Slater – Wood Lice – Sow Bug – Pill Bug – Roly Poly – Woodlouse Insect | Short Documentary

Slater – Wood Lice – Sow Bug – Pill Bug – Roly Poly – Woodlouse Insect | Short Documentary


Living among the soil are slaters they are also known as woodlice, sowbugs, and pill bugs. Slaters are crustaceans that have adapted to living on land. They are related to aquatic and marine crabs, lobsters and prawns. They are scavengers feeding on decaying organic materials. Usually, they are considered beneficial although in recent times they have been considered as pests; among crops and pastures. Hey Guys, thanks for watching I hope you enjoyed the clip on slaters, if you did give us a thumbs up. Click the subscribe button so we can keep in touch and leave us a comment below. If you are a big fan of David Attenborough, like myself, please check out the links below in the description box. But for now take care and I will see you soon.

The Mysterious Encephalitis Lethargica Epidemic

The Mysterious Encephalitis Lethargica Epidemic


What if we told you that around 90 years ago
an epidemic swept across the world that killed over a million people while affecting numerous
others, before disappearing, leaving the finest scientific minds of the age absolutely stumped
. Then what if we told you that when it didn’t kill you, this illness could instead potentially
trap you inside your body, stopping you from having the will to move or speak. You’d
say we’d have to be lying because no disease that terrifying could stalk the Earth and
have resulted in such an epidemic without being front-page news and remembered in the
history books. Well, it did exist and cases continue to be
brought forward even today; it remained one of the biggest medical mysteries for nearly
a century, with scientists only very recently getting an inkling of what causes the disease,
though none of the leading theories have been definitively proven yet. As you might expect
from this, there is still no cure. Ladies and gentlemen, today we’d like to talk about
von Economo disease. As you’ve probably guessed if you’re fantastically
well read, von Economo disease is named after someone named von Economo- Constantin von
Economo- a psychiatrist, neurologist, and one-time owner of a magnificent moustache,
who is widely credited as the first person to thoroughly document the disease in question. Economo published his findings on the disease
in April of 1917, just a few short years before it became an epidemic, but several years after
it had first come to the attention of academics and medical professionals. In his paper, aptly named “Die Encephalitis
lethargica“, Economo christened this new disease, Encephalitis lethargica, which means
something along the lines of “brain illness that makes you sleepy”. Today, the disease
is mostly known as von Economo disease, in Economo’s honor, and Sleepy Sickness when
someone doesn’t wish to pay homage to Economo’s glorious facial hair. As a neurologist, the disease was of particular
interest to Economo and he discovered variations on how the disease manifests including, among
other presentations, • Hyperkinetic form: characterised by rapid
motor movements, uncontrollable twitching, anxiousness, insominia and general restlessness.
• Amyostatic-akinetic form: leading to symptoms remarkably similar to that of Parkinsons disease
and was characterised by dramatic reduction in muscle strength and difficulty moving.
• Somnolent-ophthalmoplegic form: by far the most lethal and involved the patient suddenly
falling asleep at random times, even while walking. In some, this would progress into
the individual slipping into an often fatal comatose state. However, those who didn’t
die quickly could be left with an arguably worse fate, potentially in a state of akinetic
mutism, lacking the will to move or express themselves in any way for the rest of their
lives. A few years after Economo’s discovery and
paper, the disease was part of an epidemic that swept across the world trapping many
thousands in their own bodies and killing about a million total. In the end, approximately
40% of those affected died, 20% survived but were invalids, 26% mostly recovered but with
