Watch This Bee Build Her Bee-jeweled Nest | Deep Look

Watch This Bee Build Her Bee-jeweled Nest | Deep Look


What’s this bee up to digging around in
the mud? This blue orchard bee is a mason, a builder. Her material is – you guessed it – mud. And she works alone. In fact, unlike those honeybee hives you might
think of, most of the 4,000 types of bees in North America are solitary. See how she scrapes the wet earth? She collects it with two huge pincer-like
tools on her face called mandibles. She’s gathering mud to make her nest. The nest is long and thin. In nature, she goes into places like hollow
twigs. At the University of California, Davis, she
uses a six-inch-long paper straw provided by researchers. In this nest without a straw you can see how
she builds a wall of mud. Then she gathers food from spring flowers,
but not only to feed herself. See the pretty purple pollen on the anther
of this flower? She grabs the anthers with her legs and rubs
the pollen onto hairs on her abdomen called scopa. And while she’s at it, she sips a little
nectar from the blooms. When she climbs back into her nest, she turns
the pollen and nectar into a sweet morsel next to the mud wall. On this purple ball she lays a single egg. She repeats this several times in her narrow
nest. Egg. Wall. Egg. Wall. When she’s done, she seals it all up with
more mud. A cross-section of the nest shows her incredible
craftsmanship: it looks like a piece of jewelry. Soon, the eggs hatch. The hungry larvae feed on their pollen provision,
the purple lunchbox their mom packed for them. Still in the safety of the nest, the well-fed
larva spins a cocoon. The following spring, the adult bee chews
its way out. Just like their name says, blue orchard bees
love orchards: fields of almonds and sweet cherries. And they’re really good at pollinating them:
A few hundred females can pollinate as many almonds as thousands of honeybees. And their tube nest means they’re portable. That makes it easy to distribute them to farmers. So why haven’t they taken over the fields? Well, they reproduce slowly. They only have 15 babies a year. A queen honeybee has 500 … a day. So there just aren’t that many blue orchard
bees around. But some farmers are enlisting them anyway,
hoping they can provide some relief to their struggling honeybee cousins. If you look carefully, you might just spot
a blue orchard bee foraging out in a field, helping keep fruits and nuts on our plates. Hi. It’s Laura. A special shoutout and thank you to Bill Cass
and James Tarraga, whose generous monthly support on Patreon helps make Deep Look possible. If you’d like to get in on the buzz, come
join our Deep Look community on Patreon. Click the button or link below to unlock rewards
like exclusive digital downloads, chats with the producers and cool swag. One more thing. Our partner, PBS Digital Studios, wants to
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win a sweet T-shirt. Link in the description. Thanks!

Turret Spiders Launch Sneak Attacks From Tiny Towers | Deep Look


The world is a very different place when darkness
falls. Most of us head for home … for cover. Because as the shadows creep in, they hide
things … Frightful things … What is that? That little tower? Look, there’s another one. They blend in so well. That was a California turret spider. Its lair is like the turret of a castle, rising
above the forest floor. It’s lined the inside with pearly white
silk. And coated the outside with mud, moss or leaves The turret leads down to the spider’s burrow,
that can descend six inches underground. The spider spends its days down there. As the last rays of sun die out, it rises
… to wait … motionless … Until some unsuspecting creature happens by,
like this pill bug. Every step it takes creates tiny tremors,
betraying its location. Whew! That was close. Turret spiders actually have pretty poor vision. Instead they rely on feel, bursting out in
whichever direction the vibrations seem to come from. So, sometimes they miss. They belong to group of spiders called mygalomorphs
— along with their more famous cousins: tarantulas and trap-door spiders. They pack oversized fangs that swing down
like a pair of pickaxes. They’ were hunting this way long before
spiders started building intricate aerial webs
like this orb-weaver spider. Instead, a female turret spider might live
for 16 years and never stray from her turret. She only ventures into the world for a split
second. Just long enough to drag her next victim down
to its demise. Check this out- a turret spiderling. Once it’s big enough, it’ll venture out
from their mom’s house and set out on its own. But usually not too far away. Deep Look knows what you like… more spiders! Do black widows really deserve their bad rap? And why is this spider … dancing? Leap out and hit that subscribe button and
that little notification bell – so you never miss an episode of Deep Look. See you next time.

