searching for other bizarre
marine creatures. Alright, see you later buddy. After I released the
crab back into the kelp, we quietly drifted closer
to South Peapod Island, which is hailed as one
very popular bird hangout. Alright guys, so just
behind us on the rocks right here, we have a
pair of Pigeon Guillemots. It’s a little marine bird, and they’re very distinct, they have same color
structure as an orca. They are black and
white, but they have these really distinct bright
kind of pinkish red feet. Mario’s trying to get a
really zoomed in shot, we’re being really quiet, just
trying to not paddle at all, we’ve drifted right up to the
edge of the rocks like this. They’re just kind of
looking down on us saying, hmmm, look at that kayak. This massive rock was
also the perfect hangout for western gulls, one of
the most plentiful birds on and around the islands. With a wingspan of
nearly five feet, they’re rather sizable. And as we drifted closer, they all looked down on
us with curious eyes. Believe it or not,
a flock of seagulls is rather intimidating. So after a few admiring moments, we paddled on toward
North Peapod Island. We’re still about 800 yards out, and I can hear, from here, that there are a whole
bunch of harbor seals hauled out on the shore. So what we want to do
is approach very slowly, very cautiously. We don’t want to get
any closer than about 200 yards from the island, and we’ll see if there’s
any out in the water that actually get curious
and come up near the kayak. (seal barking) look at that, there’s a
harbor seal right there. Right off the side of the kayak. Hi buddy. (adventurous music) Harbor seals hail as being the
most widely spread pinniped, or true seals in the world, and can measure up to
six feet in length, while weighing
nearly 300 pounds. Staying a respectful
distance form the island kept the animals at ease. However, as a human
you can’t help but feel a little hesitant,
as they surrounded us from nearly every angle. The good news is that harbor
seals are seldom aggressive, and oftentimes they’re
simply curious, like little water puppy dogs that just pop their
heads out of the water, to say hello. Filming seals from a distance
was rather difficult, so we decided to
turn our attention to another marine creature that was also
incredibly plentiful in these off shore waters. – [Mario] Surrounded
by jellyfish right now. – Here comes one. – [Mario] Where? – [Coyote] Oh it’s too deep. – [Mario] Too deep for what? – [Coyote] I’m gonna
try to catch one. – [Mario] You’re gonna
catch a jellyfish? – I’m gonna catch a jellyfish. A moon jelly,
should I pick it up? – [Mario] You’re gonna
pick up that jellyfish? – Not by the underside,
I’m gonna scoop it from the top, so that the
tentacles don’t get me. Ready? – [Mario] Is that possible? – I think so. – [Mario] Okay. – Let’s see what happens, ready? – [Mario] Yep. – One – Are you sure about this? – Two Aaah! Aaah! – [Mario] Did it get ya? – Just kidding guys. That’s a moon jellyfish, and while they’re capable
of stinging very small prey, the sting has absolutely
no effects on a human. But it’s very slimy. – [Mario] You tricked us. – I did trick you. In fact I’m so confident
it won’t sting, Mario go ahead and put
your hand out there. Right into the nematophores,
which are right in the center. Slimy but not stingy. – Nothing. – Nothing at all, right. See I’ll even
place it right down on my forearm, like
that, nothing at all. You see that? That’s what I love
about moon jellies, see they have those little
crescent-shaped circles right there underneath the
top of their body structure. Very cool looking. Alright little guy. I’m gonna get you back
in the water here. It’s important that we keep
the jellyfish hydrated. – [Mario] You see these washed
up on the beaches a lot. – Yeah, they do
watch up on the beach and unfortunately the
ones that are washed up on the beach usually end
up drying up in the sun and dying, but they are all
over the place out here today. And you look at this
one, and you thinks oh that’s just a tony jellyfish. You guys want to
see a big jellyfish? – [Mario] Yeah we have
seen some bigger ones, where are they? – I’ve got one right here. – [Mario] Oh you
had one all along? – No when we were in
between takes there, there was one floating right
next to my kayak on this side. I lifted it up and
got it in the boat. Look at that. Look at all the little
moon-shaped crescents inside this one,
can you see that? – [Mario] That one
has more than four. – [Coyote] Yeah, that one’s got
one two three four five six. and it is just so
incredibly slimy. I do have to keep
dunking it in the water to make sure that
its body stays moist. Look at that, my
hand is all wrinkled, from being in the water all day, and now its coated in slime. – [Mario] So you
weren’t nervous, trying to hold that jellyfish? – No, I knew that this
species wouldn’t sting me. But there are some species
out there that do have an incredibly potent venom, so much so that some
species are capable of killing a human. – [Mario] Really, like what? – I believe the box jellyfish. – [Mario] Ooh Australia,
coming up soon. – Yep, you do not want to
mess with the box jellyfish. – [Mario] But a moon jelly. – The moon jelly, totally safe. Well I would definitely say,
this was one epic expedition. Exploring around the
San Juan Islands, where we came across all
sorts of marine creatures, from crabs and birds
to harbor seals, and even these
slimy moon jellies. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave, stay wild, we’ll see you on
the next location. Alright, let’s put ’em
back into the water. There you go. Back into the current. I’m covered in slime. It is important to repeat
and remind everyone that while moon jellyfish
are completely harmless, there are several
species of jellyfish around the world that
are incredibly venomous. These varieties can
inflict a series of stings that will certainly be painful and in a worst case
scenario can even be deadly. So remember, always
do your best, to avoid coming in contact with a jellyfish. If you thought kayaking
to the Peapod Islands was an exciting adventure, make sure to go back
and watch the episode where we paddled out to
the abandoned Fort Gorges. And don’t forget, subscribe, so you can join me and the
crew on our next location. Look at the minerals
coming off of the brick, and creating stalagmites
and stalactites. (coyote howling)

