Fentanyl In Hull: Deadlier Than Heroin | Drugs Map Of Britain

Fentanyl In Hull: Deadlier Than Heroin | Drugs Map Of Britain


It is just like,
just like heroin, yeah. But ten times stronger.
Yeah, it’s really strong. In the last six months, I must have lost a good
12-14 friends on fentanyl. It’s too dangerous. Everybody
seems to be going over on it. I overdosed. I said, “Look,
I’m never doing that again”. The next day, I was,
I was bang right back at it, do you know what I mean? Fentanyl is taking the opioid
epidemic to a new level of urgency. America is in the midst of declaring
a state of national emergency in response to their
current opioid crisis. One of the key drivers of this
is a powerful synthetic painkiller called fentanyl. The substance has now been linked to a recent spike
in overdoses on UK soil. The majority of these cases
have been found in Yorkshire and the Humber. We travelled to Hull to meet those
affected by this lethal drug. Say on a scale of one to ten, heroin’s a 2
and fentanyl’s like an 11. It’s like… It’s like going
from being slapped with a pillow to hit by a train,
do you know what I mean? I reckon… I reckon we’re just a small… ..percentage of what… what it actually is. It will be here, there
and everywhere. It won’t just be a small amount
here and now, and then it’s gone. My dad passed away.
My mam passed away. My nan and grandad, like,
they left me. They moved to Scarborough, so… I’ve been on my own since. Why do you think they left? I don’t know, to be honest.
I was only a kid. They didn’t really do much wrong. When you’re a kid and you’ve
got no rules, a lot of things what you shouldn’t
do or shouldn’t have done, you start doing,
do you know what I mean? And… I don’t know.
It just gets worse from there. The National Crime Agency says that
60 people have died in the UK in the past eight months after taking the
painkilling drug fentanyl. It’s 50 times more potent
than heroin and is the drug that was linked to
the death of the rock star Prince. About six months ago, right,
I actually come across it, not looking for it and not
realising, but I tried it, and it-it blew my
head off, to be fair. Like I said, it’s just
so strong, honestly. It’s really, really strong. Quite recently, a lot of people
think it’s gone for good and think they
can’t find it but it’s, like… I know where it’s coming from.
I know where it is. I know how to get it.
Not everyone does any more. But, yeah, yeah, it’s still there. Is it still out on the street? Yeah, definitely.
It’s still on the street. It’s definitely out there, yeah.
Definitely still out there. Yeah, definitely. 100%. I’ve lost a lot of good mates
to it this year. Yeah, it’s not, it’s not good.
It’s dangerous. Seven or eight of my friends
are dead already. It’s dangerous. And so were people
worried when it first came in? And what were you excited about? Do you think the dealers worry
about killing people? Back in February, I became aware
of what I felt were an increased numbers of
potential drug-related deaths. It was probably the end of March, we started getting some of the
toxicology results coming back in, where these drugs,
which were new to me, were getting named
in the toxicology reports. Now, we’re probably looking at
about a third, very crudely, about a third from those reported have come back with fentanyl,
carfentanyl. Yeah. Yeah. It’s only Luke. Can I meet you for one of each? Does it look the same as heroin? Yeah, but slightly… Like, a different colour brown and it’s got a slight red tint
to it when you cook it up. That’s fentanyl on this foil. I used to smoke it, like him. Once you try it the other way,
then it don’t compare. It’s not the same. Smoking, it’s more… It creeps up on you more, I suppose. Like, it takes time to get your,
your buzz, whereas injecting, it’s instant, straightaway, so… It’s not that I’ve stopped caring,
but… I’ve given up…given up a bit. And I think to myself,
at the end of the day, like… if I weren’t here, if I did die,
then, I don’t know, just… I wouldn’t have to worry
about anything any more. Like, I am ashamed of what I do,
but, at the same time, I feel like I can’t stop. I won’t need any more for… ..say, 6-12 hours. So I won’t rattle, I’ll feel fine. Like, the main buzz,
I’d say, lasts about… 20 minutes, if you’re proper smashed
and you’re on, like, a big hit, to a couple of hours. Feeling…itchy, though. Just really itchy. Fentanyl is a CNS depressant. Essentially what happens is that you
get the respiratory depression, you get the sedation,
you get the drowsiness… and the next thing you know,
their colour will begin to change. They turn blue. The blood pressure
will begin to drop. The pulse will begin to drop. And they have difficulty
breathing on their own and managing their own
cardiovascular system. You get the people who, because
of their length of use, they’ve been using drugs
for so long, and have developed high tolerance
to whatever it is that they’re using regularly, they want that additional buzz
of something else. I still feel it, don’t get me wrong. But if that was heroin,
I would have got, like, a tiny amount of that feeling
and then, like, that would have been it,
do you know what I mean? So… I was an heroin addict and I went
to score a bag off somebody. They never told us
that fentanyl was in it. We took it. I walked round the corner
and I collapsed and my face hit the pavement. I nearly died. There is a cohort of vulnerable drug
users out there who, on a daily basis,
will find funds from somewhere, go and buy drugs, take drugs. And as we found recently,
people are literally dying, taking what they’ve been taking. Excuse me? Couldn’t ask you
a favour, could I? Erm, like, I’m homeless
on the street, yeah? I’m literally just trying to get
some change together for some food. I don’t suppose you could help me,
could you, please? Thank you. It’s been a bit rough this year. Erm, I’ve been staying
in a few doorways, but I’ve got myself
a sleeping bag now, so… I’m laughing. I just need to get
a couple of quid together so I can go get some fenny and that. Couldn’t ask you a favour, could I? I don’t… I’m homeless
on the street, yeah? I’m literally just trying to get
some change for something to eat. I don’t suppose…?
I ain’t got any money on me. Now we’re aware of what’s out there,
we are asking more questions and we are trying to work
with our intelligence team or to ask who’s bringing
these drugs in. When you look at routes
into any system now, when you look at, say,
the World Wide Web, when you look at where Hull is
placed, on the end of the A63, M62, it’s easy to come to. People have been going to areas of
Hull where they felt they will get, in their view,
the better quality drugs, referred to as “the strong stuff”
or “the better gear”. After a swift response
from the National Crime Agency that resulted in a number
of operations across the UK, the availability of fentanyl in Hull seemed to have dropped off
considerably. Yo! Yes, Stan.
Yes, Mac. In spite of this, Luke was still able to find a dealer
that could sell him the drug. You all right? I don’t know the original source,
no, but like we’ve said, there’s three main people, three
main people in Hull who are… who are doing it,
who are getting it. It’s like there’s a, it’s like
there’s a secret underworld going on, do you know what I mean?
People don’t, people don’t see it. Who I’m going to ring, they didn’t have it,
whereas they’ve got it now. Yo, easy, Johnny, Ryan,
can I meet you for one of each? Yeah, man, same place, yeah? Yeah, all right, I’ll be there
in two minutes. Cheers, my man. Boom! Sorted. Let’s have a look, then. How far along are you now?
Three months. Yeah? So you don’t know if
it’s a boy or a girl yet, do you? No. No. What do you want? Girl. Girl. I had a little girl. Did you? Yeah, yeah.
She’s cute, innit? Yeah? Yeah, man. Do you know what,
honestly, though, I’m proud of you and that. So next time you have the next scan
photo and it’s a boy, you’ll have to show me, won’t you?
Yeah, I will. Yeah, man. Here, give us a squeeze.
Anyway, I’m going to chip you. All right, see you later.
Look after yourself. My little girl ain’t
going to want to… want to have a dad who’s on gear and fentanyl and crack. It’s fucking, it’s not-not a life
for her, do you know what I mean? How can I set an example? How can I set a standard? How can I…
How can I be right for her? I can’t, you know what I mean?
I just… I just can’t be. What you saying, darling,
you all right? Yeah, you all right? Not too bad.
How are you? I’m not bad. I’ve just won the lottery, you know. Have you? Yeah.
Get some nice gear then? Get some nice gear.
You know it, girl. I’m at the track now. MAN ON PHONE: All right.
All right, safe, brother. Nice one. Get my shit now. Give me two minutes.
I’ll pop around this corner. I know quite a few addicts, yeah,
what inject and that, and really, every time
they’re injecting, really, they’re just wanting to die,
hoping that they go over. But don’t. So they’re out for
the next day, doing the same again. It just comatoses you,
throws you to the floor. And it could be six to eight hours,
if you are all right, to come back round. It’s ridiculous. £20. £20 for that. How long is that going to last? Well, it’s going to fuck me up
instantly, but… What are you doing there? Putting it under my tongue,
because obviously class As, if coppers stop me
and it’s under my tongue, I can swallow it straight away. So it’s gone. It’s a regular occurrence these
days, yeah. They seem to be bashing
the heroin with it, selling that a lot better
than what it has been selling. So, yeah, dangerous stuff. Some people don’t like it, like. Since it disappeared,
everyone was, like, “Oh, fucking… I don’t want it,
I don’t want it”, because they seen what it
was doing to people, but, like, I can’t lie. I love the shit. And I mean love it. This is one of
my good friends, Terry. We’d been aware of fentanyl, largely
because of what was happening in parts of Europe
and in North America. We first probably became
aware of that in this country in around late March. Towards the end of April this year, we issued our alert to make
the health care system aware of the situation,
and also drug treatment services. Yeah, I am fucking young, like. Do you know what I mean? I’m fucking, because there’s
not many people fucking… Well, people call me a bairn. There’s not many bairns who do it. Why do you think there aren’t many
bairns that do it? It’s one of them,
through fear I suppose. How long have you known Luke for,
then, Terry? And have you seen him change much? Yeah. Fucking hell. Bad sleep last night. Thank you for that, Terry. You’re all right mate,
get on with it. Do you feel better?
Yeah, much better, mate, thank you. Sit and have a smoke now. I’ll see you later on. Another day living the dream. Just off to the hostel, going to see
if I can get my room sorted. It’s like, running a bit late
and that, but… That’s what I mean, my priority
should be one thing, but your priorities go
out the window, do you know what I mean? I know there’s a lot of people
that are addicted to it now, where they would only buy
that with fentanyl in. And I look at them and I say,
“Well, I wouldn’t”. So basically they’ve got actually
addicted to the fentanyl. They’re not addicted to the heroin.
They are addicted to the fentanyl. There’s a good 10-12 people I know
that just want the fentanyl now. I don’t think I’ve heard about it
for over six weeks now. It seems to have dried up. That’s my experience. I don’t know whether they are
using and not telling us, or is it just that it’s longer
available for now. How come you’re late for the hostel? Because my habit’s got in the way. Are you worried about
it coming back? Obviously. That would be the trend. You get periods
when the batch comes in, people use them
and then it dries up. And then it comes back again. Don’t say it again. You needed to have been here earlier
to do the paperwork and everything. It’s only my…
I have to be here, though, because it’s like my thingy address,
my bail address. I have to be here. My name’s Luke, my name’s Luke. After six o’clock,
we don’t move people in. One of the concerns is also, like, how long your offending
history actually is. Because from what I can gather, your probation, like, is included
in on a fair amount of it. You need to come back tomorrow
any time after ten, speak to the manager, and then
we can go from there, all right? All right. What’s the verdict, Luke? Not so good. I’m banned from most of the hostels
because I have rent arrears, a lot of fighting, etc. It feels like I’m always
waiting for something. It’s like a full-time job,
having a habit. Because, like, you’ve got to get
the money for it, or you feel shit. Then you spend half your time
running around, trying to ring up. Then you spend half your time
running around to get it. Then the rest of your time you spend
trying to find somewhere to do it, especially when you’re homeless. After spending two weeks in Hull, it became clear that the current
batch of fentanyl had run out… ..but there were still fears
from the authorities and the people we talked to
on the street that the problem could
resurface at any time. I think we always need
to remain vigilant, and if it’s not fentanyl,
it could be something else. So we need to make sure
that treatment services, that the harm reduction
messages are right, and that we are ready to respond
if it comes back on a larger scale. Does it ever get easier doing this,
Luke? No. It doesn’t, ever. It’s just fucking… It’s just the same shit, different
day, you know what I mean?

