Infectious Diseases of East Africa: Summer Abroad in Malawi

Infectious Diseases of East Africa: Summer Abroad in Malawi


It’s important to get students
interested and enthused about infectious diseases years ago we thought we had
vanquished infectious diseases when antibiotics became available but it’s
been anything but that every person in the United States could be exposed to
something that was once considered tropical or exotic because of the sheer
volume of travel and international commerce that takes place I was
interested in developing a study abroad program I chose Malawi because Michigan
State has a research program in malaria going on for over 30 years and it’s also
a country with a burden of infectious diseases so it would give us an
opportunity to experience firsthand the impact that these diseases have on the
population so it’s academically rigorous It was definitely hard work but I felt that
all the work that we did was extremely applicable to what we were learning
about the community while we were there and one of the most amazing things was
that we got to see presentations from a variety of Malawian people who spoke
about their specialty in whatever parasite or public health topic they
were talking about. In the BLD program you do often learn about these various
diseases but you never see how it impacts the person and this experience
let us see what are these patients actually going through so we got to do rounds at Queen
Elizabeth central hospital with Dr. Karl Seydel and we got to see these
patients that are infected by these diseases like cerebral meningitis and
that really put it into perspective about how our program is going to impact
the world and the patient just by seeing okay this is what this research is going
to and this is what our major has to offer. It’s a very life-changing
experience; I always knew I wanted to work with improving impoverished
communities but now it became very solidified after this trip; it showed me
how BLS majors can positively impact communities We definitely did a lot of
work and I appreciated that about this program because I learned a lot but we
also had a lot of time to learn the culture, explore, get to know each other and I wish I could go again. you

Invasive Subterranean Termites in Florida

Invasive Subterranean Termites in Florida


You are looking at Formosan
subterranean termite damage. These invasive termites occur throughout most
of the southeastern United States and the species is currently expanding its
range in Florida. Hi, my name is Thomas Chouvenc. I am an Assistant Professor of Urban
Entomology at the UF/IFAS Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center. This Asian subterranean termite, the tropical equivalent of the Formosan termite, is also a serious concern for homeowners. Subterranean termites colonies can reach millions of individuals and because they are social insects, they are difficult to control. By the year 2040, we expect that half of the structures in South Florida will be at risk of infestation by subterranean termites. Currently, we are investigating the interactions between these two invasive termite species as there is the potential for these two species to hybridize. For more information on termites contact the UF/IFAS Exension office in your county. or visit the website on your screen: http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/termites-in-florida/

