Extrapulmonary TB (part 1) | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Extrapulmonary TB (part 1) | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


Voiceover: This is Charles Prober. Voiceover: And I’m Morgan Theis
and today we’re going to talk about the extrapulmonary disease
associated with tuberculosis, which I find kind of interesting, because I always think of
tuberculosis as a lung disease. Voiceover: In fact, you’re correct, Morgan that the most prominent infection
associated with tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, is lung disease, but extrapulmonary disease
is also very important. In fact, it’s so important that
we’re going to make two videos about extrapulmonary disease. The first one we’re going to focus
on disease involving the lymph nodes and the genitourinary tract
and then the second one, we’re going to talk about
involvement of the bones, the central nervous system, the
gastrointestinal tract, and the heart. The reason that it’s so
important to give this much time to extrapulmonary disease is
that we call tuberculosis, the bug infects one-third
of the world’s population. After that initial infection, some
go on and immediately develop disease and others, as we talked about
before, develop secondary disease and it comes out later and
the infection may present in a myriad number of ways. In fact, that’s one of the reasons
that tuberculosis is referred to as one of the great imitators. It can imitate so many
other kinds of disease. Two videos. Voiceover: Okay, so
TB, the great imitator. Voiceover: Exactly and some
of the other great imitators people talk about these days
are lupus, which is, of course, not an infectious disease, HIV infection, which is an infectious disease,
Epstein-Barr virus infection, which is a viral infection. Those are other great imitators, but
today we’re talking about tuberculosis. Voiceover: Okay and these
are good things to remember because since they can
present in so many ways, we always have to have them
on our differential diagnosis, so we don’t forget about them. Voiceover: Exactly. The first site that I’m
going to talk about, Morgan, is the lymph nodes and I’m
talking about that first because it actually is the most common
place that TB goes, after the lungs. Voiceover: Okay and which lymph
nodes are we talking about? Because they’re everywhere
in the body, right? Voiceover: That is true,
they’re everywhere in the body and the infection of the
lymph nodes can occur anywhere in the body,
but the most common sites are posterior cervical, so the
lymph nodes at the back of the neck, and then another common site
is the supra clavicular area, so that space above the clavicle. Oftentimes, when you feel a
lymph node above the clavicle, you appropriately think of some sort
of malignancy in the abdominal area, because that’s a sentinel node,
the supra clavicular lymph node, but something to remember that can
also cause that is tuberculosis. One of the features of a lymph
node infection with tuberculosis is that the lymph nodes
tend to be painless, so they don’t hurt the
person, and also they tend to be not particular tender,
so when you push on them, they also don’t hurt the person. They often have a lack of
overlying redness or heat, because there really isn’t much
of an acute inflammatory response, it’s more of a chronic, slow process, so these lymph nodes tend to sneak
up on you, gradually enlarging. As they gradually enlarge,
some of them, however, can, because it’s a long-term process,
can actually cause fistulas tracks, that is a connection that
goes from the lymph node all the way up to the skin with drainage. Voiceover: Oh gosh. Voiceover: So if you see a
fistulas track associated with an enlarged lymph node,
tuberculosis should be on your list. The way these are diagnosed is
that a sample of the lymph node may be obtained and when
looked at under the microscope, you may actually see
the tuberculous bacilli, those little red snappers,
as they’re sometimes called, or you may culture them if
you don’t actually see them. Taking a chest x-ray of
patients with suspected TB in the lymph nodes is a good idea. Voiceover: Right. Voiceover: However, half the
time or more than half the time, the chest x-ray is negative,
so don’t be discouraged from the diagnosis if the
chest x-ray is negative, because it oftentimes is negative. Voiceover: Got it. Voiceover: The next site
that I’d like to talk about is the genitourinary site and
I’m talking about this site next because after lymph node
involvement comes the so-called GU, or genitourinary involvement. Thought to represent
maybe 10 or 15% of cases of extrapulmonary TB, as opposed to
lymph nodes, that’s more like 35%. This is about half as common. As is true of any infection that
can involve the genitourinary site, the kidneys and the genital
area, the patients may have very nonspecific complaints,
such as blood in their urine or pain when they urinate or needing
to get up at night to urinate. If you examine their urine
under the microscope, you may actually see white
blood cells, so pyuria, but you don’t see any bacteria,
typically, so that can be a finding. Voiceover: I’m confused about that, because why wouldn’t the bacteria
actually be in the urine? Voiceover: The main reason is that
the amount of tuberculous bacilli that are often present at one
of these extrapulmonary sites is quite small and unless you
either centrifuge the urine or otherwise concentrate it and stain
it with tuberculous specific stains, you will not see bacteria. That’s in contrast to regular bacterial
infections of the urinary tract, where there is typically
hundreds of thousands to even millions of bacteria that show
up in the typical stains that are used. The term that’s used here is when
you see the white cells in urine and you don’t see any bacteria,
and then you culture them for regular bacteria,
and they don’t show up, because TB doesn’t show
up on regular cultures, it’s culture negative pyuria. Culture negative pyuria should
make you think of tuberculosis. Now, if you actually send
those urine samples to the lab and say, “I’m looking for
tuberculosis,” and they’re set up on tuberculosis specific media,
then you often will grow the TB, but if you don’t think about
it, you won’t do the test, and if you don’t do the test,
you won’t make the diagnosis. Voiceover: So you’re
asking for a TB culture? Voiceover: Exactly. I mentioned the chest x-ray in the
context of lymph node involvement and it’s often negative. With genitourinary involvement,
the chest x-ray is often positive. If you see culture negative pyuria
and you’re thinking of tuberculosis, the chest x-ray may have value. The other part of the genitourinary
infection that I’ll mention here is specific to women and it’s that
tuberculosis may actually involve the internal genitalia of women,
that is the fallopian tubes and the endometrium and the
importance of recognizing that is that this is one of
the causes of infertility, especially in the developing world,
where tuberculosis is more common. Men can also get infection of
their internal genital organs, including epididymis and the testicles. They can also have prostate involvement. Again, tuberculosis can cause an -itis,
an inflammation in multiple organs. In this case, in the genitourinary area. Voiceover: And you say endometritis
is one of them, as well? Voiceover: Endometritis in women can occur and I mentioned the fallopian tubes
and when you have inflammation in those areas, that can
result in infertility.