4K CC. Grasshoppers, Catching Insects In The USA, AZ UT CA NV NM Herping HD

4K CC. Grasshoppers, Catching Insects In The USA, AZ UT CA NV NM Herping HD


That’s a big…woah woah Big Grasshopper O where’d he go? He fell down Don’t worry I shall rescue you with my love Come here Mr Grasshopper No no no don’t go that way I love you and I wan’t to touch you Wow he’s a big one He seems to be a little clumsy tho He’s like backin away Woah woah woah Keep an eye on him boy’s Keep an eye on him Where’s he goin? Ok there he is there he is Keep an eye on him Come lets see Kid: He looks like a leaf Guy: Woah look at all these critters flying we are getting just raided Kid: Yeah we are Girl: There Moths Kid: Aahhh Guy: That is a big critter Kid 2: He’s Godzilla Guy: Uh he’s on the camera ( Flashlight in mouth) Kid: He’s on the camera Kid: Spikey oouch I want this guy Don’t…don’t think about it Bad Grasshoper! No noo bad Grasshopper Guy: Let your brother catch him Kid: He got him Guy: Phahaha Guy: Or let him jump on you Kid 2: Oh ow ow he is one Gahaha Kid: He bites He’s attacking him Kid: Keep your hands around him Guy: Is he hurt? Kid 2: Oh umm Kid: Uh Kid: 2 uh oh Guy: Open up your hand let’s get a look at him Let let your brother have him Kid: I’m the one who’s Kid 2: aahhh Kid: Oh ahhh Does he bite? Kid 2: He a no Guy: He claws Kid: Oh now he’s bitting he’s angry Guy: He’s trying to get out Kid 2: Woah he’s strong Kid: He Hurts? How strong is he? Ok we caught him He’s upside down Guy: Hand him to your brother Hand him to your brother Kid: You better not bite oh get back here Kid: Now dad gots him Guy: Ok now he’s got me Kid 2: He loves you Kid: K awesome Big fat Grasshopper Kid 2: Cricket kisses Guy: Ok Kid: What did you catch? Kid 2: Cactus ( In Pain) Kid: owwaaa Guy: hahahehe lol Kid: You sat in a cactus Everyone: Hahaheehee lol Guy: Oh My Girl: He sat in a Cactus? Guy: Oh my Kid: It’s right there! Guy: alright Let me…Ok Kid 2: I’m ok Guy: Oh Ok I got to turn off the camera Err ya know what What ever we’ll leave it on I can’t believe you sat in that Let me see your but Kid 2: Feels good Guy: I don’t know I don’t know I have never seen him before Yeah he bit matthew No don’t put your thumb up buddy You got to get him to crawl across Woah man what kind of species is this Hey quit biting me ( Bugs on my leg) I’m getting here gettin this Grasshopper and then some little tiny bug flies on me and starts nibbling me Wow He’s got some crazy colors Now there’s this one over here Get in the car k buddy K cause there is a really big bull right there who is just starting at us ok and If he really wants he can jump that fence You see that right? Wow We’ll go in 1 seconds just keep an eye on him Wow That almost looks like a toy It doesn’t even look like it’s real If I saw one of those things I would think Yeah that it wasn’t even real if I wasn’t out here looking at it my self I just…. woow Ok Go back to making more Grasshoppers Kinda crazy Catching a lot of Grasshoppers today These things are just exotic colors I didn’t even know we had Grasshoppers like this Alright Good job boys!!! Kid: Lets release them