Insect Adventure, Part One

Insect Adventure, Part One


We’re here today because the town of Hanover and Jo Daviess Conservation Foundation have acquired this old soybean field and they’re restoring it as a prairie. And they’ve been working here for about six years and we’re surveying the insect population. Okay. So this is a carrion trap.
– Ewwww!! Wow.
– Oooh, lots of good stuff! So, there is lots of stuff in here. So how long was this in the ground for? Four and a half weeks, about a month.
– Really. And that’s a tea strainer, That’s a tea strainer.
– that you’re gonna strain through. That’s very sophisticated. Yeah, we are. So, it’s a carrion trap, so what does that mean? Okay, so this,
– Yeah. had four ounces of chicken liver in it- Sounds appetizing. -hung over the bucket. And the carrion trap- they’re compelled by the rotting meat smell to fall in. And there’s… Those are millipedes, yeah.
– What is it- those look like a lot of millipedes. Tons of millipedes.
– There’s a bunch of millipedes in here, bunch of grasshoppers. Oh, those are some huge grasshoppers. Yeah, this is one of the carrion beetles, Necrophila americana.
– Ohhh. Those are kinda cool looking. That’s one of the carrion beetles that we find here, and it’s really hard to tell what you’ve got until you get back to the museum and put it under the scope. Yeah, and identify a lot of the smaller ones.
– Yeah, and then you identify the smaller stuff. Lots of isopods- roly-polies. Yeah.
– Yeah, lots of different kinds of millipedes. How many different species of millipedes do you think are out here? Out here in this prairie?
– Yeah. Between fifteen and twenty. Really?
– Mmhmm. I didn’t know there were that many. There are at least six different orders of millipedes out here: Polydesmids, Spirobolids, Spirostreptids, Julids, Platydesmids, Polyxenidas, and possibly Polyzoniidas. So what does that mean? Do they have like, different numbers of legs or different numbers of body segments, or- They have different numbers of legs, different numbers of body segments, uh, their reproductive organs are in different places on the body. Oh, they’re not just like, where you would assume like, the genitals to be? No, some of them, the male genitals are on the second segment, some of them are on the seventh, some of them are on the eighth. So the second segment, like, on the neck.
– Just right behind the neck. So you have gonads like, on your head.
– Yeah, mhmm. That’s pretty crazy.
– They call them gonopods in millipedes. So they’re right behind, and they’re on the underside, on the belly.
– Okay, yeah. Right behind the head, or a few segments further down, or a few segments further down.
– Okay. And the females all have different types of genitalia as well. Well, you gotta correspond to the having gonads on your neck.
– Yeah. And then you just put the bucket back in the ground, and this is just propylene glycol. So you don’t want to use alcohol out here because it’ll evaporate.
– It’ll evaporate away. And so you use that…
– So you use propylene glycol, which is not toxic to mammals. So if a raccoon gets in, and drinks the fluid, it won’t hurt him. This is 50% propylene glycol, 50% water, and a couple of ounces of liquid dishsoap. And the dish soap breaks the surface tension.
– Okay. So when the insects fall in, they sink.
– Yeah, instead of… They don’t just float, because if they floated, in a couple hours the surface would be covered with insects. Other ones would land and just fly away.
– Ohh, I see. So they fall in, they sink, and they just keep falling in and sinking. Now here’s the part that’s so much fun for you. This is chicken liver, wrapped in gauze, tied up.
– That’s- Ooh. How long has this chicken liver been sitting out? About two and a half days at room temperature. So it’s starting to smell pretty good. Oh, mmm. It’s nice and fragrant, yeah.
– Isn’t that appetizing? So then you just hang that over the bucket, and the smell of the rotting chicken liver attracts all those carrion eating beetles. They fall in the bucket and sink down to the bottom. So why are you specifically trying to get carrion beetles? A lot of other things will fall in as well. Some of the beetles that are attracted to carrion are considered habitat indicators. One of the carrion beetles called Nicrophorus marginatus- that’s only found in fairly high quality prairies. The last set of traps we set had Nicropherus marginatus in it. They also had a scarab called Phanaeus vindex, which is a dung roller that is also only found in high quality prairies. So six years ago there were soybeans here, and now you’ve got a nice, healthy prairie.
– Yeah. So when you get a healthy prairie and you have all these good bugs as good indicators of how healthy the prairie is, that’s going to obviously attract birds and mammals, and all kinds of things to come back to this area
– If you get… that maybe hadn’t been here for years.
– If you’ve got good insects, you get more reptiles and amphibians, you get more birds. If you get more birds, more reptiles and amphibians, you get more mammals. And the populations and the community just keeps building and building over the years. This is exciting! So now we’ve got three or four pitfall traps,
– Okay. which are the same thing, but without the bait. Occasionally a mouse or something will fall in and it can’t get out, but then we take it to the mammal division at the museum.
– Oh, yeah. And it goes into their collections, and then they have records of them being here.
– Yeah. So nothing ever goes to waste.
– Yeah. And there’s some beetles, too. See the carabid beetles?
– Wow. Some grasshoppers, yeah. That’s a ground beetle, a carabid beetle.
– There’s some spiders in there. Yeah, there’s spiders, and you don’t usually find very many spiders in carrion traps, because most spiders are actually repulsed by the smell of carrion.
– Really? So spiders walk up close to a carrion trap, and then veer away. Oh, that’s interesting. I would have thought that everything would just, you know, swarm to the stink smell. There are a lot of beetles that are repulsed by the smell of carrion also.
– Right. Oh, okay. So they fall into these kinds of traps. So you gotta make sure you have diverse, different ways of collecting everything. The more ways you have of collecting, the more different types of insects you’re going to find. So far we’ve collected 800 spiders and insects at this point,
– Wow. in just over the same period of four weeks. 800 different species in four weeks.
– In four weeks, yes. We could easily find 1200-1500 over a full summer. So we should get a whole lot more than we have so far.
– That’s exciting. I can see where you’d really get into this. This seems relatively low technology. It is really very low cost, low technology, and basically, anybody can do it. You can go to the car part store and get a little bit of propylene glycol, put the holes in the ground,
– You just need some dish soap. some dish soap, some water,
– some old railroad spikes. and, to do the carrion trap, a little bit of chicken liver. You could set a full set of traps for fifteen bucks.
– That’s awesome. And then some alcohol, some rubbing alcohol to put them in.
– Yeah. Come on, start. We’re gonna go back, right in there between those trees and string the line. It is beautiful back here. Isn’t this a cool place? Yeah. This is gorgeous. Have you set up a sheet back here before? Yeah, I have, and if the weather’s good, it does pretty well.
– And… If the weather’s too cold, it doesn’t do anything. Okay. Bring it back around again. You have to have one to hang the sheet from and one to hang the light from. Oh, that makes sense. How long have you been doing this? How, like, how long have you been going out into the field and collecting bugs? 17-18 years now. I’d collect live things and bring them home and watch them.
– And watch them? I’d watch caterpillars eat, and grow, and spin their cocoons, and
– Yeah. wait for them to emerge whenever they came out. You know, there’s an old saying- If you love what you do, you’ll never work another day in your life.
– Yeah. I get a paycheck every other week, but I haven’t worked in 18 years. For me it’s great fun, and I get paid for it. I get paid for my hobby, what could be better? This will hold it down and keep the sheet from blowing. Ohp, there was a spider. This is a mercury halide light. It’s a 250 watt bulb. And that gets hung up here.