Turns Out, Spiders Use Electricity to Fly

Turns Out, Spiders Use Electricity to Fly


[♩INTRO] So you’re walking along, minding your own
business, when you notice something out of the corner
of your eye and look up. That’s when you see thousands upon thousands
of spiders on long silk balloons falling from the sky
all at once. You’ve just witnessed one of the most incredible,and
terrifying, natural phenomena on the planet: spider rains. For a long time, scientists assumed that,
like kites, ballooning spiders can fly because their silken
threads generate enough lift to ride currents of air. But according to a study published in Current
Biology this week by researchers at the University of Bristol
in the UK, they don’t actually need a breeze at all. Turns out, spiders can fly using the electricity
in our atmosphere. Spider ballooning was first documented by
an English naturalist in the 17th century, and ever since, scientists
have been trying to figure out exactly what they’re
doing and why they’re doing it. A lot of the time, the ballooners are baby
spiders looking for a place of their own to settle
down. They can reach altitudes of almost 5 kilometers and fly for hundreds of kilometers. Talk about putting some space between you
and your parents. But instead of loading up their Volvos and
moving to Montana, to take off, the spiders find somewhere high
up, then stand tall, raise their rears, and emit thin, meter-long silk threads in
the shape of a sail. When they let go, they’re pulled into the
air with surprising speed, even on calm days. And that speed is one of the things that has
never quite added up with the idea that these spiders ride the
wind. Biologists have seen spiders ballooning when
winds are almost imperceptible, or even when it’s raining. And the wind hypothesis doesn’t explain
how the spiders eject their silk so forcefully without the help of their legs, or how the strands maintain a fan-like shape
without tangling. So the team from the University of Bristol
decided to test something no one else had: whether the spiders can ride
electricity. The idea that electrostatic forces provide
the necessary lift has been around for centuries, but no one
ever really looked at it. Then, in 2013, a physicist from the University
of Hawaii worked out some of the theoretical details. He released his paper as a preprint that was
never officially published, but the authors of the new study thought it
was worth investigating. The whole thing hinges around the fact that
no matter what the weather is, there’s a difference in electric charge between the ground and the sky that creates
an electric field. So if the spiders’ silk picked up some static
charge, those threads could be pushed by the electric
field. Since like charges repel one another, the
charge of the ground, or whatever the spider is standing on, would
propel the silk out and up. And enough pushing could fling the spider
into the sky. But since the 2013 paper was purely theoretical, the new study’s authors decided to put it
to the test. They took ballooning spiders and placed them
on a small cardboard pedestal in a special chamber designed to have no electric
field or air movement. Then they induced electric fields of different
magnitudes, and watched what the spiders did. Even in the complete absence of wind, the
spiders began to get into that rump-raising position that
sets them up for ballooning. And with a strong enough field, they started
to spin silk, and even flew. Once airborne, the researchers could make
the spiders rise or fall just by turning the electric field on or off. An earlier study, published last month in
PLOS Biology, noted that these spiders seem to test the
wind with their legs before they start to spin their silk sails. And this week’s study found that the hairs
on the spiders’ legs moved in response to changes in electric fields,
too. But those hair movements were different from
the way they moved in response to wind, which means the spiders
might be feeling around for both of those things. Riding electricity could explain some of the
weirder aspects of their flight like how they take off on seemingly windless
days or in the rain. But most of the time, air isn’t completely
still, so the spiders probably use a combination
of electricity and wind to fly. There are still some parts of this left to
figure out, though like how the spiders’ silk becomes charged
in the first place, or whether they can control their flight to
decide where to land. Learning more about how spiders fly can help
biologists predict when they’re going to do it, and get a better understanding of their ecological
needs. And it might also make it easier to predict
those rare episodes of spider rain. Because I don’t know about you, but if ten
thousand spiders are going to land in my neighborhood, I’d would prefer to know that that’s going
to happen before it happens. Thanks for watching SciShow News. If you want to share your love of SciShow
with the world, we finally have created new merch. New shirts, stickers, and mugs. Check them out at DFTBA.com/SciShow. And thank you! [♩OUTRO]