long term issues, and the remaining 14% made full recoveries. So with it affecting so many,
why have you never heard of it? Well, the disease had amazing timing in that it spread
across the world around the same time as the Spanish Flu pandemic. For those of you who aren’t familiar with
it, the Spanish flu killed between 50-100 million (yes, million) people and infected
around a half a billion around the globe (roughly 1 in 4 humans at the time and possibly killing
as many as 1 in 20); it even reached places as remote as the Arctic in-between 1918 and
1920. So, even though Encephalitis Lethargica killed
its fair share of people and was hugely terrifying in its own right, because it took place just
after a disease that affected a reasonably large percentage of the world’s population,
it just wasn’t as noteworthy compared to the super-disease that had just punched humanity
in our collective nether regions. Due to their close proximity to each other,
the Spanish flu was initially linked to the Encephalitis Lethargica outbreak, a theory
modern medical science thinks isn’t likely though there are still some who think there
may have been a connection, via an autoimmune response killing certain neurons in the brain.
However, given the lack of similarities between the two in terms of systems effected, with
the only solid connection being they appeared around the same time, most still think the
Spanish flu was not related. That said, it does appear to be an immune
system response causing the problem. In 2004, virologist John Oxford et al published a paper
on the results of their studying over 20 current patients with the disease and found a similarity.
55% of them were known to have had sore throats before the disease started more strongly presenting.
They then discovered that the sore throat in every case had been caused by a rare form
of streptococcus (for you hypochondriacs out there, try not to dwell on that one next time
you get strep-throat ;-)). This rare form of streptococcus resulted in
a particularly strong immune system reaction, which in turn resulted in the patient’s
immune system attacking certain parts of the their brains, with the result being von Economo
disease. Once the researchers discovered this, the
Holmes-like doctors checked and, sure enough, the records indicated that during the early
20th century epidemic many of the patients also reported sore throats before the disease
presented. The eureka moment, though, came when they found a reference that diplococcus
microbes had been documented among some of the patients- a form of streptococcus. So
while it still hasn’t been definitively proven, evidence strongly suggests that this
is the cause of the disease. As mentioned, there was (and still is) no
actual cure or very effective treatment for the disease, so after its reign of terror
was largely over around 1926, the world was left with a far more pressing problem- the
thousands of living paper-weights the disease hadn’t killed, still alive across the globe
and in a catatonic state. That said, in patients suffering from the
hyper-kinectic form of the disease, certain steroids have proven partially effective in
small studies and have been put forward as a suggested course of treatment. However,
the fate of those trapped in their own bodies is a lot less treatable, though since the
disease is similar in some ways to Parkinsons, treatments for it have proven somewhat effective
in the past. For example, in the 1960s, patients from the
original outbreak were granted small movement for the first time in decades upon taking
the drug Levodopa; however, as a cruel twist of fate, after only a few weeks of “waking
up,” the patients treated with the drug developed a tolerance to it and slowly slipped
back into their paper-weight states. If that sounds like a familiar plot-line,
it’s because the event was turned into a book and later a movie called “Awakenings”
which was remarkably similar to the actual events that occurred all those years ago with
these von Economo patients. In the end, the disease is still around and
an outbreak of 1920s-like proportions is fully possible today- and us still without a cure.

