Teens & Scientist Talk Ant Larvae

Teens & Scientist Talk Ant Larvae


I’m Adrian Smith, I’m a biologist at the North Carolina Museum Natural Sciences and NC State and I’m going to be talking to a couple teens today about my new research on ant larvae. We’re going to three, two, one, clap. Oh, yeah! You have to do the hands… Hannah. Yes. let me show you this. Have you ever seen an ant that looks like that? No, that is disgusting. Yeah, so believe it or not that is an ant. That is so creepy. This is a picture from my new study and it’s a study describing the developmental stages of an ant, of three species of ants actually. We did this study because there are like 16,000 described species of ants. Like ants that have a name, right. We only know how many developmental stages an ant goes through before it becomes an adult for about sixty of those. So less than half of a percent. So what we did to actually do the study was make images like that it’s a scanning electron microscope image to sort of figure out if there’s certain body parts on larvae that distinguish developmental stages from each other. Very cool. Okay, so here we go. Oh my god. Yeah! So that, believe it or not, is larvae hatching from an egg. So we start with the egg and then we hatch into this. So, this is the first instar larvae. We call all the developmental stages instars. What we found is they’re actually three stages of larval development, so there’s three instars. So, this is a second instar the second stage of larval development. It looks sort of like the first but there’s more complex hairs. So all these little spires sticking out are hairs, and here’s what those hairs look like up close. Oh wow, they’re really wrinkly. At this stage of development do they… what are they doing? Are they just sitting there and growing or until they do a do they move around or something? Yeah, so they are growing and they’re eating. So larvae are the one things in an ant colony that can eat solid food. They actually get their food placed like right on their stomach and then they just bend their neck and just start eating it right off their bodies. That is so gross, it’s really cool though. One of the cool things that we describe for the first time is actually in the first and second instar, those things on its back are, the term that’s actually in the scientific literature is “sticky doorknobs” So are they like a gripping mechanism of some sort? Yeah, exactly. Wow. Here’s a close-up of it. They almost look suction cup and shaped like and that’s probably the purpose then. Yeah, exactly. The adult ants will actually take and pick up these larvae and stick them to the walls and ceilings of the nest and they’ll actually just like suspend them. That’s crazy. They lose the sticky doorknobs at the third stage. The larvae sort of stretch out, they lay all the way flat and then they get buried by their nest mate workers. So the thing stretched out, it’s buried, and then what it does is it starts weaving a cocoon. Seriously? Yeah, yeah. I had no idea ants went through all this. Yeah, they actually produce silk. So they’ll actually produce silk and weave a cocoon. So here’s a close-up of what that looks like. This is ant silk Whoa, so like is an ant inside of one of these something? Yeah, exactly that’s what it looks like inside of it. That’s so creepy! It looks like a snake is taking off his skin but it’s… So that’s when they switch from that that sort of larval form to an actual thing that might start looking like an ant. Oh, wow. This is like the nicest and coolest pictures I’ve ever seen of ants! Yeah! So, that’s sort of what we found. Okay. But then I also try to think about like how is this sort of work, this basic biology, this descriptive biology, important for society at large. That’s what I wanted to ask you. Okay. What do you think? I mean, we see ants on like a daily basis. For most part they live pretty much in our habitat in a way. So I think being able to know so much about an animal that like you don’t have to go somewhere special to see, is pretty interesting for me. You know up close they look beautiful really, I think. Overall it would promote like um appreciation for these amazing things in the natural world. I see like looking through pictures of ants to be extremely interesting and it makes people who haven’t like learned about this stuff very… like they would be interested as well and then they want to be more interested in stuff pertaining to science and let us have more scientists, which will let us have a better capability of life, I guess. Awesome, this is great thanks for talking to me about this stuff. Thank you for asking me. Yeah, cool, I think we’re done.