Insect Cribs

Insect Cribs


Honey bees are the ultimate social creatures and they’ve evolved to organize themselves in complex and interesting ways in order toprogress and optimize the productivity of their species In fact, they’re what we call “eusocial” animals This is a term given to organisms that live in multi-generational groups, cooperatively take care of their young, have a caste system, and have a division of labor. In eusocial societies, the workers, soldiers, caretakers and reproducers are different not only in their behaviors but in their physiologies as well For instance, a worker bee can’t reproduce at all. There can only be one reproducer: the queen bee, and her name is Beyonce. Eusociality has been observed in the order hymenoptera, which includes the bees, wasps and ants as well as in termites But that doesn’t mean that every species within the order are eusocial. There are varying degrees of social groupings and a lot can be learned about their lifestyles by looking at the places they call home. So today, we bring you Insect Cribs. Fire ants. Fire ants are pretty crazy. They invaded the United States in the 1930s and spread like, well, wildfire. If they encounter a flood, they’ll band together into a giant ball and float away. The queen of one of these colonies can live up to 7 years and give birth to a thousand eggs a day So, needless to say they’re fairly difficult to get rid of and very resilient creatures. “Wherever man is, there the ant is also.” This is an upside down cast nest of a fire ant colony. It was created by pouring molton aluminum into the colony, which made impressions of the various tunnels and chambers. The method was developed by ant scientist Walter Tschinkle, who wanted to know more about what the underground ant homes looked like. They’re hard to draw and observe in 3 dimensions, so instead he had the idea to pour casting material into them What results is an intricately detailed impression of the colony, and reveals information about the colony’s size and scope. Carpenter Ants Not all eusocial ants make nests in the ground There’s nothing quite like living in what you think is a stable property, only to learn that the walls of your home are essentially made out of swiss cheese. And if that’s so, you can thank Carpenter Ants. Even though they’re a total nuisance to the homeowners, they play an important ecological role by helping to speed up the decaying process in nature There are more than a thousand species and although they live in and bore through wood, they’re not eating it. Carpenter ants are unable to digest plant cellulose Instead, they forage on dead insects They’ll eat the internal fluids and juices, then decapitate their prey and bring the head back to the colony so the insect’s brains can be fed to a choice family member. These ants also receive nutrition by milking aphids like a herd of little invertebrate cows. The aphids feed on plant sap, which is rich in sugars. Ants love sugars, so they use touch and chemical receptors to create herds of aphids and entice them to excrete those excess sugars out of their butts, on command. The ants eat the fluid, which scientists call honeydew, but lets be honest, it’s sugar poop. Delicious. Stinging Ants Ants don’t only live in dead trees. some living trees have made accommodations for them, too. Certain species of acai and vachellia trees and stinging ants have evolved to co-exist in a mutually beneficial way. These trees have hollow thorns, or in the case of the Whistling Thorn Vachellia, grow special bulbous thorn chambers that the ants can chew a hole into and that becomes their home. A single colony of ants will dominate a tree, and rush out to prevent herbivores from attacking the leaves. In return for the security, the tree provides the ants with food and nutrients But it’s been observed by some scientists that the absence of giraffes and elephants, like when a border fence is placed around a tree, over a number of of years the tree produces fewer thorns and resources for the ants, who have nowhere else to go, and there exists a high competition for trees Let’s just say it’s a relationship that’s a work in progress. Weaver Ants And when a plant doesn’t directly adapt to the presence of its host ants, some species have constructed their own homes, and they’re enlisting their kids to help out. Weaver ants live in trees and build their own nests out of it’s leaves with silk. But the adults can’t produce the silk themselves, so they pick up a larvae in their mandibles and use it like a glue stick, gently squeezing and moving back and forth to stitch the leaves together. The entire colony lives in these melon-sized nests- the queen and her entire hard working family. Paper Wasps Wasps have different social structures than most ants and bees, and there are many different kinds of social wasps. You’re probably most familiar with yellow jackets, which are semi-social insects. In a semisocial structure, there can be a dominant queen, but all members can reproduce and she can be overthrown if she becomes week or replaced if she dies. These wasps make delicate papery nests by mixing their saliva with wood fibers and then regurgitating the paste to build individual chambers for eggs. You can easily find these nests hanging from a tree, or probably your garage. and the colors of the nest can change depending on what sort of wood or paper is available. Given colored options, they’ll make a rainbow nest. Gall Wasps Some wasp species don’t live socially and therefore, don’t need social structures. Gall wasps lay each of their eggs into individual plant and leaf stems. The wasp uses an ovipositer, which looks like a big hypodermic needle, to insert an egg into the stem of a plant. The plant responds by creating a large swollen growth around the egg, and then the egg hatches, and the larva develops and grows by feeding off of the plant material. Plant galls have been majorly important to human commerce for thousands of years, because they contain high concentrations of tannins. Some of the first permanent writing ink was created by combining iron salts and tannic acids from these insect galls. But they’ve also been used in dyes, lamp fuel, and medicines. Potter wasps Like gall wasps, potter wasps live solitarily. But since they take care of their young for a certain amount of time, they’re considered sub-social animals. Instead of simply laying their eggs in a plant and moving on, The female potter wasp begins constructing vessels out of mud, and they resemble tiny little pots. As she’s building up the home, she ventures out to collect snacks for her baby, but instead of killing the prey, which are usually small caterpillars, she paralyses them. That way they don’t begin spoiling before the larvae can hatch and get around to chowing down. Then she lays her egg and seals up the container. Mud Daubers Similar to potter wasps, mud daubers create clay and mud containers to house their offspring But, they’re also insects with unintentional destructive tendencies. Instead of making a single chamber at a time, some make long, narrow tubes with multiple chambers The female deposits a paralysed spider into each chamber, drops in an egg, and then seals them up. But if they find a preexisting tube, they’ll use that instead, like in a case where a plastic pipe was left behind a shelf in a post office in Arkansas, and a mud dauber set up shop. But more seriously, mud daubers have been known to create nests in pilot tubes and outflow valves on airplanes. They’ve been responsible for at least 3 major airline crashes that killed more than 200 people since 1980. Termites And, to bring it back to the beginning, where queen honeybees are at the top of their reproductive game, Queen termites are essentially slaves to their colonies A queen and king termite will bury themselves underground and begin reproducing- and fast. A termite queen can lay an egg every 3 seconds for 15 years, resulting in a quarter of a billion babies in her lifetime. So some of these colonies can grow to be more than 30 feet high. Her body becomes so big and distended that she becomes imprisoned within her royal chamber, constantly being tended to by her offspring, who will eventually kill her by licking her to death, draining her body of all of its fats and fluids. It still has brains on it