12 Strange Insects with Real Life Superpowers

12 Strange Insects with Real Life Superpowers


Top 12 Insects With Shocking and Bizarre Superpowers Number One – Trap-Jaw Ant No known predator demonstrates a faster bite than the trap-jaw ant. The force of this snapping jaw can exceed 300 times the ants entire body weight. The jaw of this ant is so powerful that in the case of an emergency, it can launch itself backwards by pressing its jaw to the ground. Now that’s what I call a perfect emergency escape! Number Two – Singing Penis Bug The loudest animal on earth relative to its body size is the Water Boatman, also known as the singing penis bug. The Water Boatman performs a process called stridulation where it sings by rubbing its penis along abdominal grooves. The resulting melodies can be as loud as an orchestra and can reach up to 100 decibels. Number Three – The Orchid Mantis The orchid mantis often has a pinkish white pattern that makes it blend in with beautiful flowers, specifically orchids, hence its name. The Orchid Mantis which prefers humid and warm environments such as a rain forest, looks black and orange when it’s still young. However, as it gets older, its colors fade to match its surroundings. Number Four – Firefly The Firefly is known for its flashing light and its lantern is very complex. When the special chemicals found in the abdomen meet oxygen, the fireflies belly creates the light with no heat. This amazing light is used to communicate by creating perfectly timed, precise patterns to help find a suitable mate. Number Five – Hawk Moth Caterpillar A particular hawk moth caterpillar from Brazil, when threatened, pulls in its legs and head, inflates its thorax and exposes markings on its abdomen causing it to look like a snake. The brown head of this illusionary snake is actually the underside of the caterpillar. Number Six – The Cockroach Scientists have discovered that the brain of a cockroach contains nine antibiotic molecules that protected from veracious lethal bacteria. These antibacterial molecules are more powerful than the antibiotics we use today and can easily cure E Coli and MRSA, a bacterial infection more deadly than AIDS. Number Seven – Dung Beetle The Dung Beetle is primarily known for eating feces. The horned males of the species are very aggressive and known to fight head-to-head with each other for mates. Scientists found the Dung Beetle to be one of the strongest insects, capable of pulling 1141 times its own body weight. Number Eight – Bombardier Beetle When the bombardier beetle feels threatened, it has the incredible ability to fire hot mixture of chemical solutions strong enough to seriously hurt its enemies. This toxic solution can reach a whopping temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. Number Nine – Darwin’s Bark Spider The Darwin’s Bark Spider likes to build its web above rivers and lakes. It makes some of the strongest and largest webs on the planet and can reach over 80 feet in length. This creepy creatures webbing is stronger than Kevlar and 25 times stronger than steel. Number Ten – Ironclad Beetle The Ironclad Beetle is the tank of the insect world. It possesses the hardest exoskeleton of any arthropod in existence. You will likely need a power drill to get through its shell. Playing dead is another superpower of the Ironclad Beetle. They are so amazingly good at playing dead, that they’re being decorated and sold as living fashion accessories by Mexican jewelers. Number Eleven – Housefly While a flies eyes are immobile, due to their spherical shape and protrusion from the head, they give the fly an almost 360 degree view of the world. Flies can see the world in slow motion, sensing danger long before it strikes and they instinctively move out of the way. This means that sneaking up on one is next to impossible. Once the flyswatter comes into view, it takes the fly just 100 milliseconds to spot it and calculate the exact escape route needed to get away. Number Twelve – Voodoo Wasp This bizarre insect likes to lay its eggs inside a caterpillar. Once the eggs hatch, the larvae feed off of the caterpillars blood carefully avoiding vital organs. When mature, the larvae chew through the caterpillars thick skin while releasing chemicals that paralyze the caterpillar. They cocoon themselves to a nearby branch and the caterpillar now officially a zombie, becomes their bodyguard. It spins an extra layer of its own cocoon and guards the pupae from invaders. The caterpillar stays and guards the cocoons until it dies from starvation. While the Voodoo Wasp isn’t the only wants to gestate its young inside a living host and it’s not the only parasite to affect host behavior, it certainly is the first known insect to combine these two horrific tactics. Thanks for watching! Don’t forget to like and share this video and subscribe for more!

What Is Loneliness Doing to Your Brain?

What Is Loneliness Doing to Your Brain?