Hillbilly Elegy Author J.D. Vance on Poverty and the Opioid Epidemic

Hillbilly Elegy Author J.D. Vance on Poverty and the Opioid Epidemic


– Why do you think that the
opioid epidemic has taken hold so dramatically in West Virginia, parts of Ohio, in this region? – Well, I think that it’s largely because these areas used
to be incredibly hopeful and optimistic about the future, but, in some ways, they’ve
seen the rug really pulled from under them in the
past 20 or 30 years. They’ve seen what used to
be a relatively promising, stable, working or
middle class opportunity, completely disappear, and, because of that, many
folks are pretty despairing about the future, and, when that happens, I think, it’s not that surprising
that some of these drugs start to move in. – And, how do you turn that around? – Well, I think the answer has to start with our education system, actually. So many of these jobs
that have disappeared from these areas, just aren’t coming back. They haven’t disappeared
so much from globalization or from shipping them overseas, they’ve largely disappeared
because of automation, and because of new technological change, and the only way to
really address that crisis is to actually train people
for the next generation of high quality jobs. And, I think right now,
a lot of folks feel that when they graduate from high school, they’re effectively given an option between go work in a service sector job making seven or eight dollars an hour, or go to a four-year degree, and there’s really no,
there’s nothing in between. There are no options in
between and, consequently, a lot of folks don’t see much opportunity. – Do you have any advice
for the Trump administration on education, as it
comes in, or Betsy DeVos, if she’s confirmed as
the Education Secretary? – Yeah, I think, the only
piece of advice I’ll offer is to recognized that so many of the next generation
of jobs require training and skills that we’re not necessarily preparing our kids for right now, and to the degree we can focus not on how we can bring jobs back from China, but how we can prepare
people for the 21st Century knowledge economy, I think
that’s a very important part of actually solving these
very significant regional economic crises that we have
in places like West Virginia or Ohio. So, my advice is focus on
post-secondary education and how we can give kids more pathways to the middle class.

Workplace Incivility: The Silent Epidemic

Workplace Incivility: The Silent Epidemic


Incivility is spreading in the work place
like an epidemic. Research has shown us, over the past 18 years, tens of thousands of
people worldwide reported to have received treatment at least once a month.
The number of victims has been steadily increasing from 49% in 1998, to 55% in
2011, and to 62% in 2016. What about you? When was the last time you felt ignored?
Unappreciated? Under appreciated? Degraded? Or just embarrassed? What
behavior have you witnessed or experienced that you would consider
disrespectful or inappropriate? My colleague and I, and my students of
course, have been conducting a study on work place incivility for the past 10
years. I like to share with you four of our findings. First we learned uncivil
behavior takes various forms. For example: making demeaning comments, not giving
credits to others, gossiping, and disrupting meetings, insulting yelling at
others, bullying and harassing others. The list can go on and on.
I remember in my conversation with Sally, she shared, “My boss would criticize me
harshly all the time until I cried. He would write down all my problems, like 20
of them not just one or two, and he would make me realist in front of others in a
very big meeting.” Second we learned uncivil behavior is rude and
discourteous. Have you ever had people take your food out of the refrigerator
without telling you? What about people not returning your
phone calls? Or talking behind your back? In essence uncivil behavior
demonstrates a lack of respect for others. In addition, uncivil behavior can be
mundane too. In my conversation with Henry he recalled, “One time his boss looked at his hand writing and said, ‘Henry you better start to practice handwriting and
submit it to me, because you need to learn how to write.'” How about the manager
who tells you, “If you are smart, you’re gonna do it right now.” As all these
examples show, uncivil behavior is often subtle
and therefore has remained silenced. Throughout research we also learned
uncivil behavior can be very powerful. Right? Uncivil behavior is triggered by a
number of causes, then here are two that really stand out for us. The first cause
is informal workplace environment. Nowadays the climate of many
organizations have become very informal. This informality is evidenced by the
dress code, language choice, conversation patterns. As the work place becomes
informal, the line between what is and is not appropriate has become blurred, and
some of the long-standing cues about respect and politeness have vanished. The
second cause is the power and social status. People with more power tend to
have more opportunities to be uncivil, and guess what? They often get away with
it. And the less powerful employees tends to be victims or the targets. Just think
about the power gradients between your supervisors and subordinates, teachers
and students, your boss and you. We also learn uncivil behavior can be very
costly. Insensitive actions can create lasting impacts. For individuals uncivil
words and deeds can have negative effect on their
psychological and physical well-being, reduce your creativity, focus, commitment
motivation, and job satisfaction. And for organizations, incivility can lead to
undesirable outcomes, such as reduced productivity and increased turnover. In simpler terms,
an organization’s bottom line is negatively affected by unhappy
and unproductive employees. Finally what adds to this already very complicated
issue are the advancements in technology. Think about Facebook, Twitter, Instagram,
and cyber bullying. Technology has enabled uncivil behavior virtually
everywhere. In this very short talk, I’m unable to give you solutions, however I
do hope this short talk will elevate your awareness of workplace incivility,
because it is time for us to break the silence and reverse this epidemic. Thank
you! you

