What If a Bug Gets Stuck In Your Ear?


Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin. So I was strolling through Reddit the other
day and ended up finding this story about someone who had a rock stuck in their ear
for over a decade! They put a rock in their ear when they were
9 years old and didn’t get rid of it until they pulled it out themselves at the age of
22… 13 years later! According to them, the lasting effects of
the ordeal are that they can’t really swim underwater, have more frequent headaches,
and have balance issues. It’s pretty wild, right? As soon as I saw this, I needed to explain
the science behind it. So, what happens if a rock gets stuck in your
ear? Well first off, if I were you, I’d be happy
that what was stuck in my ear wasn’t something more… creepy and crawly. That’s because it’s not just rocks and
similar objects that get stuck in people’s ears — insects like cockroaches and moths
have found temporary homes in people’s hearing bits. Sorry for saying hearing bits. Having something like a rock or a piece of
candy stuck in your ear is actually pretty common when dealing with babies and young
children — you know, cause their natural scientists, testing theories by putting things
everywhere and touching everything.—, but insects can make their way into anyone’s
ear as long as they have a path in. Alright, bring out the flamethrower! Thank you! I’m not dealing with this image anymore. No matter what you have stuck in your ear,
it’s important that you try and get it out as quickly as possible, while making sure
to not make matters worse. We’ll get more into that in a second. Not only can having something stuck in your
ear be painful in the short term, but it can also be pretty dangerous. If the situation persists, it can potentially
cause hearing loss, bleeding, infection, and even damage to your eardrum. Your ear canal is very sensitive and you can
easily make matters worse if you end up pushing the object in deeper, so please don’t go rooting
around trying to get the foreign object out with a cotton swab or some sort of sharp object Instead, Mayo Clinic advises that you follow
safer steps to try and solve the problem. First off, try moving your head around and
seeing if gravity can solve the problem for you. If that doesn’t work, and you can easily
see the object and think that you can remove it easily, you can VERY CAREFULLY try to get
it out with some tweezers. You can also try washing it out with a little
warm water. If you’re dealing with an insect, a tiny
bit of warm, not hot, oil can do the trick. Refrain from these methods if you have ear
tubes or if your eardrum is perforated. If these methods don’t work or you can’t
get all of it out, you should see a doctor immediately, especially if you’re having
pain or other discomforts. According to some case studies that came out
around 10 years ago, while the majority of ear blockages can be safely removed without
the help of a specialist, complex cases require the work of an ear nose and throat doctor,
Otherwise known as an otolaryngologist, if you wanna sound fancy. This is because tough cases can be associated
with significant rates of morbidity, rarely including tympanic membrane and ossicular
damage, hearing loss, vertigo, and even facial nerve damage. The factors that lead to these complex cases? Spherical objects, foreign bodies that touch
the tympanic membrane, and things that have been stuck in your ear for more than 24 hours. So naturally, if you had a rock there for
13 years, you’re really just increasing your risk all around. I’m sorry that this happened to you AurumJo. I’ll link to your post so you can see your
story. It’s really super interesting. Let me know in the comment section below if
there are any other cases you’d like me to explore. Curious to know what it’s like to be deaf? Deafness is not a one size fits all. Some people might be able to hear pitched
tones, while others might be able to hear deeper tones. Some may not be able to hear anything at all. As always, my name is Blocko, this has been
life noggin, please don’t put rocks in your ear, and keep on thinking!

How to film insects on the cheap

How to film insects on the cheap


today I’m going to show you how to film
insects and other small things on the cheap. the first thing you will need is a toy
microscope so I have one here and what you want to do is basically smash it up
with a hammer and you want the lens. hopefully the lens will be plastic if
it’s a toy microscope because if its glass, you’ll have smashed it up. so you take the
plastic lens from here. here’s one I made earlier. you can see it’s actually quite
powerful. and then the next thing you need– blu-tack. you make a ring of it
around the edge like that, and actually as long as you don’t
obstruct the optical axis, it doesn’t matter too much if you get a bit of it
in the…on the actual lens itself rather than just round the edge. now next
take your phone, stick it on like so and then go onto your camera like so. I can now magnify anything and
you basically just move your phone back and forth as if it’s a magnifying glass
because that’s exactly what it is: a magnifying glass. and as you can see, I can now do that. that the next thing you want to do is either turn on your flash or your
torch like that. get something to magnify for example, this Metacanthina
trilobite, and look at that. you just… so that’s all there is to it. all you do:
take a toy microscope, smash it up, take out the lens, stick it on your phone with
some blue tack, and away you go!