Today we’re talking about loneliness;
not to be confused with introversion, or social anxiety, while those subjects are worthy topics. Loneliness actually has been defined in many ways: “a state of solitude or being alone,”
“inability to find meaning in one’s life….” Okay, this is already a downer, so look at
a picture of a panda. Aw, it’s cute! Now I want a panda. I’m gonna overnight one to my crib. I’m gonna do that. Of course, we’re not the only generation
to experience loneliness, even though listening to The Weeknd
really does make it feel like that. Health insurance provider Cigna recently published a study citing that 18-22 year olds have the highest “loneliness score,”
followed by millennials, then Generation X… so yeah,
young people, we just killin’ it right now. Generation Z cited that they feel people are
around them but they aren’t really with them, feel shy, and they feel like people
don’t know them very well. The old man in me really wants to say, “these
kids right now are out here spending too much time on the Twitters and the Fortnites!”,
but that’s not exactly what Cigna found. Cigna cited lack of an IRL social life
as part of the problem, saying that “levels of in-person interactions, physical and mental wellness,
and life balance” are better predictors of loneliness
than social media alone. So, if your IG game is on point but you like to hang
out with your friends, you should be good… but if social media IS hanging out with your
friends, go outside! Humans are social mammals and need social interaction to survive; that’s
part of why solitary confinement in prisons is so torturous. Why do that to ourselves
on the outside? “Y’all best go out to the quarry for some stickball and a swim!” You know, I’m not doing this voice again. One study breaks down three types of loneliness. Situational loneliness is when unpleasant events
or circumstances cause us to retract from society. Developmental loneliness can hinder
our capacity to balance individualism and intimacy. (Psychological disorders like depression or schizophrenia could cause developmental loneliness). And finally, internal loneliness, when a self-perception of worthlessness intensifies
the feeling of being alone. This got dark again, bring in another panda pic. Lifestyle influences our neurophysiology, so lonely people perceive the world very differently. For instance, people suffering from loneliness tend to see benign events as more threatening,
living in self-defense mode… even in their sleep. Some research suggests that lonelier
people have more restless sleep patterns, which could impact cognitive development. Research suggests that there are
neural correlates for loneliness. A 2009 study revealed that lonelier people
showed less activation in brain centers associated with reward when viewing pictures of people in pleasant situations, and less activation in parts of the brain linked to empathy when viewing images of people
in unpleasant situations. Other researchers also discovered that neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei are sensitive to social isolation. Those neurons in question, taken together
with the ones from the ventral striatum, deal with the reward neurotransmitter dopamine. So, it’s possible that low social interactions=less dopamine=less feeling good. Of course,
the latter study was run with mice, so more research is always needed. On top of that, a meta-analysis from 1980 to 2015
found that loneliness and its accompanying
depression was as bad as smoking 15 cigarettes a day, and is a risk factor for mortality.
This is so dark; bring in the pandas! Please, don’t leave, don’t leave! I’m
not gonna leave you on a downer. Loneliness is a social epidemic, yes,
but there are remedies. Don’t replace friendships and happiness with likes and text messages.
Go out and meet people! Humans need social interaction in real life –
it’s developmentally necessary. Easier said than done, but remember, you’re
not alone in feeling alone. And if you’ll excuse me, I have a panda
waiting for me at home. I did order one, and I can’t wait to play with it. Yo, thanks so much for watching. If you’re
like, “ooh, I need a little bit more loneliness content!” watch this video about what solitary
confinement does to your brain. And if you’re like, “that’s a little bit too dark for me,”
watch this video about pandas watching… watching porn? Watch this video about pandas
watching porn. Thanks for watching my video, and also, subscribe to Seeker for more videos! Pandas watching porn?
I’m definitely gonna hafta watch that. I gotta find out what’s going
on with pandas.

Most DANGEROUS Bugs Around The World!

Most DANGEROUS Bugs Around The World!