The Case For Eating Bugs

The Case For Eating Bugs


Would you eat bugs if it meant helping to
save the planet? I’m Anna and this is Gross Science. Let me start off by saying that, depending
on where you live, the idea of eating insects may not gross you out at all. According to a 2013 United Nations report,
insects are included in the traditional diets of at least 2 billion people. That said, most Westerners, especially in
northern latitudes, don’t tend to eat bugs—and in fact, find it pretty disgusting. So, why is that? Well, no one knows for sure, but there are
a bunch of ideas. One is that it’s simply easier to eat bugs
in the tropics, because they tend to be larger, there’s a diversity of species available
there all year round, and those bugs may have predictable harvesting seasons. Another idea is that traditional agriculture
may have made eating insects less desirable. Agriculture first began in the Fertile Crescent,
and then spread to Europe. And those regions already had large mammals
that could be domesticated, so collecting bugs for food may not have been as much of
a priority. And, as time went on, insects may have gone
from being accepted as benign parts of the environment to being seen as agricultural
pests, and invaders in our homes. Whatever the reason, the fact that most people
in the US and Europe regard the idea of eating bugs with disgust is mostly cultural. After all, when you think about it, it is
a bit strange that our mouths water for this creature with an exoskeleton and pinching
claws and not this one. Now, you might be saying to yourself, “Who
cares! I still don’t wanna have bugs for dinner!” And to that I say, “Let me lay out the case
for entomophagy—the practice of eating insects.” To begin with, insects are efficient at putting
on weight. In order to raise a cow to maturity, you need
a lot of food. But to rear the same amount of cricket meat
takes 12 times less feed. What insects eat is also more sustainable. We need to devote a lot of agricultural land
to traditional livestock—so we can grow food for them, or so they can graze. But many bugs can live off of waste products,
like manure and compost. That said, the risks to us of raising edible
insects on organic waste are still being studied. On top of that, livestock like cows are notorious
for releasing tons of methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. But very few insects produce methane at all. Of course, none of that would matter if bugs
were bad for you. But it turns out that they can be a great
source of proteins, healthy fats, and minerals, depending on the species. Clearly, there are lots of economic, environmental,
and health reasons to eat insects—though we’d have to figure out sustainable ways
of harvesting lots of bugs if entomophagy were to catch on more widely. But that’s not gonna happen if people don’t
like how they taste. So, how do bugs taste? Well, people say crickets taste nutty, scorpions
taste like shrimp, and the grubs of the palm weevil taste sweet when they’re raw or like
calamari when they’re cooked. And I can tell you that everything I ate today
was pretty good, except for those grasshopper tacos, which were really not great. But I think that was just probably because
I cooked them poorly. I don’t blame the grasshoppers. I’m gonna put links in the description to
all the recipes I used today, and you can try them out yourself. I especially recommend the scorpion curry. And if you do try bugs, let me know what you
think, and how you prepared them! Take a photo of your creations and tag me
on Instagram! I’d love to see what you cook up. Ew. By the way, there’s one more reason to eat
insects—as pest control! Palm Weevil grubs (the ones that taste sweet
or like calamari) are becoming a big problem in places like southern California. My friends over at Deep Look actually made
a whole video about these guys. So head over to their channel to see how weevils
could harm the iconic palm trees of Hollywood. And if you like Gross Science, hit subscribe! That is not delicious.

Study English – Series 2, Episode 14: Termites

Study English – Series 2, Episode 14: Termites


Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study
English, IELTS preparation. Today, we’re going to talk about tenses, and
different ways of making comparisons. Choosing the best tense for formal writing,
including your IELTS essay, is important, and so is being consistent. We’re going to start by listening to an ecologist
talking about termites in tropical Australia. What verb tense does she use? This is another species of termite that we
have here in the Territory, and this species is nesuta termes graviolis and as you can
tell, it nests in trees and their nests are nice and round around the higher branches
of the tree, and then they build these little runways, what we call carton runways, that
run all the way from the nest, all the way down to the base of the tree, and the idea
here is the termites just use them as shelter so they’re not exposed to predators and not
exposed to the hot sun. So they travel down through these tunnels and that allows them
to access food resources on the ground. So here in tropical Australia, termites are
actually the major decomposer insect and they also play a really important role in conditioning
the soil, much like earthworms do, so they help to turn over the soil, to create new
soil and to increase the porosity of the soil. She says: Termites are the major decomposer insect. They play a really important. They help to turn over the soil. She used the simple present tense form of
verbs: are, play, and help. In IELTS writing tasks, the essay topics given
are general and will require you to write about actions. The simple present tense would
be the most appropriate verb form to use because you would be talking about general facts. Dr Dawes-Gromadzki was describing general
facts about termites, so she used the simple present. Listen again. So here in tropical Australia, termites are
actually the major decomposer insect and they also play a really important role in conditioning
the soil, much like earthworms do, so they help to turn over the soil.
She starts using the present tense, and then continues with it throughout her description. It’s very important to be consistent in the
verb tense you use. So when writing your IELTS essay, try to use the simple present tense
for the main verb, and avoid switching tenses. Keeping in mind that the essay will be about
things in general, you also need to consider the language of the noun phrases. Listen to Tracey talking about the nesting
habits of termites. What noun forms does she use? The idea here is the termites just use them
as shelter, so they’re not exposed to predators and not exposed to the hot sun. So they travel
down through these tunnels and that allows them to access food resources on the ground. Most of the noun phrases she uses are plural
– termites, predators, tunnels, and food resources She uses the plural for ‘termites’ because
she is talking about the species as a whole. The idea here is about the habits of termites
in general, so the plural would be used. It is not only one predator or a single tunnel
or one food resource that is being discussed, but all the ‘predators’, ‘tunnels’ and ‘food
resources’ of the termites. In formal writing, you will usually find nouns
are in plural form when the statements are general ones about groups, classes or things. But, of course, you’ll need to watch for uncountable
nouns, because uncountable nouns do not have a plural form. The various topics you may get in the IELTS
test will be general in nature, and will require you to discuss, explain, compare and contrast
in general terms. So for your IELTS essay, you should use the
simple present tense as the main verb form, and use plural nouns or uncountable nouns
for your subjects. Now let’s look at another aspect of the termite
story – how comparisons are structured in English. We use a comparative to compare one person,
thing or action with another. For example: Judy is younger than her sister. We can use a double comparative when we want
to say something is changing. For example: They are getting better and better since starting
the IELTS program. There is another way we can use a comparative
– to describe complementary processes. That is, we can describe how something is changing,
but changing together with something else. We can use this kind of form: In Australia, the farther south you go, the
cooler the winters. Now watch Tracey talk about the rate at which
termites break down mulch. The more termites and the more other bugs
you have in the soil, the quicker this mulch is going to decompose and that means the faster
the nutrients are going to cycle through the system and help make it healthier. She says: The more termites and the more other bugs
you have, the quicker this mulch is going to decompose and the faster the nutrients
are going to cycle. She is comparing several things that are changing
together. Let’s see how the basic structure of a comparative
expression like this works. The form is: the + comparative + subject + verb. Tracey said: the quicker this mulch is going to decompose Then using exactly the same grammatical structure,
she added the complementary statement: the faster the nutrients are going to cycle Notice the symmetry of these statements? It
makes it easier to remember and apply! Let’s try another example. The older she gets, the happier she is. And another one: The harder I study, the more I learn. As with most languages, English users take
shortcuts. For example, if someone asked me how I take
my tea, I might say: The stronger, the better! The stronger my tea is, the better it will
be. When the subject is understood in this context,
you only need to state the comparison, leaving out the subject and verb. How would you like your haircut?
The longer, the better! This is short for: The longer my hair is, the better it will
be. The short form is common with phrases ending
in ‘the better’. When is your friend coming over?
The sooner, the better! Do you like hot soup?
The hotter, the better! It’s also used to describe a good party – one
that has lots of people. You might say: The more, the merrier! It’s understood that you mean: The more people there are, the merrier the
party will be. These phrases are examples of more complex
comparative structures. Why not practise them with your friends? The sooner, the better!
That’s all for today. Let’s review what we’ve learnt. We talked about the IELTS essay task, and
using the simple present tense and plural nouns. Then we talked about making different kinds
of comparisons, ones that described complementary processes. And don’t forget that you can watch the story
again and get more IELTS help when you visit our Study English website. I’ll see you next time. Bye bye.