Mating frenzies, sperm hoards, and brood raids: the life of a fire ant queen – Walter R. Tschinkel


It’s June, just after a heavy rainfall, and the sky is filling with creatures
we wouldn’t normally expect to find there. At first glance,
this might be a disturbing sight. But for the lucky males and females
of Solenopsis invicta, otherwise known as fire ants,
it’s a day of romance. This is the nuptial flight, when thousands of reproduction-capable
male and female ants, called alates,
take wing for the first and last time. But even for successful males
who manage to avoid winged predators, this mating frenzy will prove lethal. And for a successfully mated female,
her work is only beginning. Having secured a lifetime supply of sperm
from her departed mate, our new queen must now single-handedly
start an entire colony. Descending to the ground, she searches for a suitable spot
to build her nest. Ideally, she can find somewhere
with loose, easy-to-dig soil— like farmland
already disturbed by human activity. Once she finds the perfect spot,
she breaks off her wings— creating the stubs
that establish her royal status. Then, she starts digging
a descending tunnel ending in a chamber. Here the queen begins laying her eggs,
about ten per day, and the first larvae hatch within a week. Over the next three weeks, the new queen relies on a separate batch
of unfertilized eggs to nourish both herself and her brood, losing half her body weight
in the process. Thankfully, after about 20 days, these larvae grow
into the first generation of workers, ready to forage for food
and sustain their shrunken queen. Her daughters
will have to work quickly though— returning their mother
to good health is urgent. In the surrounding area, dozens of neighboring queens
are building their own ant armies. These colonies
have peacefully coexisted so far, but once workers appear, a phenomenon known as brood-raiding
begins. Workers from nests
up to several meters away begin to steal offspring
from our queen. Our colony retaliates, but new waves of raiders
from even further away overwhelm the workers. Within hours, the raiders have taken
our queen’s entire brood supply to the largest nearby nest— and the queen’s surviving daughters
abandon her. Chasing her last chance of survival, the queen follows the raiding trail
to the winning nest. She fends off other losing queens
and the defending nest’s workers, fighting her way
to the top of the brood pile. Her daughters help their mother succeed
where other queens fail— defeating the reigning monarch,
and usurping the brood pile. Eventually,
all the remaining challengers fail, until only one queen—
and one brood pile— remains. Now presiding over several hundred workers
in the neighborhood’s largest nest, our victorious queen begins
aiding her colony in its primary goal: reproduction. For the next several years,
the colony only produces sterile workers. But once their population
exceeds about 23,000, it changes course. From now on, every spring, the colony will produce
fertile alate males and females. The colony spawns these larger ants
throughout the early summer, and returns to worker production
in the fall. After heavy rainfalls,
these alates take to the skies, and spread their queen’s genes
up to a couple hundred meters downwind. But to contribute
to this annual mating frenzy, the colony must continue to thrive
as one massive super-organism. Every day, younger ants feed the queen
and tend to the brood, while older workers
forage for food and defend the nest. When intruders strike, these older warriors fend them off
using poisonous venom. After rainfalls,
the colony comes together, using the wet dirt to expand their nest. And when a disastrous flood
drowns their home, the sisters band together
into a massive living raft— carrying their queen to safety. But no matter how resilient, the life of a colony must come to an end. After about 8 years,
our queen runs out of sperm and can no longer replace dying workers. The nest’s population dwindles,
and eventually, they’re taken over
by a neighboring colony. Our queen’s reign is over,
but her genetic legacy lives on.