What Would Happen If All The Bugs Died?

What Would Happen If All The Bugs Died?


Hey there and welcome to Life Noggin. I took a visit to your human world the other
day, and was surprised to see so many of these little creepy-crawly things roaming around. Being so tiny, they can’t have much of an
impact on Earth, right? The answer to that just might surprise you. So, just how important are insects and what
would happen if all of them died? At first glance, it may sound like a pretty
good thing. No wasps to sting you when you go outside,
no fleas to annoy our furry friends, and no cockroaches to scare the daylight out of you… man those things look like creepy little aliens!. And there’s even some larger-scale benefits
too. We could say goodbye to insects that are invasive
species, like gypsy moths and the asian longhorned beetle. No more insects should also lessen the spread
of insect-spread diseases, like malaria. According to the CDC, malaria is a mosquito-borne
disease that gives a flu-like illness that, if left untreated, can even lead to death. They estimated that around 429,000 people
died from malaria in 2015, so stopping the spread of diseases like this could go a long
way for our global health! The benefits could also spread to our agriculture,
as it would make it so that farmers would no longer need to use insecticides to protect
their crops. Different pesticides would most likely still
be used though, as there could still be other threats to the crops, like weeds or rodents. But without insects, there would probably
be far less plants and food to protect in the first place. This is because around 80 percent of the plants
in the world are angiosperms, which are flowering plants. They directly provide us nutrition in the
form of foods like potatoes, beans, wheat, and many different fruits, vegetables, and
nuts. They are also indirectly part of our plates
by being commonly used to feed the animals we farm. While these plants can be pollinated by things
like wind and other animals such as birds, insects are often vital for their pollination. Common insect pollinators include bees, butterflies,
and beetles. Without another way to pollinate these flowering
plants, we could lose out on a pretty big supply of food! Losing out on insects would likely have a
widespread domino effect of making it harder for other animals to survive, which would
then make it harder for us to survive. Not just from their pollination contributions,
but insects themselves are also widely apart of the diet of animals like frogs, birds,
lizards, and many more! Adding up all the little things that insects
do for the planet both directly and indirectly could really lead us down a rabbit hole of
awfulness if they all died. That, and according to the UK’s Living With
Environmental Change Partnership, the global crop production attributable to insect pollination
was estimated to be worth about $215 billion dollars in 2005. That’s a lot of money! You could probably buy a couple of avocados
at Whole Foods with that much dough. Losing insects might also make it a little
harder for all my aspiring Sherlock Holmes out there. That’s because insects are drawn to a decomposing
body and may lay eggs in it. Through the study of insects and developing
larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate how long since a person died, changes in corpse
positions, and further insight into the cause of death. It’s super creepy to think about. So did any of this surprise you? Did you know such tiny things could be so
important? Let me know in the comments below! Make sure you come back every Monday for a
brand new video. As always, I’m Blocko and this has been
Life Noggin. Don’t forget to keep on thinking!