How do some Insects Walk on Water? | #aumsum

How do some Insects Walk on Water? | #aumsum


It’s AumSum Time. How do some insects walk on water? They do not walk. They catwalk. No. Water has an unusual property. What is that? Each water molecule is attracted by other
molecules around it in all directions. But since the molecules at the surface have
no molecules above them. They get attracted inward more strongly. These inward forces of attraction create surface
tension. Thus, making the surface act like a stretched
membrane. Now, the weight of insects like water strider
and fishing spider is very less. So, the force that the insects’ legs exert
on the stretched water surface is lesser. Than the surface tension. Also, as their legs are spread wide apart. Their weight gets further distributed among
all the legs. Hence, the insects’ legs do not sink. And just create dimples on the stretched water
membrane. Helping it walk on water. Nuclear fusion. Why is nuclear fusion not used to generate
electricity? You really want to know the answer to this,
right? But wait. Before answering the question, let us understand
what is meant by nuclear fusion. When two lighter nuclei combine to form a
heavy nucleus. A large amount of energy is released. This process is called nuclear fusion. Where does this nuclear fusion take place? You think that it takes place in a laboratory? No, you are absolutely wrong. Nuclear fusion takes place in the sun. The nuclei of two hydrogen atoms join together
to form a heavy nucleus of helium. With the release of a large amount of energy. How do you think this energy reaches us? No. It does not reach us through power lines. Wait, I will tell you. The energy released after nuclear fusion reaches
us in the form of sunlight. Ultraviolet radiations, heat, etc. Hey. But we are already producing electricity with
the help of nuclear fission. So, why do we require nuclear fusion? For this, you need to first understand difference
between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. As we already know, nuclear fusion is the
fusion of two lighter nuclei. With the release of a large amount of energy. The exact opposite process happens in nuclear
fission. Here, a heavier nucleus splits into two lighter
nuclei, releasing a large amount of energy. This process of fission is used in nuclear
power plants. Where a heavy nucleus of uranium is split
into lighter nuclei. The energy that is released in this is used
to generate electricity. However, there is a major disadvantage of
nuclear fission. Wondering what it is? The major disadvantage is that uranium is
a radioactive element. When uranium undergoes fission, it generates
radioactive waste along with energy. This radioactive waste is very harmful for
most lifeforms and the environment. Hence, we need to find a clean and safe source
of energy to generate electricity. What source would that be? Would it be nuclear fusion? You are right. Then why are we not harnessing the energy
of nuclear fusion to produce electricity? This is because, for nuclear fusion, two conditions
are required. They are high pressure and high temperature. Only when these conditions are met, can the
two nuclei travel at very high speeds. Resulting in collision. On earth, it is extremely difficult to create
such high pressure and temperature. Even if we are somehow able to create these
conditions. The question is how will we control them? As there are many questions unanswered and
unsolved. We have not yet succeeded in using nuclear
fusion in the production of electricity. Heat. Why is a laboratory thermometer not used to
check body temperature? You have got fever. Why don’t you check your body temperature
using a thermometer? No. Please do not use a laboratory thermometer. You will not be able to get the correct reading. Why don’t you try another one? This is called a clinical thermometer. A clinical thermometer is different from a
laboratory thermometer. Seems like you have made your choice. A clinical thermometer has a kink. When we check our body temperature, the kink
present in it prevents the mercury. From falling back down, thus helping the thermometer
to hold the temperature recorded by it. And giving us an accurate reading. Now, in a laboratory thermometer, this kink
is absent. This is because a laboratory thermometer is
meant to measures immediate temperature. Hence, after recording our body temperature,
until we check it, the mercury will fall. Thus, not giving us an accurate reading. Ultrasound. Why is ultrasound used in sonar? Hey. Looks like you are searching for a treasure
hidden in a sunken ship. Why don’t you use a sonar? It will emit ultrasounds and help you locate
the ship. You know what, I have a better idea. No. A music system will make ordinary sound. So, it is of no use. Do not fool me. I know that the music system is the right
choice. See, you are not able to find the ship. Now, will you use a sonar? Look, you easily found the ship. Do you know how a sonar could locate the sunken
ship? It was because of ultrasound. Ultrasounds are sounds having very high frequencies
which start from 20,000 Hertz. So, is ultrasound used in sonar because of
its high frequency? You are absolutely correct. Due to its high frequency, an ultrasound can
penetrate to a greater depth. Thus, helping us to locate the depth of the
sea, sunken ships, etc. But, I am not able to hear the ultrasound? It is because human beings can hear sound
frequencies from 20 Hertz to 20,000 Hertz. As ultrasounds have frequencies higher than
20,000 Hertz, we cannot hear them. Bad conductors of heat. Why are two thin blankets warmer than one
thick blanket? Because two chocolates are better than one. No. To understand this, we need to first learn
about bad conductors of heat. Bad conductors of heat are the materials which
do not allow heat. To easily flow through them. Air, wood and glass are some examples of bad
conductors of heat. In these examples, is our train conductor
included as well? Just listen. A thick blanket allows much of our body heat
to escape into the atmosphere. However, when we use two blankets one on top
of the other. Air gets trapped between them. This air being a bad conductor of heat, does
not allow our body heat. To easily flow into the atmosphere, thus keeping
us warm. Pathogens. Why do we get fever? So that we can take a holiday from work. No. Fever is a protective response of our body
to fight against pathogens. Such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. These pathogens cause diseases. Hence, when pathogens enter our body, the
