DDT in Control of Household Insects (U.S. War Department, 1947)

DDT in Control of Household Insects (U.S. War Department, 1947)


[Music] [Narrator:] This is a greatly enlarged view of the common housefly. This is the cockroach. And this is the bedbug. You may not recognize them as they are shown here. But you may have met them in the barracks, in the kitchen or mess hall, and at mealtimes. The cockroach, the bedbug, and the house fly are called household insects because they infest places of human habitation, ruining sleep and efficiency, destroying food, and carrying filth and disease. It is the duty of the medical department to investigate insect infestations and to inspect insect control measures that are carried out by personnel of the Corps of Engineers. Control of household insects in military establishments is based upon thorough sanitation and upon scientific use of an insecticide known as DDT. DDT is particularly useful because of its physical properties of stability and solubility. It is easily mixed with kerosene or fuel oil and forms a clear, stable solution. In this form it has the advantage of leaving no noticeable residue. Although in its pure form DDT cannot be mixed with water, when combined with a wetting agent it enters easily into a suspension with water. DDT acts as a nerve poison and is highly effective against all household insects. A container treated with DDT is death, slow but sure, to flies. With mosquitoes in the same container, the effect is identical. DDT will continue to knock out insects for months after application. Roaches in the same container meet a similar fate. Many different types of equipment are used in insect control. However, these are the ones most often employed against household insects. DDT is issued in both liquid and powder form for use in sprayers and dusters. Each post should stock at least 45 days supply of both types of DDT. The three-gallon sprayer is used with the standard five percent solution of DDT in kerosene. It can be used with the wettable DDT in water, depending upon the type of treatment required. To allow enough room for sufficient air pressure, don’t fill the tank too full. You’ll get the best results when an operating pressure of 25 to 30 pounds is maintained. The five percent DDT solution is also used in applicators for treatment of screened windows and doors. The duster is used with 10 percent DDT powder. Here is the complete arsenal of insect control equipment: respirator and gloves for your own protection, bulb and plunger-type dusters, screen applicators, and the three gallon sprayer. With these few pieces of equipment you can control all household insects. Concentrate on control of bedbugs during the winter months, leaving the rest of the year for warm weather insects. The bedbug is a sociable insect, a lover of blood and warmth found wherever humans sleep. Even the best-kept barracks is not immune. The bedbug is a nocturnal insect and feeds on human blood. The spots on this sheet show it has been active here. It breeds and hides by day in cracks and crevices adjoining the beds. Its harbors can be identified by the traces of excrement. The bedbug may also live in the seams and the edges of mattresses. Bedsprings and bedsteads offer nesting space for these insects. A single bedbug lays as many as 500 eggs in a lifetime and in three months may have up to 20 thousand descendants. The occupants of the barracks prepare in advance for insect control, opening the windows, pulling the bunks out away from the wall, stripping the mattresses and pillows and putting in the aisle all shoes, clothes, bedding, rubber goods, and other material which might be harmed by the spray. And now you’re ready to go. Treat the wall surfaces using the nozzle, which produces a fan-shaped spray. Hold the nozzle close enough to the surface to produce a wet coating without mist or fog. If the nozzle is held too far away, most of the spray does not reach the surface. If the nozzle is held too close the spray forms drops and runs off. A medium wet spray leaves an even covering and a uniform crystalline deposit. This is the way it should look. This residue properly placed is the key to control of household insects. One quart of liquid DDT when properly applied will cover 250 square feet of wall surface. Spray the walls to a height of at least three feet above the level of the mattress, covering all cracks around joints and timbers which might offer harbor to the bugs. Now take care of the beds. Spray the coil springs and the mattress edge. Don’t bother with the flat surfaces of the mattress. Spray methodically and thoroughly. This barracks should remain a pleasant place to sleep for a year or more. A well-kept mess is less likely to become infested with roaches than one in which sanitation is neglected. However, even the best-kept mess must be treated regularly against infestation. Before treatment, mess personnel make all the necessary preparations. Removing stores from shelves and cabinets to uncover cracks and sheltered places where roaches live and breed. Removing or covering all goods which might be harmed by the spray. Upending tables and other movable furniture, and that means everything. The kitchen fires must be out several hours in advance. The kerosene spray is dangerous around open flame or hot surfaces. Mess personnel clean out beneath fixed furniture such as stoves, iceboxes, and work surfaces, and put all dishes, pots, pans, and other containers where they will be protected from contamination. Sanitation is their part in helping the program of insect control. And now the mess hall is ready for treatment. No smoking is permitted during spray treatments. This rule must be observed as long