That’s Probably Not a Spider Bite


[INTRO ♪] Let’s say you wake up one morning and you have a big, swollen, oozing thing on your arm or leg. Sounds horrible, I know, but bear with me. Your friend says it’s a spider bite. Dr. Google says a spider bite. And then your actual doctor also says it’s a spider bite. So cased closed, then—it’s a spider bite,
right? Well, maybe not. Dare I say probably not, because the truth is, spiders don’t go out of their way to bite people— and their venoms don’t usually cause large, open wounds. First off, if you were bitten, you’d probably
see the spider that bit you. Spiders might seem creepy, but they don’t
engage in stealth attacks against people. They really have no desire to bite a person that isn’t threatening them in some way. See, they spend a lot of energy producing their venom, which they need for hunting and to protect themselves. So they’re not going to waste it by attacking some gigantic creature they clearly cannot eat. On rare occasions, spiders will venture onto mattresses, so it’s possible to roll over one while sleeping— which is pretty much the only time you wouldn’t know that a spider was involved. But even if you did manage to scare a spider into biting you, most spider venoms are pretty harmless to humans. Some spider venoms can cause pain or itchy bumps, but only about 25 species are known to cause illness in humans. And the type of illness depends on the spider. Widow spiders, for example—a group which includes North America’s black widows and the Australian redback spider—have potent neurotoxins in their venoms. That’s why the bite of a widow spider can cause numbness, agitation, and painful muscle contractions. But it doesn’t cause necrosis, or the death
of living tissue—so no open wounds. And that’s an important distinction because
only certain spiders can cause that. Most well-known are the recluse spiders, which are common in the southern United States and South America but can be found in other parts of the world. The closely-related six-eyed spiders, which live in parts of Southern Africa, Central America, and South America, can also cause necrosis. What these spiders have in common is that their venom contains the toxin sphingomyelinase D which attacks cell membranes, killing cells. As cells die, a blackened lesion can form. But it’s important to note that this doesn’t
always happen. Serious tissue death is thought to occur in less than 10 percent of cases. Most of the time, people only experience minor symptoms like redness and swelling. And that’s likely because so little venom
is injected with each bite. Still, somehow, that small percentage of bad cases has lead to some serious paranoia about recluse spiders. Some people seem to think every spider they see is a brown recluse, the most notorious member of the group, even though that’s physically impossible. Brown recluse spiders are endemic to the southern United States—which means they’re naturally found nowhere else on Earth. So like for me here in Montana, or for anyone who’s not in the southern United States? We don’t have them. And even if you do live in a place that has brown recluses, it might comfort you to know that they’re called “recluses” for a reason. They’re less aggressive than other spiders, and pretty much only bite when they’re trapped. That doesn’t stop “brown recluse bite” from being a frequent diagnosis, even in places where they don’t live. And that’s probably because the death of skin tissue happens for all sorts of reasons, so it can be difficult to figure out exactly what caused it. If a doctor can’t find the cause of a wound, they might be tempted to call it a spider bite because patients like to have a diagnosis. And if their patient has already self-diagnosed something as a spider bite, they might see no reason to disagree. But that’s a potentially deadly mistake. In all, there are about 40 different medical
conditions that have been misdiagnosed as recluse bites, including herpes, Lyme disease, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, and even skin cancer. And if a person doesn’t get swift, appropriate treatment for some of those things, they can become life-threatening. Fortunately, there is a convenient mnemonic device that can tell you and your doctor whether your wound is likely a recluse bite: you just have to look for signs it’s NOT a RECLUSE. If there are Numerous lesions, if the Occurrence was in an area that doesn’t have recluse spiders, or if the Timing was between November and March, when the spiders aren’t active, it’s unlikely to be a recluse. Recluse bites also don’t have Red centers, they’re not Elevated, and they’re not Chronic— that is, they don’t persist for more than three months. They’re also not Large—typically, less
than 10 centimeters wide. And finally, recluse bites don’t Ulcerate early, meaning they don’t crust over within the first week; they don’t Swell; and they’re not Exudative—they don’t leak pus or other fluids. Though, as I noted earlier, a doctor probably can figure out if a bite was from a spider or not by simply asking if the person saw a spider bite them. So if you do have a suspicious skin lesion,
don’t automatically blame a spider for it. Most spiders can’t cause anything more than a small, annoying bump, and those that can aren’t found everywhere. So odds are you’re blaming an innocent arachnid. And speaking of innocent arachnids: we also make a podcast here at SciShow, and spiders love podcasts. It’s a scientific fact! Or is it? Every week on our lightly competitive podcast SciShow Tangents, we have a segment called Truth or Fail where one of presents three “science facts,” and only one of them is real and the rest of us on the podcast have to try to figure out which one it is. We also write and recite epic science poems and end every episode with a fact about butts. In other words, it’s quite a bit of fun,
and it’s quite a bit of science. So if you like those things, give it a listen! You can find it on the podcast platform of
your choice by searching for SciShow Tangents. And our most recent episode was all about spiders, which is why I’m talking about it right now. [OUTRO ♪]