Insect Exoskeleton: Structure and Molting

Insect Exoskeleton: Structure and Molting


In most insects, the integument forms a rigid
exoskeleton that surrounds the outer surface of the animal. The exoskeleton serves a variety of functions. It gives the insect structure,
prevents chemical and mechanical damage, protects against invasion by parasites and
infection by microorganisms, inhibits water loss
and serves as the attachment point of muscles for locomotion. It is also forms the trachea of the respiratory
system, forms a lining for the foregut and hindgut regions of the digestive system and forms
the wings in adult insects. This cut-away view shows that the integument
consists of a series of layers. The integument is separated from the hemolymph
by the basement membrane – a connective tissue layer comprised of glycoaminoglycans
and proteins similar to collagen. The epidermal cells are the living part of
the integument. Epidermal cells form a monolayer below the
cuticle, and they secrete the overlying structural layers, with the exception of the cement layer
which is a product of the dermal glands. Above the epidermal cells is the procuticle,
a layer of protein intermixed with chitin. Chitin is a complex polysaccharide comprised
of mainly N-acetylglucosamine subunits mixed with some glucosamine, and linked in chemically
resistant beta-1,4 bonds similar to the inert beta- glucose of cellulose. Chitin gives the cuticle strength and stability
and aids in water retention. The insoluble chitin chains pack closely together
to form microfibers of 15-30 chains lying parallel to each other and surrounded by protein. The chitin-protein chains are deposited in
the endocuticle as layers throughout the intermolt period. Pore canals are minute tubular channels that
extend from the epidermal cells through the procuticle and end below the epicuticle. The pore canals may be formed by cytoplasmic
extensions of the epidermal cells as the procuticle is formed following a molt. Pore canals may provide an avenue for the
transport of chemicals through the cuticle and probably play a role in transporting the
chemicals that comprise the structural parts of the cuticle. The chemicals may diffuse laterally from the
canal to form the procuticle at the time of molting. After the cuticle forms, the cytoplasmic extensions
retract and the remaining channel becomes the pore canal. After the molt, the procuticle differentiates
into the endocuticle and the exocuticle. The thick, inner portion of the cuticle is
termed the endocuticle. It is usually the thickest layer of the cuticle
and is soft and flexible. Endocuticle is deposited throughout the time
between molts. Above the endocuticle is the exocuticle. The exocuticle is the layer that gives the
cuticle its hardness and rigidity. Exocuticle becomes hard and rigid because
it undergoes sclerotization or tanning. Sclerotization is the cross-linking of proteins
by quinones derived from polyphenols. Sclerotization makes the exocuticle hard,
strong and insoluble so it is resistant to chemicals and mechanical damage and has low
water permeability. Sclerotization differentiates the original
procuticle into the endo- and exocuticles. Above the exocuticle is the epicuticle. The epicuticle is thin and consists of four
layers: Cuticulin is the innermost epicuticle layer,
and is composed of sclerotized proteins and lipids. Some layers of the cuticle may be absent in
regions of the body of some insect species, but the cuticulin layer is always present. A polyphenol layer is sometimes present above
the cuticulin layer that may serve as a source for the phenols used in tanning,
A wax layer protects the insect from water loss
Pore canals may transport wax to the epicuticle, and wax channels at the ends of the
pore canals deposit the wax onto the inner epicuticle. The wax consists of an inner monolayer of
organized wax molecules and an outer “bloom” layer of randomly mixed fatty acids and fatty
alcohols. Because insects are small animals, they have
a large surface area relative to their volume which means they have a potential for serious
water loss through the cuticle, and the wax serves to suppress cuticle transpiration. The outermost cement layer is a product of
the dermal glands and is comprised of lipids and tanned proteins. The cement layer is thought to protect the
wax layer from abrasion, but it is variable and may not always be present. The insect exoskeleton is an effective integument,
but, like a suit of armor, it restricts the size that insects can attain, and its rigidity
prevents growth except by replacing the existing exoskeleton with a new, larger one by molting. Let us see how an insect is able to molt to
remove an exoskeleton that has become too small, and replace it with a new one that
allows for growth. The molting process begins when cuticular
epidermal cells are stimulated by exposure to 20-hydroxyecdysone – the insect molting
hormone. The hormone enters the epidermal cells where
it stimulates genes related to molting and the formation of new cuticle. The activated epidermal cells undergo mitosis
or grow by cellular enlargement. This is the period of growth to form a new, larger
cuticle for the next instar. The existing structural cuticle separates
from the epidermal cells. This is termed apolysis. The ecdysial space between the endocuticle
and the epidermal cells is filled with a gel that contains inactive chitinase and protease
enzymes. A new outer epicuticle layer of cuticulin
is secreted. This new cuticulin layer protects the epidermal
cells and newly forming cuticle from digestion by the enzymes in the molting gel, which is
then activated and becomes fluid. The chitinase and protease enzymes of the
molting fluid begin to digest the old endocuticle As much as 90% of the chitin and protein breakdown products from the old endocuticle are re-used by the epidermal cells to form
a new procuticle. Digestion of the endocuticle continues until
it reaches the old exocuticle The old exocuticle layer is resistant to enzyme
action since it is sclerotized. The remaining molting fluid is re-absorbed. The wax layer and polyphenol layer of the
new cuticle are deposited by the epidermal cells. Just before the molt the cement layer is released
by the dermal glands Note that the section of old cuticle is smaller
than the present region from which it came. This is the result of the epidermal cell growth
in the region from which the old cuticle was derived. Molting, which is properly called ecdysis,
occurs when the old exocuticle and epicuticle are sloughed off. The shed cuticle is called the exuvium. A hormone called bursicon is released that
stimulates the new procuticle layer that was present at the time of the molt to undertake
sclerotization by polyphenols and be converted to the new exocuticle. Once sclerotization is completed, no further
sclerotization occurs during the remainder of the instar. During the time between the molts, new endocuticle
is deposited continuously. And the cycle starts over at the next molt.