as the kerosene fumes are present. Turn off all electricity as an added precaution against short circuits and possible fire. Here the method of spraying is the same as for bedbugs, only the breeding and hiding places are different. Roaches form little clusters or colonies in cracks, crevices, and in warm, dark, protected places generally around the lower half of the room. Large roach colonies are found around moisture and warmth. Of all types of food, starchy ones are the most attractive to roaches. Treat all the places where flour and crumbs collect. This is a good example, a bread storage cabinet. Or beneath the kitchen work tables. Or under the tables in the mess hall. Okay, now that much of the job’s finished, as far as you’re concerned that is, here’s where the mess personnel take over again. Mess personnel should be particularly careful to inspect all equipment, produce, and other material before it is put in place. It may bring roaches with it. Roaches often hitch a ride on just this sort of thing. Roaches are the most difficult of the household insects to exterminate completely. Constant vigilance is necessary with an occasional spot treatment when roaches are found. Spot treatment and general sanitation are the responsibility of the mess personnel. If ants are discovered during the period between regular insect control measures, a spot treatment of the ant run and the point of entry will take care of them. After a few days it’s a good practice to give the mess area a follow-up treatment with ten percent DDT powder. Dusting is a check on the previous spray treatment. Moreover, it gives you a chance to get the places you couldn’t treat with kerosene spray for fear of fire. Use the plunger-type duster to reach otherwise inaccessible points, and for general or over-treatment. A thin layer is sufficient. The fly presents a different and more complicated problem. It breeds on filth, feeds on filth, carries filth with it wherever it goes. It abounds wherever rotten or decaying materials are found. From these breeding points, the adult fly spreads filth and disease for a thousand yards or more. The eating habits of the adult fly are no more pleasant than its breeding habits. From here the fly may travel to human food, carrying with it the germs of dysentery, cholera, diarrhea, and typhoid fever. There are four rules for fly control. First destroy its breeding places. Control it at its source. Flies often breed in great numbers in stables on or near the post. But not only in the stable itself. Outside the stable, in and around the manure pile, and in any other place where decaying matter is found. So spray the compost pile regularly and the surrounding beams and timbers. Here you may use DDT in water suspension as the visible residue will not be objectionable. Before spraying with DDT in water, remember to agitate the sprayer tank to keep the DDT in suspension. In treating the stable you not only take care of the common housefly, but other species as well. That makes for a better stable. The second rule of flight control is treat the way stations at which flies stop for food. Garbage racks will draw flies for hundreds of yards around. Garbage should be removed at least once daily either by the army or by an approved contractor. The garbage must be properly disposed of. A sanitary fill is the preferred method. Garbage cans should be cleaned immediately after disposal of the contents, whether in a modern steam unit like this one, or in the old-fashioned way with the bucket and water. Don’t expect DDT to substitute for proper sanitation. A garbage rack can easily become a breeding point and a way station for flies. Keep it clean and spray it at regular intervals. The garbage rack should be built with drains to carry off washwater and spilled garbage. Not all garbage racks are constructed with adequate drains. In this case the water runs off from the rack, polluting the soil with organic matter and forming a perfect medium for fly-breeding. So spray the general area around the garbage depot covering not only the ground but the walls and the garbage cans themselves. Now the third rule of fly control, a very simple one: keep ’em out. Doors and windows must be thoroughly screened. All screen doors should open outward to make it more difficult for the flies to enter. For treating screens, several types of screen applicators are available. A good application of DDT will make both sides of the screen sure death to flies. Two men can treat all the screens of a mess hall in about 20 minutes. The brush and roller types shown here require approximately one quart of five percent DDT in kerosene to treat sixty to eighty screens. One treatment of screens will continue to kill flies for one or two months. The fourth and last rule of fly control is kill them when they do get in. In fly control it isn’t necessary to produce an all-over fog or to contact the insects directly. Just deposit a good residue on the places where the flies tend to rest. Their resting places are generally high, above waist level on braces, trusses, uprights, shelf edges. Flies almost always alight on angles and protruding edges where they can see in both directions. Look around for fly specks; they’ll help you to identify their resting places. They very often rest on the pull cords of lights and other dangling things. Don’t, however, spray electric wiring light switches or lighted lamps. When you have finished your work, look around to make sure that every point has been covered. An insect-free mess hall is essential to the welfare and health of the camp as a whole. A well-kept barracks and a well-kept mess are a check and a double check for efficiency, morale, and health. [Music]