Are the Bees Okay Now?

Are the Bees Okay Now?


[♩INTRO] About 10 years ago, the news was packed with reports about something called colony collapse disorder — a mysterious phenomenon that involved the disappearance of enormous numbers of bees. This disorder, also called CCD, had both scientists and economists worried. After all, without bees, the agricultural
industry would be in serious trouble. In a single year, honeybees pollinate more
than 12 billion dollars of crops in the United States alone. Then, the news stopped talking about it. And these days, we don’t hear as much about CCD. So what gives? Are bees safe now? Well, sort of. And also, not really. The answer is complicated. Even though it’s often mischaracterized, CCD doesn’t just refer to the death of a
hive. Instead, it’s a specific phenomenon where
the majority of worker bees mysteriously disappear, leaving behind the queen, the young, and food reserves. When it strikes, there aren’t many dead
bees in or near the hive. The workers are just gone, which is one reason it’s been so difficult to figure out what causes it. CCD was first identified as a major problem around the winter of 2006, and in 2008, it accounted for about 60% of all hives lost, which equaled hundreds of thousands of colonies. Luckily, cases have declined since then. In 2013, CCD accounted for only 31% of hive losses, and only about 20% in the first quarter of
2018. But it’s not like we found some way to cure it. Even today, scientists still don’t know
exactly what causes colony collapse disorder. Although factors like disease, pesticide exposure, and poor nutrition all seem to contribute
to it, none of these factors seem to have changed dramatically before or during the peak of the epidemic. So CCD just seems to have declined. Which is great in some ways, but is also kind of a problem. Because if we don’t know what caused or
stopped it, we’re not exactly prepared for another huge outbreak. Also, even though cases of CCD have been decreasing, it’s not like the bees are thriving. From April 2017 to April 2018, it’s estimated that 40% of honey bee colonies in the U.S. were lost. And while some of this loss is normal, the
reality is, these insects still face a lot of threats. For example, varroa mites weaken them, shortening their life spans and reducing the chances that worker bees will make it back to the hive
after foraging. The mites also help spread various bee viruses, which can kill larvae, caused deformed wings, and paralyze and kill adult bees. Bees also still suffer from pesticide exposure and lack of foraging habitat. The good news is, unlike with colony collapse disorder, we do know ways to solve these problems, and researchers and policy-makers across the world are working on it. Scientists are trying to develop treatments for viruses and mites, the European Union has expanded bans on certain pesticides, and people are working to re-establish bee habitats by planting wildflowers. Without bees, food production would fall dramatically, so it’s in our best interests to do everything we can to protect them. And maybe someday, we’ll find a way to get rid of colony collapse disorder for good, too. Thanks for asking, and thanks to our awesome patrons on Patreon for helping us make this episode! You’re the bee’s knees, and we couldn’t do it without you. If you’d like to help us keep exploring
the universe and making free science videos, you can go to patreon.com/scishow. [♩OUTRO]