immune cells such as white blood cells. Produce chemicals called pyrogens which are
released into the bloodstream. I thought like movies, they are released in
theaters. Please, pay attention. Hypothalamus, which is a small part of our
brain, regulates our body temperature. However, when these pyrogens reach the hypothalamus,
it starts to raise our body temperature. Thus, producing fever. Now, one of the reasons for producing this
fever is that many pathogens. Cannot survive at high temperatures. Thus, they die and we remain safe. Human tears. Why do onions make you cry? Because they cannot crack a joke. No. Onions consist of amino acid sulfoxides. When we cut an onion, millions of onions cells
rupture. Releasing the amino acid sulfoxides along
with some special enzymes. These special enzymes react with amino acid
sulfoxides. To form a chemical called Syn-propanethial-S-oxide. This chemical is volatile, that is, it easily
evaporates at normal temperature. Forming a gas. When this gas reaches our eyes, it reacts
with substance that keeps eyes lubricated. And forms mild sulfuric acid. What? An acid in my eyes. Absolutely. This sulfuric acid gives us a burning sensation. Now, in order to wash off this acid, our lacrimal
glands produce a disinfecting liquid. But when our eyes cannot hold any extra amount
of disinfecting liquid. It starts to fall down, making us cry. Joints. Why do knuckles pop? So that when we get bored we can pop them
for time pass. No. A knuckle is a joint in the finger where two
bones come together or connect. This joint is filled with a fluid called synovial
fluid. Synovial fluid is a viscous fluid containing
dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide. When bones move, the synovial fluid prevents
them from grinding against each other. It is so amazing. Indeed. When we stretch or bend our finger, the space
between the two bones increases. This causes the synovial fluid to stretch,
thus creating low pressure in it. Now, as gases are less soluble at low pressure. The dissolved gases in the synovial fluid
undissolve. Resulting in the formation of a bubble, which
we hear as the pop sound. Why do animals’ eyes glow in the dark? Because they have hidden torches. No. Wait, I will explain. Our eyes have a layer called retina which
is made up of photoreceptors. When light enters our eyes, it hits the photoreceptors. Photoreceptors detect light, thus making it
possible to see. However, the light which does not hit the
photoreceptors remains undetected. Poor undetected light. Now, nocturnal animals like owls, need to
see better during the night. Hence, their eyes have another layer below
the retina called tapetum lucidum. Now, when light does not hit the photoreceptors,
it reaches the tapetum lucidum. This layer acts like a mirror. It reflects light back onto the photoreceptors. Thus, giving them a second chance to detect
light. Some of this reflected light also comes out
of the animal’s eyes. Thus, making it seem that its eyes are glowing. What happens if a plane is struck by lightning? It will start glowing like a disco ball. No. Lightning is a massive flow of charge which
carries thousands of volts of electric current. Thus, it is extremely fatal for living beings. And can damage anything that comes in its
way. Yes, it is really terrifying. Now many times, airplanes get caught in a
heavy lightning storm. However, airplanes are designed to handle
the lightning strikes. The outer skin of most planes is primarily
made of aluminum. Aluminum is a good conductor of electricity. When lightning hits the airplane. The electric current travels through outer skin of the plane. It does not pass into the airplane. Eventually, it exits off through another extremity,
such as tail. Thus, the airplane and the passengers within
remain protected. Why cannot dogs eat chocolates? Because I would love to have all the chocolates
for myself. Alright. Now listen. Chocolates and other cocoa products contain
a toxic component called theobromine. The darker the chocolate, the more theobromine
and the more it is harmful. But I eat chocolates and I am completely fine. Our body quickly metabolizes the theobromine. Thus, it is not quite harmful for us. However, dogs process theobromine much more
slowly. So, it stays in their bodies for a longer
time, resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, etc. Moreover, if large quantities of chocolate
are ingested by the dog. Then the effects can be much more severe. The heart rate of dog might beat twice its
normal rate, increasing the blood flow. This can prove to be lethal to the dog. What is sleep paralysis? No idea. Sleep paralysis is a condition in which we
are conscious. But temporarily unable to move or speak. It can usually occur when we suddenly wake
up during REM sleep. What is REM sleep? Basically, there are four stages of sleep. One of them is Rapid eye movement sleep, that
is, REM sleep. In this stage, we dream. Researchers suggest that when we enter REM
sleep, two chemicals, glycine and GABA. ”Switch off” the activity of cells in the
brain that allow our muscles to move. No. This is so bad. No. It is actually beneficial because paralyzed
muscles. Prevent us from enacting our dreams in reality
and getting hurt. However, sometimes we suddenly wake up during
REM sleep. But if glycine and GABA are still active,
we are temporarily unable to move. Even though we are conscious. This is called sleep paralysis. Why do newborn babies get jaundice? I do not know. Each red blood cell in our blood lives for
about 120 days. Once it gets old, it is broken down into smaller
components. One of them is bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellowish waste compound. Hence, our liver removes the bilirubin from
our blood. Which is then excreted by the body through
intestines. However, if bilirubin is not removed, its
level in the blood starts to rise. And excess bilirubin begins to get deposited
in the body tissues. As a result, the skin and white areas of eyes
appear yellow, thus causing jaundice. Now, a newborn baby’s liver is still developing. Thus, it cannot efficiently remove bilirubin
from blood, thus causing it jaundice. Usually, jaundice is normal in babies and
will disappear in some days as baby grows. However, if it does not disappear, we should
immediately consult a doctor. What is a mirage? An invisible cloak. No. Mirage is an illusion in which it appears
as if there is water on ground. On a hot day, the land heats the layers of
air closer to it. However, as we move higher, the layers of