Gregory Petsko: The coming neurological epidemic

Gregory Petsko: The coming neurological epidemic


Translator: Jenny Zurawell Unless we do something to prevent it, over the next 40 years we’re facing an epidemic of neurologic diseases on a global scale. A cheery thought. On this map, every country that’s colored blue has more than 20 percent of its population over the age of 65. This is the world we live in. And this is the world your children will live in. For 12,000 years, the distribution of ages in the human population has looked like a pyramid, with the oldest on top. It’s already flattening out. By 2050, it’s going to be a column and will start to invert. This is why it’s happening. The average lifespan’s more than doubled since 1840, and it’s increasing currently at the rate of about five hours every day. And this is why that’s not entirely a good thing: because over the age of 65, your risk of getting Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease will increase exponentially. By 2050, there’ll be about 32 million people in the United States over the age of 80, and unless we do something about it, half of them will have Alzheimer’s disease and three million more will have Parkinson’s disease. Right now, those and other neurologic diseases — for which we have no cure or prevention — cost about a third of a trillion dollars a year. It will be well over a trillion dollars by 2050. Alzheimer’s disease starts when a protein that should be folded up properly misfolds into a kind of demented origami. So one approach we’re taking is to try to design drugs that function like molecular Scotch tape, to hold the protein into its proper shape. That would keep it from forming the tangles that seem to kill large sections of the brain when they do. Interestingly enough, other neurologic diseases which affect very different parts of the brain also show tangles of misfolded protein, which suggests that the approach might be a general one, and might be used to cure many neurologic diseases, not just Alzheimer’s disease. There’s also a fascinating connection to cancer here, because people with neurologic diseases have a very low incidence of most cancers. And this is a connection that most people aren’t pursuing right now, but which we’re fascinated by. Most of the important and all of the creative work in this area is being funded by private philanthropies. And there’s tremendous scope for additional private help here, because the government has dropped the ball on much of this, I’m afraid. In the meantime, while we’re waiting for all these things to happen, here’s what you can do for yourself. If you want to lower your risk of Parkinson’s disease, caffeine is protective to some extent; nobody knows why. Head injuries are bad for you. They lead to Parkinson’s disease. And the Avian Flu is also not a good idea. As far as protecting yourself against Alzheimer’s disease, well, it turns out that fish oil has the effect of reducing your risk for Alzheimer’s disease. You should also keep your blood pressure down, because chronic high blood pressure is the biggest single risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. It’s also the biggest risk factor for glaucoma, which is just Alzheimer’s disease of the eye. And of course, when it comes to cognitive effects, “use it or lose it” applies, so you want to stay mentally stimulated. But hey, you’re listening to me. So you’ve got that covered. And one final thing. Wish people like me luck, okay? Because the clock is ticking for all of us. Thank you.

Killer Insect | Full information of killer insect | Is killer insect Truly exist or not?