Staphylococcus aureus infections quick review

Staphylococcus aureus infections quick review


Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive cocci
that literally means “golden grape cluster berry” due to its clustered appearance on
Gram stain. It is frequently found as normal flora on the skin and nasal passages but can
cause a wide range of illnesses from minor skin infections to life-threatening diseases
like pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. Staph aureus can cause a variety of skin infections
including pimples, impetigo, furuncles, cellulitis, and abscesses. It can also cause severe pneumonia.
Individuals are particularly susceptible to pneumonia caused by Staph aureus following
viral influenza. This bacteria can also cause disease mediated by toxins. Some strains produce
the exotoxin TSST-1, which causes toxic shock syndrome. This toxin acts as a super antigen
which simultaneously binds MHC II and T cell receptors causing polyclonal T cell activation.
Some strains produce an enterotoxin causing food poisoning. Staph aureus food poisoning
presents as a rapid onset of symptoms due to ingestion of preformed toxins. Some produce
exfoliative toxin, which are proteases that cleave desmoglein-1, which can cause detachment
of the granulosum and spinosum layers in the epidermis. Staph aureus can also cause a life
threatening acute bacterial endocarditis and osteomyelitis.

Family Health : Treating an Infected Nail

Family Health : Treating an Infected Nail


You’ve got a sore finger. It’s probably sore
right around the nail bed. The fancy name for that is a paronychia. My name is Beverly
Bitterman, ARNP, and I’m here to give you a couple of strategies for how to deal with
that. Sometimes you get them because you might have a hang nail and maybe you’ve pulled the
hang nail out and then you developed an infection, and sometimes who knows why you get them.
But, you’ve got a soreness, either on the side or on the base of your nail. The good
thing about this, is they’re pretty easy to treat. And, what you want to do is apply moist
heat, and because it’s on a finger, it’s really easy to do that. All you have to do is get
some hot water, run some hot water into a cup, and then let’s pretend it’s my index
finger that’s the one that’s hurting, and I’m going to just stick it into the hot water.
And, I can even just kind of carry that around with me, I can talk on the phone, I can watch
T.V, I can do a variety of things, while my finger is being healed by the hot water in
the cup. I suspect that the, keeping it in water frequently also helps clean it, etc.
But, generally, you’ll find that if you’ll do that for two or three days, you can get
rid of your infected finger or your paronychia. You can also see your physician and you can
get an antibiotic, however, it will still take a little while for that to clear. And,
I recommend that you give the hot water a chance to work, and see if that won’t help
you. If you have any fever, or any other symptoms beyond nail redness, of course, you’ll also
want to see your physician. My name My name is Beverly Bitterman, ARNP, and I hope that
your finger feels great soon.