The Replicator


Hi! I’m with Max Garett, and I just found out his position is called the replicator, which sounds like some kind of cool Transformer. – But, what is it that you do here? – Um, so, Here in the replication shop we make—or recreate objects that can’t be real or authentic for exhibits. – So everything that people see in the exhibits that is some kind of animal shape or recreation of a model—it’s made in house. – Yeah, so that could be anywhere from an animal to maybe an artifact—bones, remains, fossils, food. -That’s awesome.
-Yeah, a lot of food. – I did not even know until I started working here that many of the things were actually made here, so I think it’s really cool that you have this prop shop of sorts. – We’re working on an exhibit—Biomechanics—some things we have here are some baby loggerhead sea turtles. – They’re really cute. – The story behind them is the kind of built in GPS they have to migrate to the ocean, but this is something that I sculpted, and I took a mold of, and then cast into more durable material. So this is touchable. – Whoa! – So, something like this needs to be really strong so that anyone in the exhibit can’t break it, so these are— – Like kid proof.
– Exactly, yeah. – Okay. – And they’re pretty desirable too, to like take and stick in your pockets. – Oh yeah.
– Yeah, down on the deck pretty hard. – You caught me. You guys are gonna like check my pockets before I go, I’m gonna have like 12 baby sea turtles. – We made some extras, just because.
– Because they’re cute! – They’re so cute. They’re adorable. So this is, you know, cast is a plastic that is almost indestructible, painted with a paint that’s really durable. – Nice. – Just from everyone rubbing it and everything.
– Yeah. – It’s also really fun to make non-touchable objects, just ’cause you gotta— we’re really restricted on the materials we can use— can’t always come out exactly how we like it, but something like this Venus fly trap, which is not touchable— it’s going to be under kind of an acrylic dome—
– Mhmm. – Was really fun to work on and think about, because I got to use any material I wanted, so I could use a pretty nice rubber, paint it with something that’s not too durable, but looks really good, and airbrush it. In the Venus fly trap there’s trigger hairs—there’s 3 trigger hairs on each pad, and that’s what kind of makes the trap close on its prey and everything. So, I’m gonna have to inlay some little hairs in there too, which is really cool. – Is this actual size? Is this how big they are?
-Oh yeah, no, this is a five scaled up enlargement. – Oh, okay.
– Yeah. – Because this would be terrifying if I was in the forest.
– Yeah. – Like this would eat a person.
– I know, it’s from like a video game or… Yeah. – Yeah, oh, like Mario.
– Mario, yeah. Something like this also is a touchable, so this kind of snake is cast into—this is like all one solid piece, so this is all the same plastic, so it can never be really ripped off or anything. – Mhmm. – And it also needs to be painted with something that won’t rub off. – This is the flying snake—
– Yeah. – from Biomechanics.
– Yeah, this is the Paradise flying snake, and— – That sounds terrifying.
– Yeah. This kind of touchable part right here is why it’s kind of hanging off, and you can feel it’s— – Oh yeah.
– A heart was sculpted into it, – Oooh.
– because the way it kind of glides is it flattens its ribs and— One kind of defining feature is that its heart becomes pronounced in its chest— – Yeah. – because it flattens out, so there’s kind of a nice little area where you can—mess around with that. – That’s cool. – Yeah, all the kind of acrylic items are going to be pretty awesome, because they’re all going to be mounted and displayed on these kind of like, really big LED light disks—
– Whoa. – and just like illuminated above, yeah, so these are in these—cast in these nice water clear resins, which are really beautiful. and just to display the different chambers, we’re going to have a variety of different animals—I think this is a turtle heart. – Wow. – But there’s going to be like a turtle, a fish, amphibian, and these are all, you know, not to scale, but to see the different chambers, and everything. And these are just some different talons—different bird talons, like a Harpy Eagle, and stuff like that. – They’re beautiful. So, what else do you have? You have like a giant worm over here. – Yes, this large worm diorama. – Is this to scale?
– The worm actually is, yeah. – What? – This is from Queensland, Australia. It’s this large blue worm that gets to be about 3.5 feet long—it’s pretty awesome. – Wow. – It’s a hydrostatic skeleton, the way it kind of undulates its body to move through tunnels and everything. I got to 3D model this kind of shape, and then take it to the CNC machine, and—you know—cut it out. – The CNC being the magic table saw—
– Yeah, the beautiful robot— – Yeah.
– That makes things. The overall shape is pretty exact, and to do that by hand would have been pretty difficult— – Yeah. – So it’s nice to make this shape—but, you know, this was something also that originally we got the information from, and it was basically like create an excerpt of earth that can display the worm in its tunnels. We were able to kind of collaborate on a kind of more dynamic shape than just kind of like a block – Yeah.
– So we kind of created this like core sample of earth, kind of. – Do you have real—You have real twigs and stuff in there. – Yeah, the top layer was kind of like a recipe I made of real soil— so actually, the top is actually not even really replicated I guess, just dirt, but it’s like embedded with this resin. – I think I would be terrified walking around and then all of a sudden have this giant blue worm stick its head out of the ground. – Yeah, it’s pretty fantastic—and this is not even actually on of the largest earth worms. – What? – There’s some other ones that get to be about over 6 feet long. Kind of the same size in diameter, but, yeah. – I don’t even believe that. – This is a giant termite mound, and this is to display the architecture of the termite mound— – Wow. – and how the termites diffuse heat through their mounds, and how— kind of like contemporary architecture recreates that in some buildings today and everything – Is this actual size? Is this life size?
– Yeah, well this is on the smaller scale, but this is like— – What?
– the mean size of an actual termite mound. – And termites are not—they’re not big.
– No, they’re tiny. Yeah, they’re tiny. and like an actual termite mound too is—what it’s made of, their mounds are almost stronger than concrete, sometimes, and— – Whoa.
– But so, yeah, this is going to be done almost the same way. This is kind of an under-texture of fiberglass and a non-toxic resin we use – Okay. – And then we cover it in this kind of paste that the other one is covered in, and then texture it to make it look like dirt and earth. – Wow. – So, yeah, it starts off like this, and then it kind of goes to that as a next layer, and then we kind of coat it all. But this is too large to travel in one piece, so—
– Okay. – It’s going to be made into 2 separate pieces that kind of lock into each other. – Yeah, it’s massive.
– Yeah, it’s huge, it’s about 9 feet tall. But this is like the average size of a mound—I mean they can get way bigger too. – That’s insane.
– Yeah. – It makes me want to be an anteater.
– Yeah, I know – Like never ending food source. I like how you put Max—you carved your name in there.
– Just a test, you know— – Yeah. Do you guys—do you sign your work a lot? Like hide it in little places? Because I would. – It is fun to try to put little Easter eggs—there are like in a lot of dioramas around museums some little— people hide things, and stuff, that was made a long time ago. – Yeah.
– Yeah, maybe, maybe I’ll put something in there. – Whoa! – So that’s, that’s—so it’s going to be displayed like that, but it’s to—cartilage needs to be put on there, and then we cast in another water clear resin that’s kind of pigmented. Kind of pink for—it’s synovial fluid, I think it’s called—
– Yeah. – around the cartilage. But, so this is what’s kinda end up being like in displayed on— – That’s amazing.
– in a case like that. – So you must learn a lot of like biology and anatomy working in here. – Yeah,
– Synovial fluid, that is not a term most people know. – No. No. This is a recent thing for me, but yeah, it’s great because we have to do a lot of research on things also, but a project that comes along, we’re given in depth information packets by a developer – Mhmm. – to give us all the information that we need on what we’re doing and everything, so— yeah, no, there’s a lot of research and a lot of learning involved. – That’s cool. Learning is cool.
– Learning is cool. – We advocate learning on this channel. Is this actual size too?
– This is like as big as they get, yeah. – Someone was a little generous with this model.
– Yeah. little bit. – This thing is pretty big though. I would not want to be swimming and then run into this guy. – No. – Its eye is as big as my hand.
– Mhmm. – It must be really rewarding when you finally have the exhibit, and it opens, and people are running around putting their hands over everything. – Yeah, it’s super cool. I mean, for me at least, this is my first time in the replication shop making a lot of stuff from scratch and everything. It’s been—since I’ve been here, it’s a lot of like recreating things for shows that have already been built, so its been nice to make things from scratch and have some creative freedom and to change what an object— – That’s cool.
– looks like, yeah. – Yeah. I would have never imagined like having this kind of job, like having something where you have to be scientifically inclined, and you have to understand the reason why you’re trying to make something like this, make it presentable, – Mhmm.
– and make it fun. So what is your background in? – I studied sculpture at SAIC—School of the Art Institute of Chicago— – Nice. and I graduated in 2012, I was interning here my last semester— – Wow.
– and then they hired me. Full time, yeah. – That’s nice! So you haven’t even been here that long.
– No, like year and a half, yeah. It’s good. – How’s it been?
-Fantastic. – Good.
– Love it. – Good. We didn’t even pay him to say that.
– No, well… yeah. – A little bit.
– Yeah.

Here’s How The Crack Epidemic Brought A City To Its Knees

Here’s How The Crack Epidemic Brought A City To Its Knees


My name is Aaron Williams. I’m a journalist from Compton, California. I’ve been researching the effects of the crack
epidemic for over a decade. Crack is a processed version of the party
drug cocaine in rock form. I did try it and from that moment on I was
chasing the initial high. It goes directly to the pleasure center of
your brain. There’s just no escape from it once you’re
addicted. Everybody lost their minds. [Song Lyrics] One dollar, two dollar, three
dollar, four, and the young baby momma and her daughter going broke. Increase violence, gangs, riots. The Crips and the Bloods have swarmed eastward. The use of crack increasing quickly. Fearlessly setting up an open-air drug market. The reaction of mainstream America was, “Oh
my God. “Oh my God. We have to fix this immediately.” They work every day to plot a new and better
way to steal our children’s’ lives. [singing] Just say no… That was right around the time that D.A.R.E.
came out. The egg and the skillet. This is your brain on drugs. …danger of crack. Thousands of dollars in cash and firearms… Enough is enough. Trying to fix things without knowing how they
got broken in the first place is a great way to break them worse. Ah! Ah! You had Ronald Reagan getting involved. Retribution must be swift and sure for those
who decide to make a career of praying on for those who decide to make a career of praying on the innocent. You have the militarized police. I’ve seen plenty of raids in my lifetime. If you’ve ever seen the movie ‘Straight Outta
Compton’ where the tank rams in the door, that was right around the corner from my house. I remember thinking, ‘That’s a house. People live there.’ If you were caught with rock cocaine they
were getting these sentences for twenty-five years. You’ve got to have mandatory laws. You’ve got to show people if you arrest them,
we’re going to keep them. Put handcuffs on her, get her out of here. People are going in at twenty and coming out
at forty-five. How are we suppose to build a community that
way? You had this proxy war going on. A Senate investigative panel found that there
were people associated with the CIA who were involved with drug trafficking. One of the motives was to raise money for
the Contras in Nicaragua. Tonight I can report to you that we’ve made
much progress. It’s almost hard to comprehend what might
have been if not for this crack scourge that raced through Los Angeles and other major
cities. Today, the perception is of crack users as losers. We still need treatment programs. And I think that we still need to decriminalize. Our Mayor, Aja Brown, has done such a tremendous
job of bringing jobs and employment back to Compton. Crime rate has gone down. Things can and should and will get better. But we have to work for it.