Sugar Ants | Tandem Running Their Way to Victory

Sugar Ants | Tandem Running Their Way to Victory


Hi, my name’s Jordan Dean, and in this episode,
we’re going to be looking at one of the most widely distributed and diverse ants on
the planet. They’re known as Sugar Ants… Sugar Ants cover the genus “Camponotus”,
a large genus, comprised of around a thousand-different species, and they can be found worldwide,
within forests, grasslands, mountains, and even deserts too.
Like most ants, Sugar ants typically nest underground, with some species living in rotting
wood, and others, up in the trees, within hollow branches, or clusters of leaves which
have been stitched together to form a shelter, much like green tree ants do.
Because they’re so globally ubiquitous and varied, they go by many common names. Often
called “Carpenter Ants” after the wood dwelling species. Which can carve out nesting
chambers with the use of their powerful mandibles. Here in Australia, they’re mostly referred
to as “Sugar Ants” for their love of sweet foods, like tree sap, nectar and honeydew
excreted from sap sucking insects, like these little leafhoppers here. The two have a mutualistic
relationship. The leafhoppers offer the ants nutritious honeydew, and in return, the ants
provide these little bugs protection from predators. Sugar ants can often be quite distinctive for their large polymorphic appearance. The
workers vary in size and shape, often to fulfil a certain role within their colony. Minors
workers are small and slender and are usually the ones doing the foraging, tending of the
brood and caring of the queen. While the majors are often much larger and
stockier. See how they have bigger heads in proportion to their bodies? These large heads
are full of muscle, allowing them to deliver powerful bites. Great for crushing up and
carrying food back to the nest, and defending the colony from predators. Typically, they’re
seen sitting by the entrances of their nests acting like doorkeepers. Only moving to let
fellow colony members pass by. On top of their powerful bites, many Sugar
ants possess another lethal ability. When dealing with predators or prey, the ants will
grip onto them and start curling up their bodies, as if they’re trying to sting them
like a Bull ant would. But these ants don’t have stingers. What they do instead, is excrete
a deadly liquid. See that little white blob coming out of this ant’s abdomen? This stuff
is a kind of formic acid. They use this chemical weapon as
a means of stunning and subduing their prey and predators alike. In this case, they target
the vulnerable leg joints of this helpless Bull ant. Sugar ants navigate as most do, by following pheromone trails laid down by their fellow
colony members. But there’re some species that can perform a rather unique trait among
ants. Native to Australia, and one of the most widely distributed, is the Banded Sugar
ant. When foraging, these ants use social techniques
which often make them the first ants to a source of food. See how these two ants run
along together, almost like they’re playing follow the leader? Well they are. This process
is known as tandem running, which involves teaching and social learning.
The leader ants are usually the most skilled of foragers, often having prior knowledge
of the best sites to explore. Think of them as the old wise ants educating the youngers
on how things are done. The leader runs rapidly in a short burst, and then pauses, waiting
until she feels a tap from her follower, and then she continues on. Stopping and starting
frequently to make sure her follower is still on her trail. These tandem runs, usually consist of a couple of ants, but on occasion, there can be several
workers following along, each stopping and waiting for their trailers to catch up.
This unique process of communication greatly benefits the ants’ foraging capabilities.
During a tandem run, the followers can discover food much faster compared to just foraging
on their own. And the added presence of these ants will ensure that their colony is the one controlling the site. Occasionally, some ants can be a little stubborn
in being recruited. So occasionally, the leaders will attempt to pull others along for encouragement. Sometimes even resorting to completely picking them up and carrying them if they continue
to resist. In times of plenty, Sugar ants will stock
up on food and water by filling the stomachs of certain colony members. These ants become
known as repletes and are used as living storage vessels. When there’s little food to be
found above ground, due to times of drought or cold weather, to get a feed, the workers
simply stroke the antennae of the repletes, causing them to regurgitate some of their
stores. Some Sugar ants are more specialised in this
method than others. These arid dwelling species are nicknamed, “Honeypot ants” for their
ability to distend their gasters to an enormous size. So large in fact, that they become unable
to move on their own. Often just hanging motionlessly from the ceilings deep within their nests. Many Sugar Ants are highly competitive for territory and resources. Often seen plugging