Epidemics and Pandemics

Epidemics and Pandemics


With the constant media coverage of diseases
like the zika virus, ebola, H1N1 and the yearly flu, we keep hearing about the threat of epidemics
and pandemics, but what do these really mean when it comes to disease emergence and spread? The baseline or endemic level of a disease,
is the amount that is usually present in a given community. An epidemic is a drastic increase in the number
of people infected with that disease, in that same community. A pandemic refers to an epidemic that has
spread to several countries or continents, affecting a large number of people. So what can cause an epidemic? Epidemics can be caused by a couple different
factors including: • An increase in the amount of a disease
or its virulence • Its appearance in a new location
• An enhanced mode of transmission • A change in the susceptibility of the
host to being infected and
• Increased host exposure or a new method of host infection 3 common ways epidemics can be spread are:
• From a common-source, where a group of people are all exposed to an infectious agent
or toxin from the same source • By propagated outbreak, with transmission
from one person to another Or
• Using a vector or carrier (like mosquitoes) that interact with humans and transmits the
disease To classify the spread of disease as a pandemic,
there need to be community level outbreak epidemics in at least one other country in
a different world health organization defined region, which means the disease is starting
to spread around the world. By this time the respective governments of
outbreak-stricken countries should have taken action to halt disease progression and implement
national health strategies. So next time you hear about epidemics and
pandemics on the news, you don’t need to prepare to flee to Antarctica. Take some time
to learn more about the disease, how it’s spread and where it is prevalent, to keep
yourself safe. For more information please visit the WHO’s
website at www.who.int