From bullet ants to mosquitos, here are 9
of the deadliest insects in the world! Those deeply afraid of creepy crawlies beware! 9. Bullet Ant Known as the World’s Most Painful Insect,
getting bitten by a bullet ant is something you never want to experience. Native to the rainforests of Central and South
America, the small but powerful bullet ant is also known as the hormiga veinticuatro
meaning the “24-hour ant” which refers to the full day of pain that follows after
being stung. Only a little over an inch in length, it is
hard to believe that their sting can feel like getting shot with a bullet. Dr. Justin Schmidt, an entomologist and research
director of the Southwest Biological Institute in Tucson Arizona, invented the Schmidt Sting
Pain Index (SSPI) which categorizes the level of pain felt when stung by wasps, bees, and
ants. He let himself get stung by all kinds of insects
in order to rank their sting. He said that it really felt like getting hit
by a bullet with waves of burning pain that were absolutely excruciating and went on for
hours. The good thing is that it is a localized effect
and this sting does not directly affect your heart or lungs, so you won’t die from it
but it will hurt like a bi-atch. These ants are greatly feared across the rainforest
by people and animals alike. However there are several indigenous tribes
that use these ants in their initiation rituals. Young boys wishing to be seen as men by the
tribes must endure placing their hand in a woven glove filled with these ants. They must endure getting stung repeatedly
for at least ten minutes. If that wasn’t enough, the boy must sometimes
go through over a dozen of these rituals! None of them suffer long term effects although
the trauma may last forever. 8. Japanese Giant Hornets The highly aggressive and territorial Japanese
giant hornets are infamous for their painful sting and fearsome nature. A subspecies of the Asian giant hornet, these
monsters are much larger than normal hornets and are known to hunt and consume up to 50
unfortunate honey bees a day. As if honey bees didn’t already have enough
problems… The creatures which are rapidly becoming a
pest have now made nests in France and England and due to poor shipping practices, are spreading
across the globe. Their venom is known to destroy red blood
cells and those with allergic reactions are especially at risk of death. The Japanese giant hornets kill 30-40 people
in Japan alone every year, and send hundreds to hospital. Its venom attacks the nervous system and damages
the tissue of its victims. The stings can also cause renal failure. The giant hornets are attracted to human sweat,
alcohol, and sweet flavors and smells. They are especially sensitive when animals
or people run and they will start to swarm and attack. Some victims have required hundreds of stitches
and numerous dialysis treatments to survive and are still are left with deep scars. These hornets have lead to government initiatives
to destroy the nests in Japan and China, and maybe they have the right idea? These aggressive insects are pretty scary. 7. Fleas The hidden villain of the famous black death
that ravaged Europe during the Middle Ages, the flea feeds on blood and can spread diseases
to animals and humans. Capable of leaping 150 times their own height
they can move from animal to animal to consume 15 times their own body weight every single
day. The bubonic plague was spread by fleas carrying
the disease on-board infected rats and some estimates say it wiped out close to 2/3rds
of the population of Europe at the time. Though some might say that is was not the
fleas but the infectious bacteria they carried which made it difficult for the creatures
to feed. Therefore they would regurgitate infectious
materials on the host. In fact, the disease still survives in many
flea infested parts of the world, though it is much more easily treated today. Though the black plague changed the entire
face of Medieval history, modern fleas can still infect humans with diseases such as
typhus and are still common among the quickly breeding rat populations. Flea bites can cause disastrous allergic reactions
on both pets and humans alike due to the saliva that they leave behind after the attack itself. In most cases the only real stress is avoiding
the very itchy swollen bite marks and dealing with the infestation quickly as fleas can
lay over 50 eggs in a single day! 6. Tarantula Hawk Wasp This insect is the only other bug to reach
a 4 on the SSPI scale along with the bullet ant. The tarantula hawk is a solitary wasp that
wanders around looking for tarantulas. The goal of the tarantula hawk’s sting is
to get a predator such as a bird or a lizard to let it go. The pain from a tarantula hawk is like getting
shocked with a high-voltage electric line in a wind storm. The super intense blast is meant to surprise
and the pain only lasts for about 3 minutes. It might seem like longer if you are screaming
in agony but after a few minutes, it is suddenly gone. However if you are a tarantula, this sting
will not only shock but paralyze. The wasp will then lay a single egg inside
the tarantula’s body. When the larvae hatches it will began feeding
on the tarantula, avoiding vital organs for as long as possible so the tarantula stays
alive. For the rest of us, tarantula hawk wasps rarely
sting without provocation but geez, nature you scary! 5. Botfly The botfly though rarely fatal, makes this
list for the parasitic horror show it unleashes on it’s mammal victims. Last chance to preserve the innocence of your
dreams as the human hunting botfly allows its eggs to grow in human skin which burrow
deep and eventually develop into larvae which can be felt under the skin. They do this by catching a mosquito as host
and then implanting it with the bot fly’s eggs, which when they go to feed on a mammal
(and in many cases human), the eggs fall into the open wound. This insect horror show can cause the victim
to feel the larvae within the skin, squirming when their airway is blocked. Thankfully this species have the decency to