the nest entrances of other ant colonies And raiding them if given the chance. Even Bull ants have to be wary of these guys. They’re larger and more deadly, but fear
the smaller ants for their chemical weaponry, and oft times, their superior numbers too. So, regularly, they’ll commit several ants to guard their nest entrances in order keep
these dangerous intruders at bay. There are some ants that can rival them, however.
Meat ants are equally as competitive. Their colonies can reach massive scales, with hundreds
of thousands of individuals, and they often live right alongside Sugar ants. Despite this,
the two are usually able coexist as most Sugar Ants are nocturnal, whilst Meat ants are diurnal.
Although, in their active hours, they’ll constantly plug each other’s nest entrances
to try and gain an edge on their competition. Because of their large size, Sugar ants are
easily spotted by predators and make for a temping snack. Regularly, they’re targeted
by birds… spiders… and other insects too. Like this hungry praying mantis. Other ants
will willingly take on the weak or injured too. Here you can see just how large Sugar
ants can be in comparison to the more common sized species. Nuptial flights are especially perilous for Sugar ants as the female alates are often
huge and cumbersome. Making them easy prey. Birds, like this magpie, will often sit by
the entrances of their nests and pick them off as soon as they emerge. If the female alates are lucky enough to survives
predation and find a mate, they’ll then dig themselves out a new home. A small chamber
in which they’ll lay their eggs and tend to them until they develop into workers. Here’s a look inside the nests of some young queens who’ve just recently made it to this
stage. Their first workers are very small and skittish, and highly protective of them
and their developing brood. You may notice them tending to these little
brown casings here. These are known as cocoons. They’re comprised of silk which the larvae
expel from special glands near their mouths. So the larvae spin themselves up in this silk,
much like a caterpillar does when its ready to metamorphose into its pupal stage. Some other ants spin cocoons too, like Bull ants… and Green Headed ants. However, most
leave their brood bare. Like Big-headed ants… Rainbow ants… and Argentine Ants too. The purpose
of spinning cocoons is still not fully known. It’s suggested that they assist in keeping
the developing brood within clean, and protect them harmful bugs, bacteria, fungi and pathogens. Once the brood inside has fully developed, they’ll then begin emerging. They’re cable
of escaping the cocoons on their own, but it can be a little tricky at times, so the
workers will often try and help out. Most of these emerging ants will be workers, which are all female. But, this particular
ant looks a little different from your typical worker. It’s oddly shaped and it even has
wings. This is actually a male, known as a drone. Drones don’t do anything for their
colony, other than use up their resources. Their only purpose in life is to mate with
winged females during nuptial flights. Shortly after which, they die. These ants are produced
from unfertilised eggs, usually when a colony reaches a mature size. A typical Sugar ant colony only contains a single queen, the only ant of which can lay
fertile eggs. So, what happens to a colony if this queen were to die? Well, here we have
a queenless colony of Banded Sugar Ants. The queen died around 6 months ago, leaving behind
a hundred or so workers. Despite having no queen around, these ants continue to cooperate
with one another and function as a normal colony would. But, with the absence of their
queen, there aren’t any new workers emerging to replace the old and dying. So slowly, but
surely, the colony will die off. Remarkably, the ants can actually sense that
their colony’s coming to an end. So occasionally, what the remaining workers will do is begin
laying their own eggs. Sugar ant workers are sterile, so all these eggs you see here are
unfertilised, and will develop into drones. It’s like a last-ditch effort to spread
their genes and help ensure the survival of their species. And that really sums up Sugar Ants. They’re incredibly determined little creatures. Highly
efficient in the way they both find food and subdue their prey… Extremely competitive
with other ants, raiding and sabotaging at will… And amazingly resourceful for the way
in which they adapt to their environment, with desert dwelling species utilizing workers
as living storage jars…and some tropical species weaving leaves together to act as
shelters…and many ground dwellers, heightening their nest entrances into towers when they
sense rain coming, to prevent water rushing in and flooding their homes. It’s pretty
safe to say, these ants will be around for a long time to come. Hey guys, hope you enjoyed the video. So far we’ve looked at Bull ants, Argentine ants
and now Sugar ants. So, which ants should we cover next? I’d love to hear your thoughts
so leave a suggestion below. Next video will be another ant keeping tutorial.
This time on how to build your own ant nest. So look forward to that, and as always, thanks
for watching.