The Time When Killing Animals Infected 400,000 People

The Time When Killing Animals Infected 400,000 People


Hey it’s Mike here and today it’s STORY TIME! I’m doing something a little bit different today As many of you know I’m studying a masters in Public Health and in a recent class there’s a really interesting really massive story of 400,000 people getting infected came up and so let’s, let’s just jump right into it. ~To set the scene~ The year is 1993 It’s springtime, In Milwaukee Wisconsin And everything appears to be normal… With the exception of some extra rainfall. Milwaukee Woman: “Just another day is beautiful Wisconsin!” “HUNTER WHERE ARE YOU” “ARE YOU DOING THAT THING TO YOUR BEANIE BABIES AGAIN!” “I TOLD YOU THEY DON’T REPRODUCE LIKE THAT!” “Oh my, I have a tummy ache!” Hunter: “Hey maam! I just pooped my own body weight!” Milwaukee Woman: *shocked and confused* “Oahh!” It had begun. Over the next couple weeks, According to this study, Some people would poop as much as 90 times in a single day! Alright..for most people it was closer to 12… As thousands, TENS of thousands as people started exhibiting symptoms And going into the doctor A lot of doctors misdiagnosed this mysterious illness as the flu without further investigation And from this study of almost 300 people it was diarrhea and cramps for almost everyone who was infected and vomiting and fever for about half of those infected Don’t worry, this whole video isn’t going to be gross It’s not all gonna be about diarrhea *only 93% about diarrhea* At this point we need to appreciate the widespread level of mystery and panic that must have occurred as now HUNDREDS of thousands of people were falling ill. Alright let’s investigate this mystery a little bit further On March 21, Milwaukee’s southern water treatment plant’s records showed an increase in turbidity, which is the cloudiness of water and by March 23, it had reached UNPRECEDENTED levels of turbidity It took them over two weeks after the initial turbidity increase to finally close that southern water plant and switch the entire city over to the northern water plant’s uncontaminated water supply At that point the mayor also issued a “boil your water!” order as you can see by the timeline here it was already too late, everybody had already pooped their brains out 🙁 by this time it had already become the largest waterborn outbreak in U.S history costing $90 million which is now like 4 quadrillion dollars counting inflation No, its more like $120 million with inflation And as the title suggested, infected 400,000 people which was half of the 800,000 people on the southern water supply So what was the illness that was actually making everyone sick? Well it was Cryptosporidium, particularly Cryptosporidium parvum which is a strain that infects a variety of mammals Cryptosporidium is a water born protozoa basically a microscopic wormlike animal and it’s really important to note that it is highly chlorine resistant when it’s in its oocyst form when it’s in it’s dormant form, kinda like a little egg and thats how it spreads from one animal to another they oocysts are pooped out of the original victim and then they have to make it to the mouth and past the mouth of their next victim where they enter the stomach and the stomach acid actually wears away the shell of that oocyst and lets these creepy little worm like creatures escape into your digestive tract and then it’s PARTY TIME Back to this study, while most infected people seemed to have diarrhea for about 3 days there was some unfortunate soul that had 38 days of diarrhea Milwaukee woman: “Day 35, I ran out of books to read on the toilet,” “so I started a journal.” “It’s nice to journal.” “I like journaling because, in Wisconsin,…” In water treatment, coagulation is a common method to remove oocysts and that was the method they used in the southern water treatment essentially you have a compound that binds with the organic matter in the water for example, poop, with is harboring some oocysts and then it leads them to settle at the bottom, purifying the water overall a little bit with the mechanisms used to determine how much coagulant to put in as well as a lack of turbidity alarms the southern water plant clearly failed to remove the oocysts. In addition it took them so long to figure out what was going on because because at the time sampling for Cryptosporidium was difficult, lengthy, and was not standardized. They of course did confirm that it was Cryptosporidium after taking a sample of water, freezing it into an ice core, and then sending it off to a lab. Now for the most important question here: How had a relatively modern water treatment plant been totally compromised? What was the original source of the pathogen? We’re gonna look at the likelihood of all 3 of those, starting with the slaughterhouse because the blame quickly landed on the Peck Meat Packing plant which was the largest slaughterhouse in Milwaukee with 800 employees From this local article Quote: Here’s a map of Milwaukee the Peck Plant eventually became cargo which you can read there the slaugherhouse was likely dumping in the river hErE and it of course went all the way down the river and came out in the south coast of Milwaukee in Lake Michigan where the intake to the southern plant is But there’s another very possible point of origin, and that is the Milwaukee Stockyards which were right across the river though it really is two sides of the same coin This article eight years prior to the whole ordeal brags by saying Quote: Why is this important? because Cryptosporidium appears to most violently be spread by calves One study found that as high as 90% of calves tested positive for Cryptosporidium A statistic cited by dairy farmers as well, not just some..fringe..anti-veal statistic. That 90% goes down to 20% in adult bovines But let’s throw out a most conservative figure which is still pretty impressive and that is from this study That in 1993, when