9 Sneaky, Dangerous and Unusual Insects | Love Nature

9 Sneaky, Dangerous and Unusual Insects | Love Nature


this giant grasshopper delivers about 50
calories if consumed which is why bugs have devised some remarkable ways to
avoid being eaten this giant spiny stick insect from New
Guinea is aptly named long sharp spines protrude from its back legs like daggers
these defensive weapons can inflict a very painful stab so most predators
leave the stick insect alone these young South American giant
grasshoppers don’t seem to have any form of defense so why do they hang around in
large groups out in the open sporting bright colors that make them stand out
because these are no ordinary colors orange on black is nature’s warning sign
I’m poisonous and taste foul leave me alone and it works if an inexperienced
predator takes a bite of these guys it won’t make the same mistake twice this
caterpillar of the monarch butterfly sends the same message it’s packed with
poisons stored from the nuclear plants that it eats it’s a universal signal to
predators anything black and white with bright red orange or yellow is best
avoided like this conspicuous Asian assassin bug
but this beastly bug is doubly equipped carrying poison and a dagger it has a
very sharp hollow beak that injects toxins into its prey before sucking them
dry wielding this hypodermic needle it can defend itself against any predator
that tries to eat it and the toxins provide an excruciating bite the Natalie
dressed tiger beetle lives in the same
grasslands as the assassin bug and sports a very similar wardrobe decked
out in vivid black and white but it’s all aru’s tiger beetles are mimics they
fool predators into thinking they’re poisonous so for this tiger beetle its biggest
threat right now is another tiger beetle stealing its dinner warning colors are
even more effective if they come with the element of surprise the hind wings of this Peruvian stick
insect are normally hidden their tiny useless for flight but create a bright
flash of color that startles predators nicosia stick insects use a similar
trick but they can actually fly the flash of shocking pink distracts
predators while the insect gets out of Dodge a dead leaf mantis
sits almost invisible in its disguise but if it is discovered plan B it
springs to life flashing its dramatic ice spots which must belong to a
fearsome creature it’s enough to scare off most predators I sports obviously work well they’re
used by all sorts of bugs this elephant hawk moth caterpillar has a tiny head
and two pairs of giant false eyes on the fattest juiciest part of its body moths
and butterflies have turned fake eyes into an art form they even have bright
white patch lights just like the reflections on real eyes being so small bugs might seem easy prey
but they found lots of ways to defend themselves from poison to mimicry and
Bluff you

A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look

A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look


Aah, Southern California. Y’know, the whole “surf’s up, Tinseltown,
sun-soaked glamour” thing? Too bad this idyllic landscape is mostly make-believe. Take the palm trees. They’re not even real trees. They’re more closely related to grass. And they’re imported. Like this Canary Island date palm. It came halfway around the world to be one
of the more dazzling stars in the landscape. But this Hollywood success story is turning
into a horror movie. This little monster is the South American
palm weevil. Scientists first found it in San Diego in
2011. Weevils are just beetles… with snouts. This female uses hers as a drill, to get at
the palm’s apical meristem. It’s a bowl of juicy goodness at the top,
where the leaves sprout. She lays her eggs down in those tunnels. And her spawn eat the palm from the inside
out… starting with its heart. That’s right; it’s the same stuff you
can get at the supermarket. They’ll turn this palm’s healthy flesh
into a rotting mess that smells like a dumpster in the sun. Once they’re big enough, the larvae will
spin cigar-shaped cocoons from the leftover fibers they can’t eat. As the trees’ fronds starve and die, the
larvae hang out and gestate, morphing into pupae, and… Ew, that’s just, oh man… That’s gross. As adults, they burst out, take flight and
seek out a new host… leaving behind the dying, hollow shell of a once majestic palm. Mark Hoddle, at UC Riverside, is tracking
the weevil infestation. He puts them on a kind of aerial treadmill
in his lab to test their stamina. He’s trying to figure out how they got here,
whether they hitched a ride on imported palms, or made the trip themselves. Turns out they can fly up to 15 miles a day,
enough to hopscotch from palm to palm on their own. The only way to stop them: treat every palm
tree in their path with pesticides before the weevils get there. That’ll be tough to do. So these particular botanical icons could
be on the fast track to being just another Hollywood has-been. These weevils are pretty gnarly. So we asked Anna Rothschild from Gross Science
to do those animations for us. Thanks, Anna! ANNA: You’re welcome! It’s my pleasure. I love gross stuff. LAUREN: So there is one other way to manage
these larvae, sort of a biological control, which people do in some places, like Thailand,
Peru and Ghana. ANNA: Entomophagy! LAUREN: Eating bugs. Mmm. Tasty. ANNA: So hop over to my channel for a whole
episode about it. LAUREN: And thanks for watching this Deep
Look.

The Deadly Synthetic Drug Epidemic Killing New Zealanders


I’ve known about five friends that have died of it it’s affected a lot of lives. It’s not something that New Zealand has seen before. The synthetics is destroying West Auckland not just people, but the community, everything. This is the main area where we used to smoke. I used to see little kids running through here, spewing up just seizuring in the middle of the road on this roundabout here. I found a women actually blacked out over here she was knocked out, pale unresponsive, and I actually had to pick her up myself and carry her to my mums house. There’s another house I used to score from just down over here, just down on this left street. They used to sell the good shit. which made people want more. Synthetics is a real big problem to West Auckland. There’s a lot of houses out here that sell it. There’s a lot of people walking around that will come up to you “Bro, want to buy a bag?” You know stuff like that. West Aucklanders aren’t afraid to try anything. They will try anything or whatever just to get a hit. No, this is not for you, this is for me Don’t you bite! F***ing little s*** That’s why I don’t associate with these birds, they’re a**holes. I was thirteen when I started synthetics. Well first of all it came out on the shops and stuff and I thought it was just… it was yuck hey, it didn’t really do anything for me and Yeah I used to mock the s*** out them, like those c**** down in Henderson. Like “oh my god, just smoke the real s*** bro” like… “you’re so stupid that s*** is just going to f*** up your brain”. This s*** was actually way cheaper than weed and had much more of an effect. So that’s how I got into smoking it. I don’t know I was going through so much then, I just needed it to cope. I’ve… yeah I’ve been smoking it for pretty much six years straight. The government’s to blame, they’re the only people to blame. Why bring a drug out and have it legalised so widely in so many shops and put it around the whole entire country and then get all these people addicted to it, like actually f***ing addicted, and then just take it away and make it illegal? Of course it’s going to go underground and then people are going to start making s*** that is harmful and that’s what’s happened. I’d smoke probably an ounce of synthetics in two days. That’s every week. I was real bad. I’m surprised I’m still alive. It felt like a hand was trying to reach up my throat and out my mouth. I guess my body couldn’t handle the amount of chemicals I was getting and it was making me regurgitate sort of kind of spew but I wasn’t spewing. Kind of, it was a dry spew, kind of like someone was putting their hand out my mouth. I actually kind of seizured first, started frothing at the mouth and then I blacked out. And that’s when my mum came running in. I woke up in the hospital, not realising where I was or what I’d done. And my mum came up to me crying saying; You almost died son, you know, I found you basically half dead in the bath tub just lying there, pale, speechless, just real…. you know, not responsive. So I rushed you to the hospital, son. You’re lucky to be alive. That’s all she said to me. Middlemore ED receiving We have on board a 24 year old male, chief complaint being collapsed, seizures following some synthetic cannabis use. What brings people to the emergency department, what we’re seeing nowadays usually is seizures. The seizures are are common. People come in with a problem, they come in with chest pain, they come in with seizures et cetera. We don’t always know what that is, so we start working down the list of what can cause that. But now we’ve seen so many seizures from synthetic cannabinoids, that that’s one thing we always just consider. That’s the list where we thought about synthetic cannabinoids. These things have been around since 2007, 2008. This was started in a medical pharmaceutical laboratory for research. Now it’s kind of gone to underground labs
all over the world and there is no quality control. AMB Fubinaca, this is one that we’ve seen recently. It’s about 60-70 times more potent than natural cannabis. They take this chemical and they mix it in water to dissolve it and get grass or hay or whatever that’s dried, and lay it down on a table and they’ll spray this on there. Well what if the person whose spraying this gets distracted and maybe they spray this section for ten seconds longer than this section, and all of a sudden you have an incredibly potent pack of synthetics that are going to go out and cause really bad harm. She did actually start off as a very, very lovely child, and she’s still a lovely child underneath. She ended up getting into ice skating. She did very well at ice skating it was one thing that she was absolutely good at. She says it was her one place that she was always calm. It was a place that she felt safe. Once she lost that, there was a big change in her life. So then she took up with locals around Henderson. The wrong sorts. We could never do much about that. Unfortunately. My week has been… absolutely s***. I had these people… they’re supposed to be helping me intertwine into the community. And they seem to think that they can provide me
a counsellor, which I’ve already got. You’re like five years too late bro. Why are you just trying to do this now? What do you want? This better not be f***ing prison mail Speaking of the f***ing devil. Oh my god I hate it when people use animals to manipulate me. She’s put the little cat there and pictures of cats down there. Like how evil is that? F***ing. Hey Tammara, hope you are doing okay.
I haven’t seen you in a little while, giving you some space. I hope that you understand that it’s all done out of care for you and your best interests. It was a hard decision to make but we knew it
would enable you to have some time from drugs and then hopefully remain drug free. But why write me a f***ing letter? Are you that scared to come to my f***ing house?
You must have f***ed up, hey? So, I’m glad she admitted it there, that she’s the one that f***ing put me in a mental hospital. So, yeah, nah I’m glad she hasn’t come around, cause I’m going to smack her face in now. I had no other f***ing choice,
they put me in a f***ing mental hospital man. What was I supposed to do?
Just actually let them win and go crazy? You lying f***ing c*** See? They wonder why I don’t trust these f***ing services. Synthetics is easier to get than crack, man. You just got to know the right people. There was a period of time where synthetic cannabis was legal. It was then made illegal under the Psychoactive Substances Act. The importation or manufacturing of a Psychoactive Substance has a penalty of two years in prison. In terms of selling a Psychoactive Substance it’s a three month penalty or a forty thousand dollar fine. Police have worked with New Zealand Customs on an importation where there was just over a thousand grams of synthetic drugs imported into New Zealand. That has a potential street value of one million dollars. We utilise a wide range of techniques that we are trained to look out for and these ones stood out to me so… we will open them up and examine them and see what we’ve got. The x-ray image looked inconsistent, it’s sent as express mail out of Hong Kong We find predominantly China is one of the big providers of synthetic cannabinoids. And now what I would do is I would use one of my tools that can test substances, it’s got a library of over 11,000 different substances both illegal and not illegal and it can test it through the clear bag, so it’s all contained, and tell me what this is. And this has come back for ADB Fubinaca which is a synthetic cannabinoid. It’s a free leash park my babes. We’re not breaking any laws. Since the last time I seen you I found a man. It’s good that there’s another dog around or two other dogs cause he stays with them. If they listen he’ll just follow them. From the moment I saw Tammara I kind of, you know, I had this feeling that she was the one that I could settle down with. The first night I met her and when I left her house I said to my brothers partner, I said to her I think I just found my Bonnie, you know like Bonnie, Clyde, back in the 1920s, 30s whatever. It is moving quickly, but I like it you know, I love it. Where we are at the moment is good. I wouldn’t change nothing. I wouldn’t change nothing. Maybe the only thing would be just to keep her off synthetics that’s probably about it. I worry about her relapsing. It’s when I’m not there, or you know there’s no one there to help her when she does have those… those moments, or those urges to want to go back there. Now that I think about it, I wouldn’t even like him to see me on synthetics. Everytime I’m like a synnie cone would be so good right now, he’s like no, no, f*** that babe, no. You know once it’s on the street, it’s hard to get off, you know? There’s millions of synthetics out there now while I’m talking and there’s no way to get it off the streets. It’s just like the sickness going around. I met Devonte when I was 16 played rugby together, went to school together. Found out a little bit about him and his mum told me about him, told me his struggle you know he wanted to get away from all the stuff down there. So he came up to Auckland to an even worse place, you know? Full of drugs, bad people. He was a real good fella, you know he was bubbly and humble. He just loved doing good. I made this little set up for him because he would have wanted it. This is actually his little… board thing. You know, he made this little signature Which I don’t want to forget so I decided to put it with his little memorial. But, this one is the specialist Cause, when he was little he got baptised and his mum kept this for him since he was little and sort of gave it to me. She gave me the responsibility to basically look after it, keep it special, close to me. Yeah. He was actually at my house the night before he passed away. Him and my mum had an argument cause… he was smoking that s*** in my washhouse and my mum didn’t like it so she told him to go home. I told him, alright bro I’ll see you tomorrow and he goes I’ll be over tomorrow and I go okay. Woke up waiting for him and I was realising, why is he taking so long? And my mum comes up in tears and I… I kind of knew what happened, I kinda knew. Then when she told me I just, I felt it. Really did. It was hard. Sorry, I’ll be back. There is a physiological addiction to these synthetic
cannabanoids as well as a psychological addiction. This time I’ve relapsed. It’s so sad that I can’t say that anymore. Like “Oh yeah, I’ve been clean like eight week now”. That’s so s***. I reckon that the s*** that they’ve got out now compared to a couple months ago or whatever when I was smoking it and it has gotten stronger. Definitely. I reckon I’m more addicted too, all I could think about was just… having another cone, having another cone. Waiting for him to go to sleep so I could have a cone. Nah yeah, that was… that was a really big f*** up what I did. Relapsing. Wish I did things a little bit differently and was a little bit stronger, earlier. And yeah, but nah, I wouldn’t say that I regret anything that makes me the person that I am today. Yeah. Then I wouldn’t be this f***ing ray of sunshine.