Bed Bugs:  Facts & Prevention

Bed Bugs: Facts & Prevention


As beds are being stripped, the linens and
pillowcases, used by guests, may have small blood stains that look
like small reddish-brown spots. Check the mattress by closely inspecting
the seams for brown spots that could be bug feces, shed skin,
or actual bed bugs. that could be bug feces, shed skin,
or actual bed bugs. Bed bugs can hide in the smallest
spaces between headboards and walls, check headboards thoroughly. Also, be sure to check underneath the bed skirting, Also, be sure to check underneath the bed skirting, especially in pleated seams and
the corners of the headboard. Check furniture seams, drapery, molding, Check furniture seams, drapery, molding, and areas where wallpaper may be loose. Also, check behind
picture frames and baseboards, Also, check behind
picture frames and baseboards, especially those located near beds. A flashlight can help housekeepers check
for brown spots in cracks and crevices, Using a flashlight to look for signs of
infestation. Early detection is the key to preventing
an infestation and housekeeping personnel are the first
line of defense.

8. Insect reproductive systems

8. Insect reproductive systems


Most insects reproduce sexually and lay
many eggs. The female reproductive system consists of paired ovaries made up of separate tubules called ovarioles. Ovarioles are divided into chambers
called follicles. Each follicle contains an oocyte that is becoming mature by depositing yolk. Mature oocytes are present in the basal follicle. Mature oocytes are chorionated in the
follicle then passed into the lateral oviducts to the common oviduct. Sperm are released from the spermatheca
to fertilize the egg as it passes through the common oviduct for oviposition. Accessory gland secretions assist egg-laying. These products may be
venoms as in the case of wasps or cement to fix the egg to the oviposition site. In males, testes also consist of
follicles where the sperm are matured as they progress from the tip to the base
of the follicle. Mature sperm pass from the follicle to the vas deferens into
the seminal vesicle. Male accessory glands produce products that mix with
the sperm to protect and preserve the sperm. Some insect species produce a
spermatophore that encloses the sperm and is passed to the female during
mating. Other insects transfer sperm without a spermatophore. Accessory gland
secretions may prevent the mated female from mating again by forming a temporary
plug or by transferring chemicals that suppress mating behavior. Finally, the
sperm or spermatophore are passed through the ejaculatory duct during
copulation

4 DEADLY Carnivorous Plants

4 DEADLY Carnivorous Plants


Anna: They snap, they trap, they stick, and
they suck. This is the bizarre world of carnivorous plants—leafy
creatures that eat everything from insects, to crustaceans, to mammals. I’m Anna, and this is Gross Science. The vast majority of plants only require a
few things to survive: sunlight, water, air, and mineral nutrients, which they typically
get from the soil or pond water they’re growing in. These nutrients are elements like nitrogen
and phosphorus, which are building blocks for things like DNA and proteins. But most carnivorous plants live in places
without a lot of nutrients, like peat bogs. So to really thrive, they draw extra nutrition
from the bodies of unsuspecting prey. Now, carnivory has actually evolved multiple
times in plants all over the world, giving rise to some wildly diverse and morbidly beautiful
methods for catching food. So, Vanessa from BrainCraft and I bought a
few carnivorous plants! Vanessa: They’re so beautiful. Anna: They really are. Vanessa: Yeah. Anna: And I’m going to show you some of
my favorites. You ready, Vanessa? Vanessa: I’m scared and kind of excited
all at once. Anna: Me too! Ok, so first, this is the bladderwort. These guys live in watery environments, but
they have these small, empty chambers growing from their stems. When a tiny creature—like a crustacean—passes