this happened, 30% of U.S beef calves whatever you wanna call them, some just call them babies… were infected. It also appears that these stockyards did not have any type of manure management system or anything vaguely like that From the Environmental Policy Paradox, Among those to blame was the stockyard, which was illegally dumping waste. Now we have to get a bird’s eye view here because the stockyards were 13 acres right near downtown, right on the river, and that big bout of spring rain could perfectly act as a flush to flush out all of that calf Crypto poop into the river then into Lake Michigan to enter the water supply And from this study Quote: And if the actual point of origin wasn’t the stockyards in particular, Well, were do you think all of those baby cows ended up going? to Peck Meat packing plant, at least a lot of them from this article And when an animal is slaughtered, all of the waste in their digestive tract has to go somewhere this is why a variety of meats are notorious for containing fecal matter I don’t know why people don’t talk about that more often.. Some of the ~people of Milwaukee~ banded together and actually sued the Peck Meat Packing plant and they settled, although they said it wasn’t their fault they were just doing it because the legal costs were getting too expensive.. Back to the stockyards though, One really interesting fact, after being there for 120 years, the stockyards moved their location the year after the outbreak Did they know about something we didn’t? Maybe a lot of diarrhea building up, maybe a lot of manure that ended up getting flushed in at that point? Who knows??? Either way, they got the hell outta dodge ..but actually they ended up moving to Dodge County West.. that’s.. kind of awkward, but it definitely cleared them of any future liabilities! Though it’s never presented as the main culprit in any of the literature, we have to look at the possibility that the whole outbreak may have been caused from human waste contamination there a few points that make human waste much less likely of a culprit than animal waste, the first of which is that that human waste from Milwaukee would have needed to to contain enough of these oocysts to infect 400,000 people to have so many cysts that half the people that drank that water, got it because there was no previous Cryptosporidium outbreak it would be hard to believe that there would be enough humans to harbor that much Cryptosporidium to create that massive quantity of oocysts that would then enter the water system, not likely. By contrast, the stockyard saw 100,000 calves which are again, commonly infected and 300,000 total bovines in a year that’s a massive poop source. the human waste was also treated in a waste water treatment plant, and because the sewage system is constantly flowing yeah, a large influx of rain might clear out more of it, but it just isn’t an argument as to why that would be a massive increase And, another interesting point from this study, in 2003 And we’re not just talking about developing countries because of Cryptosporidium’s chlorine resistance, we’re also talking about developed nations So with all of this information combined, I think we can say with a pretty high level of certainty That this massive infection of 400,000 people was due to the farming, the selling, and possibly the killing of animals. At least all of those little innocent veal calves might have gotten a little bit of revenge. Although obviously not all 400,000 people deserved it In the end in fact 50 to 100 people, depending on the estimate actually passed away and those were mostly immunocompromised people, like people with AIDS. But at this point you might be thinking: “Mic, isn’t this actually the fault of the city? It’s the fault of the water treatment plant?” Video: “And it happened with a fully functional treatment process.” “Operating properly, and meeting all current regulatory standards.” Woman in Video: “They didn’t do anything wrong.” “They did the best with the tools that they had,” “and the expectations for water treatment at the time.” “They were conventional treatment plans. Tried and true.” “The format’s been used all over the country, all over Canada, all over the world.” “And it has worked well.” “But it didn’t work in this case.” Well, things actually did go wrong, But A.) the original source of it was the animal poop, and B.) how much poop are we expected to filter out? After all, from this government paper livestock alone in the U.S. poops 39 billion humans worth of solid waste. And, that’s a lot to deal with. We’re seeing massive costs being put into water treatment because of animal agriculture, like Like Des Moines in Iowa having to spend millions of dollars to filter out the nitrates from all the animal poop so people can drink the water. And naysayers might also be thinking: Naysayer: “Mic, that was 1993, that was in the past, this isn’t a concern AT ALL today!” N O P E WROOONG WRONGITY WRONG WRONG WRONGERSON Here’s a list of the top 10 food born pathogens and they are virtually all from animal products and the ones that aren’t exclusively from animal products are likely from foods with animal products because these are animal targeting pathogens that feed on animal flesh and so forth. they do not eat…oak.. ..and…leaves.. So while this Milwaukee thing was a great history lesson, we are dealing with MILLIONS AND MILLIONS of cases food born illness from farming and killing animals as well I mean look at the recent Romaine Recall, that wasn’t because of some ~Romaine Disease~ that we could also get, that was because their was animal poop contaminating it animal farming managed to briefly ruin LETTUCE definitely let me know what you think down below Was it the stockyards? Was it the slaughterhouse? Or am I wrong and it was human waste? Story time is over, I hope you never get Cryptosporidium Feel free to like, subscribe, hit that notification bell, and I will see you in the next video.