This Killer Fungus Turns Flies into Zombies | Deep Look


We like to think we’re in control … that
our minds are our own. But that’s not true for this fruit fly. Its brain has been hijacked by another organism
and it’s not going to end well. It all starts when the fly is innocently walking
around, sipping on overripe fruit. It picks up an invisible fungus spore, which
bores under its skin. For a few days, everything seems normal. But inside, the fungus is growing, feeding
on the fly’s fat … and infiltrating its mind. At dusk on the fourth or fifth day, the fly
gets a little erratic, wandering around. It climbs to a high place. Scientists call this behavior “summiting.” Then it starts twitching. The fungus is in control. The fly sticks out its mouthpart and spits
out a tiny drop of sticky liquid. That glues the fly down, sealing its fate. A few minutes later, its wings shoot up. And it dies. Now that the fungus has forced the fly into
this death pose … wings out of the way … nothing can stop it. It emerges. Tiny spore launchers burst out of the fly’s
skin. Hundreds of spores shoot out at high speed,
catching a breeze if the fly climbed high enough. They’re the next generation of killer fungus. It continues for hours, spores flying out. These flies are in the wrong place at the
wrong time. And if spores land on a wing, which they can’t
bore into, they shoot out a secondary spore to increase their chances of spreading. So how does a fungus take control of a brain? At Harvard, Carolyn Elya is trying to understand
that. She thinks the fungus secretes chemicals to
manipulate the fly’s neurons, maybe stimulating the ones that make flies climb. But don’t worry: The fungus can’t hurt
humans. Scientists have tried to harness its power
for our benefit, to kill flies in our kitchens and farms. They haven’t had any luck though. The deadly spores are actually pretty fragile
and short-lived. It turns out, this lethal puppet master does
only what it needs to for its *own* survival. Hi, it’s Lauren again. If you love Deep Look, why not help us grow
on Patreon? We’re raising funds to go on a filming expedition
to Oaxaca, Mexico. And for a limited time, we’re sweetening the
deal with a special gift. Link is in the description. And if you’re craving more spooky videos,
here’s a playlist of our scariest episodes. Don’t watch ‘em after midnight. See you soon.

6. Insect circulatory system

6. Insect circulatory system


The roles of the circulatory system are
to transport essential metabolites from the fat body to the cells, carry waste
to the excretory system and provide immunity to harmful organisms. Insects have a simple open circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of a dorsal vessel running the length of the body. The dorsal vessel is divided into a posterior heart that contains intake valves called ostia and an anterior aorta The open space of the body is called the
hemocoel. The hemocoel is filled with insect blood called hemolymph. Since insect hemolymph does not transport oxygen, it does not contain hemoglobin and, therefore, lacks the red color that is characteristic of blood from
vertebrate animals. Hemolymph is pumped forward by the heart through the aorta, into the head and flows back through the body in the open hemocoel. Hemolymph re-enters the posterior heart through the ostial valves, and the cycle repeats. The hemocoel is always full of hemolymph, and the heart ensures it’s mixing. Auxilary, pulsatile hearts at the base of the antenna legs and wings pump hemolymph into those appendages.

5. Insect endocrine system

5. Insect endocrine system


Like other animals, insects possess an
array of hormones that regulate their diverse physiological and biochemical
processes, Hormonal sources in insects include the
neuroendocrine system, the corpora allata, the prothoracic glands, and epitracheal glands. Other endocrine cells are also found in the gut and ovaries. The neuroendocrine system consists of
nerve cells that secrete hormones. Neurosecretory cells are located mainly
in the brain, the ventral nerve cord, and the corpora cardiaca. They are also
found in association with other nervous tissues located throughout the body. Neurohormones are the master regulators
and control most physiological and metabolic processes including regulating
secretion of the hormones that control molting, metamorphosis and reproduction. Neurohormones also regulate the synthesis of blood lipids, carbohydrates
and proteins and control energy metabolism related to flight. And they
also control other basic physiological functions such as feeding activity and
excretion. Corpora cardiaca are major
neuroendocrine structures attached to the brain, Neurosecretory cells located
in the brain synthesize and transport neurohormones to the corpora cardiaca from which the brain hormones are stored and released. In addition, corpora cardiaca contain intrinsic neurosecretory cells that also synthesize and release neurohormones. The corpora allata are structurally
associated near the corpora cardiaca, but they are not part of the neuroendocrine system. Corpora allata synthesize and secrete juvenile hormone. Juvenile hormone prevents immature insects from undergoing metamorphosis into premature adults during molting. Juvenile hormone also stimulates egg
formation in most adult female insects. The prothoracic glands are a grape-like
cluster of cells surrounding the trachea in the first thoracic segment. These glands secrete ecdysone a hormone that stimulates the molting events necessary
for insect growth. Prothoracic glands deteriorate in adult insects because
adult insects no longer molt. Like the prothoracic glands, epitracheal glands
are groups of secretory cells associated with the trachea. They secrete hormones
that regulate molting behavior. Endocrine cells are also found in the
gut and may affect feeding activity