by, it brushes against these things called trigger hairs. The hairs make the door to the chamber pop
open, and as water rushes in to fill the empty space inside, the tiny crustacean gets sucked
in, too. This entire process happens in less than a
thousandth of a second—the video you’re watching here has been slowed way down. Then the bladderwort releases digestive enzymes
into the chamber to break down the insect’s body and lap up its nutrients. After its meal, the chamber squeezes out all
the water, closes the door, and is ready to catch more prey. Vanessa: Wow. Anna: But that’s only one variety of carnivorous
plant. Other types of carnivorous plants act totally
differently. For example, the leaves of sundews are covered
in delicate, wispy hairs, each with a teeny drop of liquid at the end. Thinking the liquid is actually delicious
nectar, insects fly in to grab a tasty drink. But those dewdrops are actually sticky and
trap the bug. The wispy tentacles curl around the insect,
holding it tightly and maximizing the number of hairs it touches, which speeds up digestion. Vanessa: What I find so cool is the way sundews
operate is like a botanical version of brains and muscles . So, while they don’t have
brain cells they do have chemical signals to move which kind of acts as a brain. Anna: That’s so amazing, it’s a really
good analogy. The other really cool thing is that there
are actually some carnivorous plants that actually capture prey without moving at all. So, pitcher plants have deep basins filled
with digestive enzymes. Insects venture in looking for food, but then
they can’t get back out. There are tons of different varieties of these
plants, but in this species, called Sarracenia flava, the inside of the pitcher is slippery,
so bugs fall in and then can’t crawl up the walls. They also have downward pointing hairs at
the bottom of the pitcher that make climbing out even more difficult for the insects. And some species of pitcher plant can catch
more than just bugs. Certain tropical pitcher plants are so large
that they’ve been known to trap small rodents, like mice and rats. Vanessa: That’s scary. That’s very scary. Anna: It absolutely is. But, next is a type of plant that might be
a little bit more familiar. Vanessa: It is more familiar. Anna: This is the Venus flytrap. These plants have book-like leaves, which
emit a sweet smell that attracts insects, like flies. When a fly lands on the leaf, it brushes against
trigger hairs. Touching the hair sends a little electric
charge through the leaf. And each charge stimulates pores to open,
which allow water to move from one part of the leaf to another. The changes in water pressure make the book
snap shut in under a second. However, the plant will only close if at least
two hairs are touched in under about 20 seconds—or if the same hair is triggered twice in the
same amount of time. Then, the struggling prey needs to touch more
hairs before the flow of digestive juices begins. This keeps the plant from wasting precious
resources on a false alarm—like a floating speck of dirt or a curious human setting off
the snare for fun. Vanessa: So, when you’re talking about these
electrical charges, you’re really referring to something called action potentials. And these are signals our own brains’ neurons
use to pass on information to each other. So, we don’t tend to think about it, but
it’s kind of amazing how similar we are to plants. Anna: Yeah, we don’t tend to think about
it and that is really amazing. And Vanessa actually has a whole video about
this over on her channel, and I’ll put a link to it somewhere on this screen. Definitely go check it out. It’s so cool. Vanessa: Thank you. Anna: Anyway, these were just a few examples
of the diversity of these deadly traps. But the variety out there is really quite
extraordinary—in fact, there are over 750 individual species of carnivorous plants worldwide. And by the way, many of them are easy to find
and to care for. So if you have some of these plants at home,
let me know. I’d love to see your gruesomely beautiful
garden grow. Vanessa: This one’s really sticky. Anna: Ewww!