What If Ebola Infected The Whole World?

What If Ebola Infected The Whole World?


This video was made available by Honey. A free and easy way to save money while shopping
online. Since Mabalo Lokela, a 44-year-old school
teacher from the Democratic Republic of Congo, contracted the first recorded case of Ebola
in 1976, the disease has been a scourge on African life. For every case of Ebola we know about, there
could be as many as 6 other cases we don’t know about, just waiting to reveal themselves. Serious outbreaks of the disease have occurred
in Africa, and smaller isolated cases have been observed in Europe and the United States
of America. But what if the disease went truly international
and infected the world? Is there a chance the virus could become airborne
and strike out into new territories? Should we be worried? That’s what we’ll find out, in this episode
of The Infographics Show – What would happen if Ebola infected the whole world? There have already been almost 29,000 cases
of Ebola with almost 11,000 deaths, according to the World Health Organization report of
May 2017. Deadly human outbreaks have been confirmed
in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, South Sudan, Uganda, the Ivory Coast, the
Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Fatal cases have been recorded in Mali, Nigeria,
and the United States. Non-fatal cases have been recorded in Italy,
Senegal, Spain, and the UK. According to a Vice article in 2014, some
of the world’s top Ebola experts are worrying night and day about the advent of a worldwide
Ebola epidemic. Ebola is a high fatality rate virus. There are five strains of the virus, one of
which can cause severe illness, sometimes fatal, in humans and animals. Ebola’s choice animal host is thought to
be the humble fruit bat. Symptoms of the virus include vomiting, fever,
weakness, diarrhea and stomach aches. In about half of these cases, patients have
been reported to have bled from their orifices. Some of the infected may also experience chest
pain, sore throat, a rash, red-eyes, and difficulty breathing. There’s an incubation period of around 10-20
days before symptoms can be observed. The virus is named after the Ebola River,
where the disease was first recorded. Although being extremely infectious, Ebola
isn’t terribly contagious as the virus is not transmitted through the air. Humans can only become infected if they come
into contact with bodily fluids or contaminated objects. Although it is possible that somebody could
be infected by an infected person sneezing on them, this is unlikely, as sufferers of
Ebola do not have flu-like symptoms, like coughing and sneezing. For the disease to go truly international,
it would have to mutate and go airborne. Examples of other airborne diseases are measles,
chickenpox, and influenza. So, let’s take a look at how the disease
might spread to other countries. The most likely way for Ebola to cross borders
is inside a person on an airplane. Remember that the incubation period can last
up to 3 weeks, and during that time, the infected shows no symptoms and is not infectious. So a person may be able to take a flight,
find new dwellings in a new city, and start a new job in his or her host country, before
symptoms are visible and the person is infectious. Now Ebola doesn’t spread through the air,
so the only way that Ebola could spread in this new environment is if someone were to
touch the infected person’s sweat, vomit, diarrhea, saliva or blood, which is kinda
of icky. In a developed country, the symptoms would
be recognized by a health official who would look at the symptoms and the person’s latest
passport stamp. If his or her country is one that has had
an outbreak of Ebola, the patient would be treated in isolation, and necessary steps
would be taken to make sure the virus doesn’t spread. This is why the isolated cases of Ebola in
developed countries have been minimalized. In the countries where outbreaks have occurred,
there are usually public hygiene and sanitation issues, and this, along with the limited accessibility
to medical facilities, clean water, and effective infrastructure, lead to outbreaks occurring
in these regions. Director of the Center for Infectious Disease
Research at Minnesota University, Michael Osterholm, published an open editorial in
the New York Times arguing that Ebola becoming airborne is a real risk that virologists don’t
like to talk about publicly. “If certain mutations occurred”, the scientist
pointed out, “just breathing would put one at risk of contracting Ebola. Infections could spread quickly to every part
of the globe.” And he has a case. The Ebola virus does mutate, or change, fairly
frequently, but has not yet acquired the ability to spread through air. Genetic mutations are random, some may not
cause any noticeable differences, and other changes might render the virus nonfunctional
rather than more deadly. For the disease to become airborne, it would
require a series of mutations to happen in an exact order. And even if it were to become airborne, it
may lose the ability to infect people or to cause such deadly symptoms. Osterholm, in his op-ed, recalled a 2012 Canadian
study where pigs that were infected with the Ebola virus passed the disease to monkeys
caged nearby. The animals had no contact with each other,
proving, allegedly, that the virus could be spread by the respiratory route. So whether or not the disease really spreads
is a bit of a scientific crapshoot. How would the world react if the disease started
to mutate and spread at an accelerated level? Airports would become more vigorous with the
checking of the disease. Leaving the port of an infected area would
become difficult. Quarantines would be set up for those suspected
of having the disease in the incubation stage. Countries might tighten their immigration
rules and not permit entrance of citizens from infected areas. Human Rights activists would argue, correctly,
that people have the right to travel. Certain groups in society may choose to isolate
themselves and wait out any epidemic underground or on islands. Individuals may exercise survival techniques
acquired through watching zombie apocalypse television shows. The most important thing to remember, however,
is that Ebola has an incubation period of up to 3 weeks, and then the symptoms last
for another week or so. It all happens very fast. If the infected and the uninfected are kept
separate for a month, the epidemic would pass relatively quickly. The world would return to normal, until the
next medical pandemic came along. Feel like completely sterilizing every surface
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What Does Lyme Disease Do To Your Body?

What Does Lyme Disease Do To Your Body?