7. Insect digestive and excretory systems

7. Insect digestive and excretory systems


Although all insects have common
structures in their digestive systems, these structures can be highly variable
between species based on the diversity of foods that insects eat. We will use
the grasshopper to illustrate the basic principle for these common structures. the insect digestive system is divided into three main sections: the foregut, the midgut and the hind gut. The foregut is comprised of the mouth
for ingesting food, the pharynx and esophagus for transporting food and the crop where food is stored prior to digestion and absorption. If the food is
solid it moves from the crop into a muscular proventriculus where it may be
further ground before passing through the stomadeal valve into the midgut. The midgut is the region for the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients. Finger-like projections called gastric caeca occur at the junction of
the midgut and proventriculis and serve as major structures for nutrient
absorption. Unabsorbed food particles pass through the proctodeal valve into the hindgut. At the junction of the midgut and hindgut are a group of long, thread-like tubules that flex about in the hemolymph. These tubules are called Malpighian tubules, and they are the insect excretory system. Malpighian tubules filter the hemolymph and form a urine containing water, salts,
small metabolites, the nitrogenous waste products and any toxic chemicals that are present. Undigested food from the midgut along with the Malpighian tubule urine are passed into the hindgut. Special cells in the rectum selectively
re-absorb the water, salts and small metabolites, and the remaining waste
products are excreted. By selectively taking all water, salts, and small molecules into the Malpighian tubules, then selectively re-absorbing the
water, salts and metabolites in the hindgut, the insect can rid its body of waste and any unanticipated toxic chemicals, while maintaining a normal metabolite and water balance.

Huge-Eyed Jumping Ants! Gigantiops destructor

Huge-Eyed Jumping Ants! Gigantiops destructor


Josh is in the lab today and he brought
with him some awesome ants: Gigantiops destructor. And we’ve been filming them
doing things like jumping off of platforms, jumping onto our finger, and
things like that because Josh actually studies jumping behaviors and other
behaviors and ants. But, Josh, what would you say your research expertise is in?
Well, I primarily study mechanics of movements in ants.
Specifically the mandible strikes of trap-jaw ants. But I also work on other
projects and different species of ants. Like studying the mechanics of jumping
in Gigantiops destructor. Yeah, so we actually filmed all this stuff for a video that
will summarize his research results on the mechanics of their jumps. But before
we publish that, we wanted to actually put out a video that sort of highlights
the natural history and the behaviors of this incredible species. Gigantiops
destructor might be the best species name ever. A hundred years ago biologist
William Morton Wheeler wrote the name “conjures up visions of a huge-eyed
insatiable monster, a kind of Cyclopean insect-jaguar. Gigantiops refers to the
ants’ giant eyes, but destructor, the specific name, was given to this ant in
1804 by a zoologist who likely never saw it alive. If you came across Gigantiops
in and around the Amazon rainforest this is what you might see. A lone worker
wandering through the leaf litter jumping between gaps in the foliage. The
temperament of these ants is about as opposite of destructor as possible.
They’re so curious and non-aggressive that if you wave your finger in front of
them they jump up on to it and then just walk around and hang out on your hand. they put their jumping ability and huge
eyes to use while navigating the chaotic forest floor. Unlike a lot of other ants,
they don’t follow pheromone trails or cooperate to transport food. Each worker
goes out of the nest on its own and when it comes across the gap in the
undergrowth they size up the distance and make make the leap. In a recent study, researchers found that Gigantiops is able to navigate mazes using only visual
cues. In the experiment the ants learned that a wide vertical line meant that
should turn left and a thin vertical line was a right-hand turn. After given a
piece of food the ants were challenged with the maze marked with these visual
cues in a random order. The researchers watched as the ants use
the shapes to navigate the maze and choose the right path back to their nest. Beyond visual navigation, jumping is
their other incredible talent. Gigantiops is one of only a few ants
that uses its legs to jump forward. Other ants that jump with their legs include
the Australian Jack Jumpers of the genus Myrmecia and ants of the genus Harpegnathos. Even some species of trap-jaw ants who are
famous for using their spring-loaded jaws to jump backwards, are also known to use their legs jump forward across gaps in the understory. While other jumping
ants have sister species in their same genus Gigantiops sits alone on its own
branch of the evolutionary tree. There are no other Gigantiops species. It’s one
incredible species living among multitudes in the Amazon rainforest and
it’s one small reason to admire, respect, and protect our natural world. So that’s
a little bit about the biology of these jumping ants the next video that we’ll
publish about them will be a summary of your research results. Do you want to
give a preview of those? No. No I don’t want to give anything away right now. No spoilers. You have to watch the next video to find out. Ok, well, stay tuned the next one will be
Josh’s research results which are pretty interesting. Thanks for watching this
video!