9. Insect flight muscles

9. Insect flight muscles


Most insect species have wings as adults and are able to fly. Unlike birds and bats, insect wings are not modified fore limbs, but are extensions of the cuticle of the meso- and meta-thoracic segments. These two thoracic segments also have prominent muscles used for generating the wingbeat Flight muscles of bats and birds attach directly to the wings, and pull the wings up and down. In insects, only dragonflies and damselflies have muscles attached directly to the wing and these muscles only produce the downstroke for the wingbeat. In all other flying insects, both the downstroke and upstroke of the wingbeat are produced in response to contractions by muscles that attach to the thoracic cuticle and not directly to the wing. The downstroke is produced by a set of dorsal, longitudinal muscles attached to phragma. Phragma are articular invaginations of the meso- and metathoracic segments. The upstroke is generated by a pair of dorso-ventral muscles attached to the top and bottom surfaces of the meso- and metathoracic segments. These indirect muscles act by undergoing rapid, antagonistic changes in tensions that produce alternating changes in the length and height of the thoracic segments. These alternating changes in the shapes of the segments cause the base of the wing to move in and out over a lateral fulcrum point that flips the wing into the upstroke and the downstroke for the wingbeat. Many insects species are able to move their wings rapidly and can fly at wing beats of 100 to 700 per second. By comparison, hummingbirds fly at approximately 50 wing beats per second. Muscles that attach directly to the base of the wing cause wing folding or may control the pitch and twisting of the wing in some species. you