air get relatively cooler. Thus, the hot lower layers of air near the
ground form rarer media. And cold upper layers form denser media. Now, when light coming from sky travels from
denser to rarer media. It bends more and more until it exceeds the
critical angle. That is, the angle beyond which light gets
reflected. This phenomenon is called total internal reflection. When this reflected light reaches our eyes,
they trace it backward as a straight line. Hence, the reflection of blue sky appears
on the ground. And our brain thinks that there is water,
thus causing a mirage. Why do we get eye bags? It is a sign indicating that we need to take
a long holiday. No. One of the main reasons for eye bags is aging. As we age, various changes take place in our
body. Yes, I get more attractive with age. Now listen. Our skin contains collagen and elastin. They keep our skin firm and elastic. In addition to this, we have fat tissue surrounding
our eyes for cushioning. But as we age, our skin produces less collagen
and elastin. Causing our skin to become loose. Also, the muscles and ligaments that hold
fat tissue in place begin to get loose. And the fat starts dropping down. This loose skin and fat make the area around
our eyes appear swollen. Giving us eye bags. Besides this, heredity, salt intake, smoking,
etc. May also contribute to formation of eye bags. Is gluten bad for you? Gluten is bad for everybody. As usual, you are wrong. Gluten is a combination of proteins found
in grains like wheat, barley and rye. Gluten makes dough sticky and gives pasta
its chewiness. Now, gluten is not usually harmful. But people having a digestive disorder called
celiac disease should not consume gluten. But why? When people having celiac disease eat gluten,
it triggers an autoimmune response. In this response, the immune cells attack
our own body tissues. Damaging the villi present in the small intestine. Thus, causing inflammation, diarrhea, fatigue,
etc. In addition to this, damaged villi will not
be able to absorb the required nutrients. Thus, causing weight loss, iron deficiency,
etc. Thus, people suffering from celiac disease. As well as those having gluten related allergies
should preferably have a gluten free diet. Why are sunsets red? Because sunsets are romantic. No. It is basically because of scattering of light
in the atmosphere. Our atmosphere is primarily composed of tiny
nitrogen and oxygen particles. Now usually, when sunlight comprising of seven
colors passes through the atmosphere. It hits the nitrogen and oxygen particles. These particles scatter blue and violet light
more. As compared to red, orange and other colored
lights. Hence, mostly bluish light enters our eyes,
thus making the sky to usually appear blue. However, during sunset, the sunlight must
pass through a greater distance. In the earth’s atmosphere, causing it to pass
through more particles. As a result, most of the blue and violet light
get scattered before they reach our eyes. Due to this, the less scattered light like
red or orange reaches our eyes. Making the sunset appear red. Are Einstein’s gravitational waves real? No. They are waves created by Titanic. As always, you are wrong. Gravity is the attractive force with which
two objects pull each other. However, Albert Einstein imagined gravity
as well as space and time a little differently. His theory of general relativity unified two
separate entities space and time. Into a single entity called spacetime. Spacetime can be considered as the fabric
of universe. Now, just like a heavy ball creates a curve
or distorts the trampoline. Mass of an object creates a curve in spacetime,
that is, in the fabric of universe. According to Einstein, this curve is gravity. This trampoline is amazing. First listen. Just like our hands create ripples in water,
moving objects create ripples in spacetime. These ripples are termed as gravitational
waves. Gravitational waves were directly observed
for the first time on September 14, 2015. By Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory
in the US. Why do we love chocolates? Chocolate is one of the most craved foods
in the world. It just melts in our mouth and tastes so good
that. Many of us are ready to eat them at any given
time. Now, one of the reasons why we love chocolates
is because. They contain a substance called anandamide. In Sanskrit, ‘Ananda’ means ‘bliss’. Now, when we eat chocolates, anandamide present
in them. Binds to special receptors in the brain. Giving us bliss and joy, thus making us love
chocolates. Some chocolates also contain substances like
theobromine. It is thought that this theobromine makes
our brain produce anandamide by itself. Making sure that we feel blissful after eating
chocolates. In addition to this, most types of chocolates
contain sugar to make them taste sweet. Sugar activates the reward system in the brain. Due to which neurotransmitters like dopamine
are released. Dopamine gives us pleasure and makes us feel
good. As it makes us feel good, we tend to eat more
chocolates to get the same feeling. And thus, we get addicted to chocolates. Moreover, whether it is milk chocolate, white
chocolate or dark chocolate. There are numerous varieties to choose from. Also, there are dry fruits like raisins, almonds,
cashew nuts, etc. which we generally like. When these dry fruits are added to chocolates,
the desire to eat chocolates increases. Also, according to a study. It is observed
that salt suppresses bitterness and increases sweetness. Hence, while preparing desserts like chocolate
cakes, cookies, brownies, etc. A little salt is added to them, making the
desserts more inviting and tempting. Thus, we easily get attracted towards them. How tall can we grow? I can grow as big as the Eiffel Tower. Stop bluffing. Height is determined by a number of factors. One of them is our genes. We inherit our genes from our parents. Hence, these genes will make us grow approximately
as tall as our parents. In addition to this, factors like nutrition,
physical health, hormones, etc. Also affect our height. Now, if we grow taller than what we are at
present. Then we will not be able to support our body’s
structure efficiently. For this, we would require much larger bones. Or they need to be made of much stronger material. In addition to this, if we were taller, the
amount of blood in our body would be more. Thus, making it hard for the heart to pump
so much blood. Besides this, the earth’s gravity constantly
pulls us down. As a result, it prevents us from getting taller.