4. Insect central nervous system

4. Insect central nervous system


The insect nervous system conveys and
integrates information about the internal and external environments and
determines insect behavior. The central nervous system consists of
the brain and the ventral nerve cord. Here is a detailed, top view of the
central nervous system. The brain consists of dumbbell-shaped
visual lobes with nerves that project outward to the retina of the compound eyes. The ventral nerve cord consists of a series of ganglia: usually one per segment. Ganglia are thickened regions of the nervous system that contain the
cell bodies of the nerve cells. The ganglia of the ventral nerve cord are
connected by paired nerves called interganglionic connectives. Finally, the brain is connected to the ventral nerve cord by a pair of nerves that pass around the esophagus and connect to the subseophageal ganglion.

The Strike of the Monster Ant

The Strike of the Monster Ant


In the known history of life, evolution
has repeatedly taken the jaws of an ant and produced weapons of extreme speed
and devastating power. These trap-jaw ant’s stalk the
undergrowth with their spring-loaded mandibles open and ready to snap on
unsuspecting prey. What’s remarkable is that spring-loaded
trap-jaws have evolved at least five times in ants. But with each independent
evolution the ants use a different anatomical structure to act as a latch,
spring, and trigger. For example ants in the genus Odontomachus lock their
mandibles open while loading an internal spring. Then they use a fast-acting
trigger muscle to unlock their mandibles and release the stored energy. Their jaws
shut in as little as a tenth of a millisecond and reach speeds up to 150
miles per hour. Ants the genus Myrmoteras are rare trap-jaw ants from
Southeast Asia. They’ve evolved their trap jaws independently of other ants,
but very little is known about their biology. The aim of my research was to
generate the first mechanical description of Myrmoteras trap-jaws. To
measure their speed I use a high-speed camera filming at 50,000 frames per
second. I found that their strikes occur in about half a millisecond, which is 700
times faster than the blink of an eye. But relative to Odontomachus strikes Myrmoteras mandibles are only half as fast at about 60 miles per hour.
While filming, I noticed the lobe on the back of their head compressing during
the loading phase prior to a strike. This structure, likely, is acting as a
spring storing elastic energy used to power their fast mandibles.
Next, I made micro CT scans of the ants heads to study their internal anatomy.
The large muscle is composed of slow contracting fibers and is responsible
for loading the spring inside and on the back of the head.
The smaller muscle is composed of fast contracting muscle fibers that can
release the strike. The anatomical structures Myrmoteras use to lock,
load, and release their jaws are completely different from those used by
other trap-jaw ants. Trap-jaw ants like these have redefined what we knew about how
fast animals to be. Evolution has invented spring-loaded
jaws in ants multiple times. And by studying the mechanisms behind these
movements we can better understand the relationship between structure and
function, and how nature has come up with multiple solutions to the same problem

1. Insect external structure

1. Insect external structure


The insect body has a hard, outer covering
called the exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is made of both chitin and protein. The exoskeleton acts like both a skin and
a skeleton. It gives the insect form like a skeleton,
but like a skin, it protects against water loss, injury and infection by micro-organisms. The insect body is divided into three major sections: the head, the thorax and the abdomen. Each of these sections is further divided
into segments. Insects have six legs. One pair of legs is attached to each of the
three segments that form the thorax. Only adult insects have wings. Flies have one pair of wings attached to the
thorax. All other insects have two pairs of wings
attached to the thorax. The antennae are olfactory organs for detecting
odors. Compound eyes are the main organs for vision. The spiracles are openings in the side of
the insect that allow air to enter into the respiratory system. Let us examine the internal structure and
function of the organs in the insect body.