The Rise of Psychedelic Truffles in Amsterdam

The Rise of Psychedelic Truffles in Amsterdam


[MUSIC PLAYING] HAMILTON MORRIS: Today is
Queen’s Day in Amsterdam, and I have three containers of psilocybin-containing truffles. I’m going to start by taking
8 grams of this 15-gram container, because that’s what
the man at the smart shop advised me to do. And then I suppose I’m going to
go out and walk around on Queen’s Day, which is incredibly
chaotic and disgusting. And probably the worst possible
place to take them. [SIGHING] This is the first time
I’ve ever consumed a psychedelic truffle. You can’t really get
these in the United States as far as I know. It’s actually much less
of a mushroom. It doesn’t seem like
very much at all. OK. Yesterday, I arrived in
Amsterdam, doubtlessly one of the sickest places on Earth to
get blazed on dank nugs. But my interest is not solely
confined to blazing dank nugs. Amsterdam is fertile ground
for all manner of psychoactive substance. I came here to find the
psilocybe tampanensis sclerotium, or philosopher’s
stone truffle. It was not until the infamous
mushroom ban of 2008 that the psychedelic sclerotium gained
widespread popularity, due to the fact that its effects and
chemical composition are almost indistinguishable from
the psilocybin mushroom. Mushrooms were once
completely legal. And since the early ’90s, the
Netherlands led the world in the development of commercial
psychedelic mushroom-growing techniques. But everything changed in
2008, when the Dutch government banned
psilocybin-containing mushrooms, responding to a
number of highly publicized deaths misguidedly blamed
on the innocent fungus. Truffles escaped the ban
unscathed and hold a place inside the hearts of
all true Dutch. I am here to learn about how
these strange protuberances are cultivated and why they
have not been banned. There are no better people to
consult than the Truffle Brothers, two of the world’s
leading experts in the mass production of psychedelic
sclerotia. I visited the brothers’ farm in
Hazerwoude-Dorp, formerly the second-largest mushroom
farm in the Netherlands. Having survived the mushroom
ban, the Truffle Brothers now dominate the psilocybin-containing fungus industry. I sat down with Murat and Ali to
discuss the secrets of the philosopher’s stone. ALI: First of all,
my name is Ali. Next to me is sitting
my brother, Murat. We are, in fact, known as
the Truffle Brothers. You are here at the farm
of magictruffles.com. We produce sclerotia, also
known as magic truffles. HAMILTON MORRIS: And how did
this company get started? ALI: Interesting story. Long story that started
somewhere around 1993, ’94, I guess. I learned mushroom growing
in Belgium. Mushrooms for eating– normal,
white button mushrooms. That was my occupation before I started with these mushrooms. And so I had quite a great
network in that area, in that field. And one day, a friend of mine
comes up to me and says, look what I found. He shows me a Petri
dish with spores. That’s interesting, what
kind of mushroom is it? He said, well, it’s
a magic mushroom. And I’d never heard of it. So I took a closer look. I went to a friend of mine
who owned a laboratory, a mycological laboratory, and
asked him, can we do something with these spores? He says, well, let’s
give it a try. And after two weeks, there was
one mushroom in the aquarium. But it was a giant mushroom. It was about [INAUDIBLE] this tall. And we were looking at it. I said, OK, let’s harvest it. HAMILTON MORRIS: And you were
operating a pizza restaurant beforehand, you said? MURAT: At that time, yes. HAMILTON MORRIS: The life cycle
of a mushroom begins when two spores of opposite
mating types germinate in a growth substrate and send out
threads called “hyphae.” The hyphae form a clamp connection
where genetic information is exchanged and then expand into
a web of undifferentiated threads called “mycelium.” If
the conditions are right, the mycelium organizes itself into
a mushroom with special reproductive cells called
basidia, which catapult spores into the air and give rise
to new mushrooms. And you bought this property? MURAT: Not in the first place. ALI: First of all,
we were in the– MURAT: We started in my place,
in the bedroom of my daughter. With several aquaria
this time. After the one aquarium, I
started to get our aquariums. ALI: Start searching on the
street at night and people were throwing out their
old aquariums. Yeah, there’s one. Let’s take it. MURAT: My daughter’s room was
filled with, I think, about 12 aquaria ALI: Something like that. MURAT: Or something. And we started to grow
mushrooms in there. Then we rented our first
place, in a town called Leiderdorp, not far from here. We made some sheds out
of plastic foil with shelves in it. And there we started our first
professional growth. ALI: Yeah, yeah. Right after that, we moved to
a bigger plays with ten growing houses. MURAT: But it wasn’t enough. The demand was so high that we couldn’t make enough mushrooms. ALI: And then we saw this,
which was far more ideal. HAMILTON MORRIS: And what
were you growing– What sorts of mushrooms were
you growing before the mushroom ban? MURAT: We had several species
of the psilocybe cubensis. And the panaeolus cyanescens. HAMILTON MORRIS: And
that was what you sold more than anything? More than the truffles
you sold? MURAT: Yes. Truffles were just for
the connoisseur. It was a side project
in that time. HAMILTON MORRIS: To better
understand the prohibition of the sacred mushroom, I go to
meet criminal lawyer Karem Canatan, who explained the
nuances of Dutch drug law. KAREM CANATAN: OK. Well, first of all, like many
countries, we have class A drugs and class B drugs. So that that’s not different
from any other countries. So we have lists of drugs
that are illegal– to buy it, to use it, to bring
it over the border to trade. It’s completely illegal. Then we have a small
portion of drugs– in Holland, we call it the “soft
drugs”– where you have weed and hashish
and the joints. Or we call it joints, because
we smoke joints. I don’t know if that’s the
correct term, but we have which is called like a tolerance
policy by the Dutch government. And they have on paper saying
that if the amount isn’t bigger than so-and-so much, then
it’s allowed to have it, it’s allowed to smoke it, and
you are allowed to sell it. So up until around 2007,
it was OK to use the magic mushrooms. HAMILTON MORRIS: These were the
salad days for mushrooms. But a series of unfortunate
incidents where mentally ill tourists hurt themselves turned
politicians against the sacred mushroom. And they began to
legislate a ban. [SPEAKING DUTCH] HAMILTON MORRIS: And there had
been scattered mushroom incidents in Amsterdam for
decades, it was not until the death of a 17-year-old French
student named Gaelle Caroff that lawmakers began taking
serious steps towards banning the sale and consumption of
psychedelic mushrooms. [SPEAKING DUTCH] [SPEAKING FRENCH] HAMILTON MORRIS: After
the incident with Gaelle, others followed. A Frenchman, supposedly under
the influence of mushrooms, ritualistically sacrificed his
dog with a pair of kitchen shears in order to free
the dog’s mind from its corporeal shackles. [SPEAKING DUTCH] ALI: He said, well, I
was on mushrooms. He had psychosis. And it had nothing to
do with mushrooms. He wasn’t even close
to mushrooms. Since these products are legal
in this country, it’s very easy to hide yourself
behind it. [SHOUTING IN DUTCH] HAMILTON MORRIS: With