Jack’s Insects Tour

Jack’s Insects Tour


Jack’s Insects is a living science book
that Charlotte Mason used in her schools. It’s a story about Jack, who is interested
in bugs. On his birthday he gets a new insect book, and he and his sister Maggie end up
falling asleep near the book. They wake up to find themselves inside the book, interacting
with the insects. Your students will learn right along with
Jack and Maggie as they question a butterfly, narrate to a spider, go underground with a
cicada, anger a wasp, attend a katydid concert, hear a candle fly’s court case, and sail
with a raft-spider (to name just a few of their adventures). These insects are quite the characters! And
I love the author’s clever plays on words. Charlotte’s students enjoyed this book in
grades 4-6, reading through it in small portions spread throughout several months. You can do the same. And we have a companion
notebook to help you. Jack’s Insects Narration and Nature Study Notebook walks you through
the story with narration prompts and extra information on the various insects you will
meet. Pages in the back give you a place to record the insects you meet face to face during
the year and lots of space to draw them. Pair Jack’s Insects with its Narration and
Nature Study Notebook for a full year of enjoyable living science for your fourth through sixth
graders.

Let’s Learn Insect Names  with Educational Toys

Let’s Learn Insect Names with Educational Toys


Welcome to Racetoytime! Today we’re going to adventure with some bugs I wonder where they are? Wow! That’s cool! Here are some Monarch butterflies. This is the first stage of the Monarch butterflies life cycle They’re eating some milkweed. Monarch butterflies eat milkweed even though it’s poisonous to us it’s not for them When they get caught in a spider web they won’t eat the Monarch butterfly because they want to live Let’s get a close up Scooby found a caterpillar. Cool! Caterpillars are the second stage of the Monarch butterfly or any butterfly This is a juvenile Monarch butterfly Now let’s go see something else Wow, that was some tall grass. And also, so that reminds me When walking in tall grass watch out for snakes. Oh, no! This Chrysalis must have fallen off of a tree This is the third cycle of a Monarch butterfly Let’s go put it back up in a tree Hi, Mr. Butterfly! Would you mind if I put this cocoon here? Cool! A butterfly! The wings are really delicate. So if you grab them by the wings the little flakes that hold up the wings will fall off and the wings will fall off And what stage life cycle is that? The last stage How cool and beautiful! Cool! A fly! Flies eat manure. We don’t eat it, though. They eat dog manure, cow manure, any manure that’s on the ground Flies also eat at your picnic. They’re annoying. That’s why you want to swat them As I journeyed through the wild I came across many obstacles After walking for miles and miles my feet became tired and my body became heavy But those bugs weren’t going to find themselves Finally after countless attempts to reach the peak of this huge mountain my small feet gripped the dirt and I pulled myself up Woohoo! Cool, a cockroach! You probably know what this is because you usually see these inside your house Cockroaches they are like recyclers. Cockroaches can withstand a nuclear explosions and cockroaches can even fly Okay, let’s go look for something else