European Paper Wasp | From the Ground Up

European Paper Wasp | From the Ground Up


The eaves of buildings like high tunnels and
outbuildings are a great place for paper wasps to build their nest. And we now have a new pest in the U.S. It’s been in the U.S. for a couple of decades,
but it’s just identified in Wyoming. It’s the European Paper Wasp. The insect itself looks very much like our
paper wasps that we’re familiar with. It has a little bit more of a slender waist
on it. And the antennae on this insect are a brighter
orange color. They have good and bad characteristics in
that they will feed on and are predatory towards things like caterpillars that we don’t want
in our gardens. But they are somewhat more aggressive than
other wasps, and they may become a problem because of that. The European Paper Wasp is known for feeding
on fruit that’s still hanging on the vine. Most of our other paper wasps or Yellow Jackets
will feed on fruit that is overripe, or fruit that has fallen from the vine. And so, we may see more loses from the European
Paper Wasp in fruit production across the state. They are known to have a paper colony, or
nest, that is very similar to other paper wasps. And if you do find them and want to control
them, you’d use paper wasp, hornet, or Yellow Jacket spray that has an immediate knock-down. And use all of the safety procedures that
we’ve shared with you in other “From the Ground Up” segments. So, you’ll want to keep an eye out for the
European Paper Wasp in your small fruit or garden production. I’m Donna Hoffman with the University of
Wyoming Extension, and you’re watching “From the Ground Up.”

The Problem with Bee Venom Therapy


[♪ INTRO] Everyone knows that bee stings don’t feel
the best. And for the 1-7% of us with allergies to insect
venom, they can be deadly. But a growing number of people are choosing
to inject themselves with the toxic stuff, or even receive intentional stings, in the hopes of finding relief from
conditions like arthritis and chronic pain. It’s incredibly controversial, and risky,
but clinical studies have found some evidence backing bee venom therapy:
the medical use of bee venom. And further research into why it seems to
help could lead to breakthroughs for diseases we don’t currently have good ways to treat. The medicinal use of bees, or apitherapy,
has been around for ages. The Greek physician Hippocrates was doling
out stings as treatment as far back as 460 BCE. Then again, he also thought that if a
woman didn’t have sex with a man or give birth for a while, her uterus
would start wandering around her body and cause a bunch of health problems. So that’s not saying much. Today, apitherapy is mostly popular among
people who believe in alternative medicine. But it’s also started to get some attention
from evidence-based medicine, because clinical research has
backed some therapeutic claims. Venom is typically collected from bees
and then delivered through acupuncture. Small amounts of a diluted toxin mixture,
equivalent to one thousandth of a sting or less, are pricked right into
the skin with each needle. But some opt for a more natural route. Yes, that means live bees delivering real
stings. Either way, the venom usually comes from honey
bees, and it contains dozens of potent compounds, though a small protein called melittin is
the most abundant. Combined with the rest of the chemical cocktail,
it produces the burning pain and itching associated with stings as well as the hot, red lump
that continues to throb for hours. So it might seem weird to think that the venom
from a sting, which we typically associate with pain and swelling, might reduce things like pain and swelling. But that’s exactly what researchers have found. Bee venom seems to be most
effective for inflammatory diseases: conditions where excess inflammation
is a major part of the problem. Inflammation is one of the
body’s immune responses. It’s what causes infections or injuries
to become red, warm, and puffy. But when there’s too much, or it occurs
in response to the wrong things, you can end up with chronic problems. And weirdly enough, studies have
shown that both whole bee venom and melittin alone can reduce
inflammation from other sources. Melittin, for example, directly binds
with key molecules that activate pro-inflammatory genes, blocking
them from binding to DNA. And in some studies, this seems
to translate to results in humans. A handful of papers have shown that bee
venom therapy can help with the painful, swollen joints that characterize
arthritis, for example. A randomized controlled trial in Korea in 2003 found that the 37 patients who
received bee venom acupuncture had less stiffness and pain
in the affected joints than the 32 controls that
received saline instead. That lines up with what studies in animal
models of the condition have found. A few studies have also found that bee
venom therapy reduced chronic pain, which is often due to inflammation. Not in the short term, because
a sting is still, well, stingy. But in a study of 54 patients with chronic
lower back pain published in 2017, those treated with bee venom
acupuncture reported more improvement than those who received saline, similar results to a 2006 trial of
30 patients with shoulder pain. Some research has found that bee venom might
even help treat neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s, where inflammation in
the brain harms and eventually kills neurons. But a clinical trial of 73
patients published in early 2018 found that the symptoms of those receiving
bee venom acupuncture had improved: they had a better walking gait, postural stability, and quality of life over those
who received saline instead. It could be that the venom actually protected
their neurons by reducing the dangerous inflammation, something seen in animal models of the disease. But while all these examples are promising, many doctors aren’t ready
to embrace bee stings just yet. Because the results of individual small trials
aren’t enough to say if a treatment works. You have to look at the research as a whole. Review papers published in 2008 and 2014 analyzed the results of previous studies on bee
venom therapy for pain and arthritis, respectively. And both concluded that when
you look at all the studies on this, there’s not enough evidence
to say if venom is effective because the trials to date were
too small or had other flaws. Plus, attempts to use venom for other
conditions have not had such great results. For example, a 2005 trial in 26
patients with multiple sclerosis, a disease where chronic inflammation
slowly causes nerve damage, found that bee venom did nothing
for the patients that received it. And while the evidence in support of bee
venom therapy remains somewhat shaky, its dangers are well established. There are dozens of side effects that come
along with injecting people with an insect venom, ranging from, oh I don’t know, pain,
and itching, to deadly allergic reactions. In a 2015 review and
meta-analysis of dozens of studies, researchers found that bee venom therapy
substantially increased the risk of a bad reaction to treatment,
which ranged from itching to death. In fact, of the 397 patients that received
bee venom across 20 clinical trials, 148 of them had adverse reactions. And these were patients who had initially
tested negative for venom allergies. So, even if bee venom therapy does work, the
benefits might not outweigh the risks. To make it a useful treatment, researchers
would need to figure out how to harness the therapeutic potential of venom
while reducing those risks. Part of the problem is that most
studies use whole bee venom and all of its allergy-inducing components when it’s likely only some or even one
compound is needed for the desired effect. In the meantime, the results of a few
small studies probably aren’t enough to justify jabbing venom-spiked
needles into your body. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow! And if you want to learn
more about insect venom, you might like our episode on 8
of the most painful stinging insects. [♪ OUTRO]