This Killer Fungus Turns Flies into Zombies | Deep Look


We like to think we’re in control … that
our minds are our own. But that’s not true for this fruit fly. Its brain has been hijacked by another organism
and it’s not going to end well. It all starts when the fly is innocently walking
around, sipping on overripe fruit. It picks up an invisible fungus spore, which
bores under its skin. For a few days, everything seems normal. But inside, the fungus is growing, feeding
on the fly’s fat … and infiltrating its mind. At dusk on the fourth or fifth day, the fly
gets a little erratic, wandering around. It climbs to a high place. Scientists call this behavior “summiting.” Then it starts twitching. The fungus is in control. The fly sticks out its mouthpart and spits
out a tiny drop of sticky liquid. That glues the fly down, sealing its fate. A few minutes later, its wings shoot up. And it dies. Now that the fungus has forced the fly into
this death pose … wings out of the way … nothing can stop it. It emerges. Tiny spore launchers burst out of the fly’s
skin. Hundreds of spores shoot out at high speed,
catching a breeze if the fly climbed high enough. They’re the next generation of killer fungus. It continues for hours, spores flying out. These flies are in the wrong place at the
wrong time. And if spores land on a wing, which they can’t
bore into, they shoot out a secondary spore to increase their chances of spreading. So how does a fungus take control of a brain? At Harvard, Carolyn Elya is trying to understand
that. She thinks the fungus secretes chemicals to
manipulate the fly’s neurons, maybe stimulating the ones that make flies climb. But don’t worry: The fungus can’t hurt
humans. Scientists have tried to harness its power
for our benefit, to kill flies in our kitchens and farms. They haven’t had any luck though. The deadly spores are actually pretty fragile
and short-lived. It turns out, this lethal puppet master does
only what it needs to for its *own* survival. Hi, it’s Lauren again. If you love Deep Look, why not help us grow
on Patreon? We’re raising funds to go on a filming expedition
to Oaxaca, Mexico. And for a limited time, we’re sweetening the
deal with a special gift. Link is in the description. And if you’re craving more spooky videos,
here’s a playlist of our scariest episodes. Don’t watch ‘em after midnight. See you soon.

6. Insect circulatory system

6. Insect circulatory system


The roles of the circulatory system are
to transport essential metabolites from the fat body to the cells, carry waste
to the excretory system and provide immunity to harmful organisms. Insects have a simple open circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of a dorsal vessel running the length of the body. The dorsal vessel is divided into a posterior heart that contains intake valves called ostia and an anterior aorta The open space of the body is called the
hemocoel. The hemocoel is filled with insect blood called hemolymph. Since insect hemolymph does not transport oxygen, it does not contain hemoglobin and, therefore, lacks the red color that is characteristic of blood from
vertebrate animals. Hemolymph is pumped forward by the heart through the aorta, into the head and flows back through the body in the open hemocoel. Hemolymph re-enters the posterior heart through the ostial valves, and the cycle repeats. The hemocoel is always full of hemolymph, and the heart ensures it’s mixing. Auxilary, pulsatile hearts at the base of the antenna legs and wings pump hemolymph into those appendages.

5. Insect endocrine system

5. Insect endocrine system


Like other animals, insects possess an
array of hormones that regulate their diverse physiological and biochemical
processes, Hormonal sources in insects include the
neuroendocrine system, the corpora allata, the prothoracic glands, and epitracheal glands. Other endocrine cells are also found in the gut and ovaries. The neuroendocrine system consists of
nerve cells that secrete hormones. Neurosecretory cells are located mainly
in the brain, the ventral nerve cord, and the corpora cardiaca. They are also
found in association with other nervous tissues located throughout the body. Neurohormones are the master regulators
and control most physiological and metabolic processes including regulating
secretion of the hormones that control molting, metamorphosis and reproduction. Neurohormones also regulate the synthesis of blood lipids, carbohydrates
and proteins and control energy metabolism related to flight. And they
also control other basic physiological functions such as feeding activity and
excretion. Corpora cardiaca are major
neuroendocrine structures attached to the brain, Neurosecretory cells located
in the brain synthesize and transport neurohormones to the corpora cardiaca from which the brain hormones are stored and released. In addition, corpora cardiaca contain intrinsic neurosecretory cells that also synthesize and release neurohormones. The corpora allata are structurally
associated near the corpora cardiaca, but they are not part of the neuroendocrine system. Corpora allata synthesize and secrete juvenile hormone. Juvenile hormone prevents immature insects from undergoing metamorphosis into premature adults during molting. Juvenile hormone also stimulates egg
formation in most adult female insects. The prothoracic glands are a grape-like
cluster of cells surrounding the trachea in the first thoracic segment. These glands secrete ecdysone a hormone that stimulates the molting events necessary
for insect growth. Prothoracic glands deteriorate in adult insects because
adult insects no longer molt. Like the prothoracic glands, epitracheal glands
are groups of secretory cells associated with the trachea. They secrete hormones
that regulate molting behavior. Endocrine cells are also found in the
gut and may affect feeding activity