not have too large populations and live in many parts of Central and South America. They are usually treated with petroleum jelly
over the wound, which suffocates the invaders so that they can be removed with tweezers. Only one type of botflie routinely targets
humans but others can as well, though they usually target the intestines such as the
ones that specialize in horses. Some other animals can become easily infected
by the bacteria or other conditions and die soon after. 4. Killer Bees Widely known and feared, the Africanized honey
bee or killer bee has certainly earned its fearsome reputation. Though their sting is just as deadly as an
average honeybee, they are supremely aggressive, sending many from the colony to repeatedly
sting any perceived threats. In fact, they are so relentless they will
sometimes completely abandon the hive as the entire colony pursues an enemy, leaving the
nest completely unprotected. Deaths from bee swarms are disturbingly more
common in this species of bee. They were created in the 1950´s when Brazilian
scientists cross-bred the southern African honey bee with the European honeybee in an
attempt to create a bee that was more suited to the South American climate. Some bees were accidently released into the
wild in 1957 and had no problem breeding and multiplying throughout the Americas. They have since bred with many other colonies
of bees and are beginning to spread across North America as their African honeybee DNA
allows them to quickly build hives and grow their population. Unfortunately they have also inherited the
aggressive personality as well. These killer bees have been know to respond
viciously to simple things such as noises and even vibrations from vehicles, equipment,
and pedestrians. The good thing is that as bee species continue
to decline, more bees are good news for the flowers of the area. 3. Kissing Bugs Not nearly as innocent as they sound, the
kissing bug is incredibly deadly because of its tendency to spread the terrible Chagas
disease to human populations. Infected with a parasite that causes the disease,
they feed on blood during the night and at the same time transfer the parasites to humans. They get their name from their tendency to
bite humans near the blood vessel-rich areas of the eyes or lips, though this typically
isn’t the kind of makeout people are looking for. A little larger than the size of a penny,
they are mostly found in warm climates, such as the Southern US. I used to live in Florida and saw these all
the time but I didn’t know they carried diseases! The chagas disease that they spread has two
distinct stages, the first in which common symptoms such as muscle aches, rash, vomiting
and other such symptoms may or may not manifest. The second is the chronic stage, which affects
30% of the infected and can cause enlarged heart, and heart rate conditions. Good news is that this stage can take years
to develop, sometimes close to twenty, so if you can make it you’re laughing as you´ve
outlived your attacker by at least twenty times as they tend to have a one year lifecycle. If you suspect you´ve been effected there
are support centres to which you can send the bug if you can find it to ensure proper
treatment. 2. Locusts The name locust summons images of swarms of
flying insects that raze everything in site until only nothing is left. This plague however is all too real. They are very similar in many ways to grasshoppers
though their tendency to gather in large groups is what truly makes them a menace. The main damage isn´t directly to humans
ourselves, but a huge swarm can descend on a farm and devour everything in sight. Crops, grass and even clothes can disappear
forever within the giant cloud and lead to mass starvation for the communities affected.These
clouds can stretch hundreds of miles across and consume millions of pounds of plants every
day, in a vicious feeding frenzy made up of billions of locusts. Their telltale buzzing sound is the fear of
farmers the world over, yet many quickly scramble to construct large fires as the smoke can
debilitate a swarm. Interestingly, the locusts are a delicacy
in some parts of the world and their bodies can help make up for the lost food they consumed. Considered a natural plague by some the desert
variety is especially known for destroying the little crops that can be grown and are
known to move large distances in search for food. In fact one particular swarm was noted for
traveling all the way from Northern Africa to the island of Great Britain! 1. Mosquito The bane of fishing and camping trips alike
this seemly minor annoyance is in fact not only the most deadly insect but one of the
most deadly creatures on the entire planet. They accomplish this by spreading diseases
such as Zika, West Nile and Malaria where they can cripple a human population, especially
in areas where medical treatment is unavailable. Interestingly mosquitos feed mostly on plant
nectars but the females use blood to help their eggs grow and can consume up to three
times her own weight in blood to nourish them. Though this blood is easily replenished in
most working bodies, the diseases that the mosquito can spread are numerous and deadly. They are attracted to and lay their eggs where
there is still water, such as flooded sinks or buckets and can locate human targets by
sensing the Carbon Dioxide we exhale. They can even sense our body heat to know
exactly where to draw blood! At around 210 million years old as a species,
they have been feeding on Dino-DNA long before humans ever entered the scene. In fact, Alexander the Great was believed
to have died of malaria which is famously spread by mosquitoes and kills more than a
million people a year. As it turns out dragonflies may be our best
friends as they hunt hundreds of the mosquitos per hunt and some places even release them
into the wild as natural mosquito control. Thanks for watching. What insect are you the most afraid of? Be sure to subscribe and see you next time!