prohibition looming on the horizon, protesters swarmed the
parliament building, armed with Super Soakers filled with
psychedelic mushroom spores, which they used to spray the
surrounding parks and lawns. They demanded their right
to consume mushrooms. But parliament ruled in
favor of the ban. So in 2008 they banned
all of these different genus and species. KAREM CANATAN: Yeah. Well, part of them were
already on it. But especially this
list from here. The magic mushroom list. And it says here that magic
mushrooms are mushrooms who have by nature these and these
active ingredients. And then all these species
are on the list. ALI: The law changed in 2008– 1st of December, 2008. Sad day. Saddest day of my life. HAMILTON MORRIS: How much time
did they give you after the ban to get rid of your
stock of mushrooms? MURAT: 10 days. ALI: 10 days to clear 16
growing houses, all the equipment, and so on. HAMILTON MORRIS: And you were
saying all these other different bans have been given
enormous amounts of time, years before they have to– ALI: Mink farms, for instance. They got 10 years to
change the plans. HAMILTON MORRIS: 10 years? ALI: 10 years. HAMILTON MORRIS: And
you got ten days. ALI: 10 days. Look at that. HAMILTON MORRIS: How did you
get rid of the mushrooms? ALI: That was the easiest part,
because people were lined up here. the last mushrooms, the
last mushrooms. HAMILTON MORRIS: Despite the
chemical and biological similarity to the mushroom,
parliament decided not to ban the magic truffle. ALI: When the law changed in
2008, we just continued with the truffles that we were
already growing in that time. HAMILTON MORRIS: So
what is a truffle? And how is it different
from a mushroom? MURAT: [INAUDIBLE] for nutrients and moisture. HAMILTON MORRIS: Like
all organisms, a fungus seeks to reproduce. But environmental conditions are
not always ideal to do so. If the substrate is too dry,
cold, hot, or poor in nutrients, the mycelium will
grow inwards, forming a tangled clump of globular fungus
called a sclerotium. These hard structures are
able to survive in harsh environmental conditions until
the time is right to send forth mushrooms. Murat offered to give me
a guided tour of their innovative sclerotium
cultivation facilities. MURAT: We’ll start where
it all begins. That’s the dirty side where
all raw materials come in. HAMILTON MORRIS: First, the rye
grass seed substrate is sterilized in an
industrial-sized autoclave to kill opportunistic bacteria and
fungi, which are equally eager to consume the bags of
warm, moist nutrients. Then the bags are inoculated
with a liquid culture of mycelium. MURAT: This is a class
100 cleanroom. That means that only 100
particles of 0.00096 micron may be present in one
cubic feet of air. Normally in an operating room
it’s class 10,000, so 10,000 particles may appear in
a cubic foot of air. HAMILTON MORRIS: Impressive. ALI: If you do everything, like
your laboratory work and your growing, under one roof,
you get a cross-contamination somewhere, somehow. And that risk was so big that
we looked for a proper building with at least two
separate departments. HAMILTON MORRIS: Then the bags
are transported to an incubation chamber, where a
temperature of 28 degrees Celsius is maintained to
accelerate the colonization of the substrate. How do you prevent the
growth of mushrooms? MURAT: By controlling the
temperature and the microclimate in the bag. The microclimate in the bag
is not suitable for formation of mushrooms. HAMILTON MORRIS: The final stage
is the nursery, where the bags are kept in darkness
for as many as five months before the sclerotia
are mature. And what is the capacity of
this plant at the moment? MURAT: Full capacity, if we
worked 24 hours a day in three shifts, 18,000 tons per year. ALI: Something like
that, yeah. HAMILTON MORRIS: 18,000 tons? ALI: Yes. MURAT: Yeah. MURAT: I think that sclerotia,
to go for the mushroom market one-on-one, by now– ALI: By now it’s one-on-one,
yeah. HAMILTON MORRIS: Upon maturity,
the bags are opened the sclerotia are plucked from
their substrate, cleaned with a soft-bristled brush, and
packaged for distribution. It seems your brand is the only
brand, except for one another that I saw, that
you can get at smart shops in Amsterdam. MURAT: Yeah. That might be correct. There are some home growers,
but as far as commercially grown sclerotia, I think
we’re the largest. HAMILTON MORRIS: Do you
have any competitors? MURAT: Everyone who grows a
truffle is a competitor. HAMILTON MORRIS: Ah. Each package contains a single
serving of fresh, psilocybin-containing
sclerotia. MURAT: We deliver them to
the shop in boxes of 24. We give the shops 24 booklets so
that people get the proper information. HAMILTON MORRIS: Good. Murat invited me to join him
on his delivery route and visit the magic truffle
storefront in Amsterdam. The Dutch countryside touched
us both deeply, but we could not linger on these
natural delights. We had important sclerotium
deliveries to make. One of the stops was a wholesale
psychedelics distributor specializing
in peyote cacti. We finally made it to the shop,
and not a minute too soon as the hoards of
truffle-hungry Dutch waited eagerly for their Queen’s
Day delights. [BACKGROUND CHATTER] HAMILTON MORRIS: Chills and
Thrills was not the truffle theme park I was expecting, but
I knew the real ride would come later. SPEAKER 1: you? HAMILTON MORRIS: I’m good. I would like to buy some
P. Tampanensis. SPEAKER 1: HAMILTON MORRIS: Thank you. SPEAKER 1: you. Enjoy. HAMILTON MORRIS: The truffles
require no preparation. And thought the truffle
brothers recommended a truffle-based milkshake, I chose
to take them raw so that I could savor their essences. That’s not bad at all. It’s actually kind of good. Well. It has almost a sour aftertaste,
but sour is the last taste I would associate
with a truffle. Do you want some
truffle crumbs? Scarf them down. Mmm. Tastes pretty darn– uh, like a wet nut. This is a drug? This is a drug? This is technically a drug? All right. KAREM CANATAN: Well,
I don’t have any experience with the truffles. But if it’s not a health risk
and it doesn’t have any other negative side effects,
I would say allow it. And then make sure you
can control it. HAMILTON MORRIS: What
sort of person buys psychedelic truffles? MURAT: I don’t think there’s
a specific type of person. Age has nothing to do with it. We’ve had people in their 80s
coming for mushrooms. ALI: Yeah, or people who are
curious for the experience who think there’s more
in life than the regular things we see. And there’s also the real
cosmonauts, who use it for the real spiritual thing, like
the shamanic experiences. HAMILTON MORRIS: What category
would you put yourselves into? ALI: None. HAMILTON MORRIS: None? You don’t use your
own product? ALI: No. MURAT: Bummer. HAMILTON MORRIS: While the
Mazatec Indians prescribed special conditions under which
the sacred mushroom should be consumed, there exist
little-known rituals surrounding the psychedelic
sclerotium. Their history remains
unwritten. Though I feel sweaty and
overwhelmed by the chaos of Queen’s Day, I feel no
compulsion to ritualistically stab a dog and play with its
internal organs in a van. Nor do I wish to jump off a
bridge to a watery death. I’m glad that the resilient
structure of the sclerotium has survived the inhospitable
environment of prohibition. And I hope that it sends forth
mycelial threads of liberty for many years to come.