When you think about Lyme disease you probably
think of this, a tick. Or maybe more specifically, a tick bite. Which is not wrong, you should. But what exactly is it about a tick bite that
makes us sick? This is Borrelia burgdorferi, one of many
bacteria that ticks can pass onto humans and the one responsible for Lyme disease. It causes an array of symptoms, which can
be anything from fatigue, arthritis, facial palsy and occasionally a bulls-eye rash. (Erythema
migrans, if you want to get technical). We’ve only known about the pathogen since
the early 1980’s, but it’s been around for much longer than that…potentially for
thousands of years longer. Traces of its effects were even found in Otzi
the Iceman, the 5,300-year old hunter found mummified in the Italian Alps. But while we’re not sure exactly where and
when Borrelia originated, we do know a lot about how the disease works and how it’s
spread. My name is Raphael Stricker. I’m a medical doctor. I practice in San Francisco. I have more than 4000 Lyme disease patients in my
practice. And I’ve written more than 200 papers about Lyme disease. Ticks have been called sewers of infection. Anything that they feed on they can pick up
and transmit to you. These “sewers of infection” need blood
to survive. Sometimes that’s bird blood, sometimes that’s
reptile blood, but a lot of the time its mammal blood, like mice and deer. If a tick feeds on one of those animals and
they are infected with the bacteria, the tick will carry it and then spread it to other
animals, who then spread it to other ticks, and so on. Occasionally, those ticks spread the disease
to us, and they do that by passing the pathogen through the tick’s saliva, which some people
call a pretty fascinating substance. Tick saliva is really a pretty fascinating
substance. It has several components. One is it has an anesthetic that numbs the
bite site so that the person doesn’t know that he or she is being infected. It also has an anticoagulant that keeps the
blood from clotting so that the tick can feed continuously at that site. And then it also
has this immunosuppressive substance that suppresses the immune response at the bite
site so that the host can’t fight off the infection. And it’s been shown that a tick bite can inject
about 70,000 bacteria with the lyme bacteria, so you’re getting a pretty hefty dose of this spirochete, it’s called a spirochete, with a tick bite. So, what does Borrelia burgdorferi actually
do to your body? Technically….nothing. The bacteria itself doesn’t harm your cells,
but your body knows the pathogen shouldn’t be there, so it launches an all-out assault. Your immune system will first try to fight
off disease by targeting proteins on the bacteria’s cell walls, but the spirochete can just change
which proteins it expresses and evade detection. So, so much for that idea. Then, as the pathogen moves through your bloodstream
to other parts of your body, your immune system continues to fight it by producing cytokines,
which work to regulate your immune system and produce inflammation.This inflammation
then occurs in the areas that the bacteria travels to, which, depending on the strain
of Borrelia, can occur in the joints, muscles, heart and even the brain. But due to the bacteria’s ability to evade
detection, this inflammation does nothing to destroy it and everything to make you feel
sick. So that’s what really causes the symptoms. It’s not the bacteria per say it’s the body’s
response to the bacteria that causes a lot of these symptoms. Basically, Borrelia burgdorferi isn’t doing
much of anything other than trying to survive in its host. Well my medical school teacher told me not
to anthropomorphize you know bacteria, basically I mean the goal is to survive. The goal of any bacteria or any organism is
to survive. So Borelia has evolved a way to do that that’s very efficient. Of course, we’re doing whatever we can to make sure the disease can’t survive. Currently lyme disease is treated with antibiotics. And while a vaccine was created around 16
years ago, it’s no longer being produced due to low usage and potential side effects. But there is interest in developing a new
vaccine in two different ways. One idea is to target the proteins expressed
by the Borrelia itself, which fights lyme disease, while the other idea would involve
fighting the compounds in tick saliva, which would fight lyme as well as a number of tickborne
diseases. Because ticks are, after all, Sewers of infection. So, if ticks, mice, deer and any other number
of animals can be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, why don’t they also get Lyme disease? So deer have a kind of protein in their blood
that kills the Lyme bacteria. And the question always comes up well why
don’t why can’t we put that into humans? And the answer is because humans aren’t deer. So there you go, humans aren’t deer.