Embracing Language Diversity in Your Classroom

Embracing Language Diversity in Your Classroom


Hello everybody! Did you know that many
teachers think that having bilingual or multilingual classrooms represent
a problem or a big challenge? My name is Nair Carrera and I’m the coordinator of the embracing language diversity course
on the Teacher Academy. In this course you will find out that actually this can be seen as a benefit for teachers and students and you will also learn how to turn
this into an asset for your teaching. The course will be launched on 24th of September
and is open to teachers of any subject and of all ages. Do you want to know why should enroll in this course? Keep on watching. Relevant research conducted in Europe
and elsewhere provides evidence that children who are
supported to develop bilingually will be better at learning the
language of their host country, they will perform better across the curriculum, and they will also do very well
at learning other languages. In this course you’ll learn how to use
your pupils plurilingual repertoires as a didactic resource for learning. This will empower you as a teacher and them as pupils to develop a more dynamic and socially just classroom. By registering in this course you will learn to empower language teaching with innovative technologies such as content and language integrated
learning (CLIL), multilingualism or translanguaging, and how to
apply that in the classroom. Besides, you will also become familiar
with multilingual projects and will learn how to build learning activities that you can
easily replicate with your students later on. If you enroll in this course, you will become
familiar with the European Union initiatives that support language learning and language
awareness, such as strategic partnerships, EDINA, and many many others, as well as a whole
range of projects that have received the European Language Label. Moreover you’ll discover how the European Center
for Modern Languages at the Council of Europe can help and support you with a range of
different resources for teachers of different educational stages, for supporting
languages across the curriculum, foreign languages, second languages, etc. And finally you will also have the chance
to meet a lot of like-minded colleagues with whom you can interact, exchange,
share best practices and participate in an international community
that will help you boost your teaching practice. What are you waiting for? Enrol in this course
and learn how to empower yourself as a teacher. We are looking forward to seeing you in the course!