Insect Adventure, Part One

Insect Adventure, Part One


We’re here today because the town of Hanover and Jo Daviess Conservation Foundation have acquired this old soybean field and they’re restoring it as a prairie. And they’ve been working here for about six years and we’re surveying the insect population. Okay. So this is a carrion trap.
– Ewwww!! Wow.
– Oooh, lots of good stuff! So, there is lots of stuff in here. So how long was this in the ground for? Four and a half weeks, about a month.
– Really. And that’s a tea strainer, That’s a tea strainer.
– that you’re gonna strain through. That’s very sophisticated. Yeah, we are. So, it’s a carrion trap, so what does that mean? Okay, so this,
– Yeah. had four ounces of chicken liver in it- Sounds appetizing. -hung over the bucket. And the carrion trap- they’re compelled by the rotting meat smell to fall in. And there’s… Those are millipedes, yeah.
– What is it- those look like a lot of millipedes. Tons of millipedes.
– There’s a bunch of millipedes in here, bunch of grasshoppers. Oh, those are some huge grasshoppers. Yeah, this is one of the carrion beetles, Necrophila americana.
– Ohhh. Those are kinda cool looking. That’s one of the carrion beetles that we find here, and it’s really hard to tell what you’ve got until you get back to the museum and put it under the scope. Yeah, and identify a lot of the smaller ones.
– Yeah, and then you identify the smaller stuff. Lots of isopods- roly-polies. Yeah.
– Yeah, lots of different kinds of millipedes. How many different species of millipedes do you think are out here? Out here in this prairie?
– Yeah. Between fifteen and twenty. Really?
– Mmhmm. I didn’t know there were that many. There are at least six different orders of millipedes out here: Polydesmids, Spirobolids, Spirostreptids, Julids, Platydesmids, Polyxenidas, and possibly Polyzoniidas. So what does that mean? Do they have like, different numbers of legs or different numbers of body segments, or- They have different numbers of legs, different numbers of body segments, uh, their reproductive organs are in different places on the body. Oh, they’re not just like, where you would assume like, the genitals to be? No, some of them, the male genitals are on the second segment, some of them are on the seventh, some of them are on the eighth. So the second segment, like, on the neck.
– Just right behind the neck. So you have gonads like, on your head.
– Yeah, mhmm. That’s pretty crazy.
– They call them gonopods in millipedes. So they’re right behind, and they’re on the underside, on the belly.
– Okay, yeah. Right behind the head, or a few segments further down, or a few segments further down.
– Okay. And the females all have different types of genitalia as well. Well, you gotta correspond to the having gonads on your neck.
– Yeah. And then you just put the bucket back in the ground, and this is just propylene glycol. So you don’t want to use alcohol out here because it’ll evaporate.
– It’ll evaporate away. And so you use that…
– So you use propylene glycol, which is not toxic to mammals. So if a raccoon gets in, and drinks the fluid, it won’t hurt him. This is 50% propylene glycol, 50% water, and a couple of ounces of liquid dishsoap. And the dish soap breaks the surface tension.
– Okay. So when the insects fall in, they sink.
– Yeah, instead of… They don’t just float, because if they floated, in a couple hours the surface would be covered with insects. Other ones would land and just fly away.
– Ohh, I see. So they fall in, they sink, and they just keep falling in and sinking. Now here’s the part that’s so much fun for you. This is chicken liver, wrapped in gauze, tied up.
– That’s- Ooh. How long has this chicken liver been sitting out? About two and a half days at room temperature. So it’s starting to smell pretty good. Oh, mmm. It’s nice and fragrant, yeah.
– Isn’t that appetizing? So then you just hang that over the bucket, and the smell of the rotting chicken liver attracts all those carrion eating beetles. They fall in the bucket and sink down to the bottom. So why are you specifically trying to get carrion beetles? A lot of other things will fall in as well. Some of the beetles that are attracted to carrion are considered habitat indicators. One of the carrion beetles called Nicrophorus marginatus- that’s only found in fairly high quality prairies. The last set of traps we set had Nicropherus marginatus in it. They also had a scarab called Phanaeus vindex, which is a dung roller that is also only found in high quality prairies. So six years ago there were soybeans here, and now you’ve got a nice, healthy prairie.
– Yeah. So when you get a healthy prairie and you have all these good bugs as good indicators of how healthy the prairie is, that’s going to obviously attract birds and mammals, and all kinds of things to come back to this area
– If you get… that maybe hadn’t been here for years.
– If you’ve got good insects, you get more reptiles and amphibians, you get more birds. If you get more birds, more reptiles and amphibians, you get more mammals. And the populations and the community just keeps building and building over the years. This is exciting! So now we’ve got three or four pitfall traps,
– Okay. which are the same thing, but without the bait. Occasionally a mouse or something will fall in and it can’t get out, but then we take it to the mammal division at the museum.
– Oh, yeah. And it goes into their collections, and then they have records of them being here.
– Yeah. So nothing ever goes to waste.
– Yeah. And there’s some beetles, too. See the carabid beetles?
– Wow. Some grasshoppers, yeah. That’s a ground beetle, a carabid beetle.
– There’s some spiders in there. Yeah, there’s spiders, and you don’t usually find very many spiders in carrion traps, because most spiders are actually repulsed by the smell of carrion.
– Really? So spiders walk up close to a carrion trap, and then veer away. Oh, that’s interesting. I would have thought that everything would just, you know, swarm to the stink smell. There are a lot of beetles that are repulsed by the smell of carrion also.
– Right. Oh, okay. So they fall into these kinds of traps. So you gotta make sure you have diverse, different ways of collecting everything. The more ways you have of collecting, the more different types of insects you’re going to find. So far we’ve collected 800 spiders and insects at this point,
– Wow. in just over the same period of four weeks. 800 different species in four weeks.
– In four weeks, yes. We could easily find 1200-1500 over a full summer. So we should get a whole lot more than we have so far.
– That’s exciting. I can see where you’d really get into this. This seems relatively low technology. It is really very low cost, low technology, and basically, anybody can do it. You can go to the car part store and get a little bit of propylene glycol, put the holes in the ground,
– You just need some dish soap. some dish soap, some water,
– some old railroad spikes. and, to do the carrion trap, a little bit of chicken liver. You could set a full set of traps for fifteen bucks.
– That’s awesome. And then some alcohol, some rubbing alcohol to put them in.
– Yeah. Come on, start. We’re gonna go back, right in there between those trees and string the line. It is beautiful back here. Isn’t this a cool place? Yeah. This is gorgeous. Have you set up a sheet back here before? Yeah, I have, and if the weather’s good, it does pretty well.
– And… If the weather’s too cold, it doesn’t do anything. Okay. Bring it back around again. You have to have one to hang the sheet from and one to hang the light from. Oh, that makes sense. How long have you been doing this? How, like, how long have you been going out into the field and collecting bugs? 17-18 years now. I’d collect live things and bring them home and watch them.
– And watch them? I’d watch caterpillars eat, and grow, and spin their cocoons, and
– Yeah. wait for them to emerge whenever they came out. You know, there’s an old saying- If you love what you do, you’ll never work another day in your life.
– Yeah. I get a paycheck every other week, but I haven’t worked in 18 years. For me it’s great fun, and I get paid for it. I get paid for my hobby, what could be better? This will hold it down and keep the sheet from blowing. Ohp, there was a spider. This is a mercury halide light. It’s a 250 watt bulb. And that gets hung up here.