Infectious Diseases of East Africa: Summer Abroad in Malawi

Infectious Diseases of East Africa: Summer Abroad in Malawi


It’s important to get students
interested and enthused about infectious diseases years ago we thought we had
vanquished infectious diseases when antibiotics became available but it’s
been anything but that every person in the United States could be exposed to
something that was once considered tropical or exotic because of the sheer
volume of travel and international commerce that takes place I was
interested in developing a study abroad program I chose Malawi because Michigan
State has a research program in malaria going on for over 30 years and it’s also
a country with a burden of infectious diseases so it would give us an
opportunity to experience firsthand the impact that these diseases have on the
population so it’s academically rigorous It was definitely hard work but I felt that
all the work that we did was extremely applicable to what we were learning
about the community while we were there and one of the most amazing things was
that we got to see presentations from a variety of Malawian people who spoke
about their specialty in whatever parasite or public health topic they
were talking about. In the BLD program you do often learn about these various
diseases but you never see how it impacts the person and this experience
let us see what are these patients actually going through so we got to do rounds at Queen
Elizabeth central hospital with Dr. Karl Seydel and we got to see these
patients that are infected by these diseases like cerebral meningitis and
that really put it into perspective about how our program is going to impact
the world and the patient just by seeing okay this is what this research is going
to and this is what our major has to offer. It’s a very life-changing
experience; I always knew I wanted to work with improving impoverished
communities but now it became very solidified after this trip; it showed me
how BLS majors can positively impact communities We definitely did a lot of
work and I appreciated that about this program because I learned a lot but we
also had a lot of time to learn the culture, explore, get to know each other and I wish I could go again. you

Typhus Epidemic Worsens in Los Angeles | NBCLA

Typhus Epidemic Worsens in Los Angeles | NBCLA


like somebody was driving railroad stakes through my eyes and out the back of my neck I am concerned about going back to work and getting this again because I thought I was going to die can you imagine what she had was typhus a disease born from rats and fleas they are running rampant in ever-growing piles of garbage the NBC 4 i-team has been tracking the epidemic in Los Angeles the numbers are staggering one of the cases inside City Hall here’s investigative reporter Joel Grover a veteran city official has now contracted typhus a disease the Public Health Department has been saying was mainly hitting the homeless population but now workers in downtown LA and Beyond are clearly at risk and they’re calling on the city to control the filthy conditions that are fueling this epidemic mounds of garbage pile up on a downtown LA Street garbage that draws rats which Harbor fleas fleas spread the typhus bacteria when they bite humans and now their latest victim is deputy LA City Attorney Liz Greenwood it felt like somebody was driving railroad stakes through my eyes and out the back of my neck three months ago Greenwood a veteran prosecutor began experiencing horrible headaches and high fevers her doctor tested her blood and found she was infected with typhus who gets typhus it’s it’s a medieval disease that’s caused by trash piles of trash like those on Sierra’s Avenue which we questioned the mayor about four months ago this is a breeding ground for typhus that is unacceptable to me and as mayor I’m gonna make sure that that is changed after our story aired in October the city did haul away the trash on Sarah’s Avenue and launched more frequent cleanings of streets in Skid Row the area now known as the typhus zone but four months later the garbage is once again piling up on Sarah’s and all over LA this is the city of Los Angeles Estela Lopez represents businesses in part of downtown LA and is worried that the typhus epidemic is only getting worse you can’t solve this until you hit the cause of it and the cause of it is that you still have these mountains of trash and the latest numbers from the State Health Department show a record number of typhus cases in LA County in 2018 at least a hundred and twenty four people and more than 80% of those cases occurred outside downtown LA do you think the city is doing enough to stop the outbreak no deputy city attorney Liz Greenwood thinks the city should fumigate all city buildings in the downtown area for fleas including City Hall East where she works and City Hall the city has already fumigated parts of nearby LAPD headquarters that have been plagued with fleas and it’s shut down and fumigated LAPD Central Division where several cops were bitten by fleas according to this veteran officer our cops afraid of getting typhus it’s not just homeless folks but the city told Greenwood it doesn’t have the resources to fumigate City Hall east where she says hundreds of city employees who work there and thousands of citizens who visit are at risk of getting typhus I am concerned about going back to work and getting this again because I thought I was going to die we asked mayor Garcetti –zz office why they haven’t requested that city hall buildings be fumigated for the fleas that can carry typhus the mayor’s office didn’t answer our specific question but simply sent us a statement saying since last fall there’s been a comprehensive effort to improve cleanliness and protect public health in the Civic Center NBC 4 is committed to shedding light on LA’s homeless epidemic with our streets of shame series if you see an issue that needs to be addressed please email your story to tips at NBC la comm