Killer Insect | Full information of killer insect | Is killer insect Truly exist or not?


nowadays an insect is getting viral
which is called killer insect and it’s found in India some people say never
this insect or never try to kill your bared hands because it can spread the
virus to your full body in minutes but there is an argument about this killer
insect is it true or fake different people have different opinions about it
some people say it’s true and some says it’s fake so I personally research on
Google about it to know more information finally the result came out it seems to
me faq news because this picture can be edited by Photoshop but sometimes the
comments of people made me feel this might be true but however besides all
the arguments if you think this killer insect exists then share this video to
your friends and family to alert them to stay away from this insect if they see
also tell them don’t touch it with bare hands as you know it’s able to circulate
the entire human system in minutes whatever if you have any more
information about the killer insect please share the information in the
comment as you know thanks for watching the video

Top 10 Infectious Diseases — TopTenzNet

Top 10 Infectious Diseases — TopTenzNet


Top 10 Infectious Diseases 10. Smallpox This variola virus had many forms and continues
to be a required vaccination for many countries. Smallpox in its worse forms – hemorrhagic
and flat – had the highest fatality rates with only a 10 percent or less chance of survival.
Fortunately this disease has been the only one on this list to be completely eradicated
from nature since it is only contagious through humans. 9. Typhoid fever Typhoid Fever Perhaps one of the least lethal diseases on
this list, the fatality rate of typhoid fever is only 10-30 percent. But the symptoms show
up in stages over a period of three weeks and, in most cases, are not fatal. That said,
the disease can stay dormant in a person who has overcome it and then be passed on to another
person. The most famous case of this was the American cook in the early 1900s known as
“Typhoid Mary” Mallon. 8. Influenza Perhaps the scariest virus on this list is
one that anyone anywhere can contract – influenza. Luckily, the flu is easily identified and
in most countries easily combated. However, young children and the elderly are particularly
susceptible to flu. And the most famous strain was the Spanish Flu, which was estimated to
have killed 2-5 percent of the human population in 1918-1919. Thankfully that strain has never
been seen again; however, the flu virus is famous for mutating from animals to humans. 7. Bubonic Plague This plague is transmitted through infected
fleas and kills about 70 percent of its victims in 4-7 days. The most well known epidemic
was the Black Death in Medieval times when it was rumored to have killed about 25 million
in Europe alone and another 50 million across the world. The bubonic plague is often characterized
by swollen lymph nodes though the modern world has seen few breakouts. 6. Cholera Normally a human gets cholera from eating
or drinking infected food or water. And untreated, the disease will progress from massive diarrhea
to shock in 4-12 hours and possibly death within 18 hours or several days. Luckily,
with oral rehydration therapy, a person can survive from cholera; however, in its most
severe form, cholera can kill within three hours. But good sanitation practices can curb
an outbreak. As the old saying goes – don’t drink the water – in many underdeveloped
countries. 5. Anthrax While anthrax has been used as a biological
weapon before, a person dies from anthrax after inhalation of the spores or through
eating or coming in contact with animals who have ingested the spores. Once contaminated,
the bacteria quickly multiples and kills its host by producing two lethal toxins. Death
can take from two days up to a month from the cold like symptoms, which then lead to
serious breathing problems, shock and the eventual fatality. Large amounts of antibiotics
have been shown to be able to stop the disease. A vaccine is known, then again there are also
antibiotic-resistant strains of anthrax. 4. Malaria This vector-borne infectious disease still
has outbreaks of more than 500 million per year with anywhere between 1-3 million deaths
when not treated properly. Fortunately with treatment, a person with malaria can expect
a full recovery though like many of the diseases on this list, there is no vaccine. However,
it has been noted that the deaths caused by Malaria occur on average about one every 30
seconds. 3. SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has
seen only one major outbreak in Asia a few years ago. In most cases, the disease in its
viral pneumonia form has a fatality rate of about 70 percent with the highest fatality
rate among victims over the age of 65. Supposedly the Chinese government created a vaccine that
was effective in about two-thirds of the test groups; however, outside of that many of the
treatments have proven to cause just as many problems as SARS itself. What doesn’t cure
you, will kill you? 2. Ebola A discovery in the last 30 years, this strain
of viruses has a fatality rate between 50-89 percent. Known to be devastating to both humans
and animals, Ebola will kill a person within a week to two weeks usually from multiple
organ failure or hypovelmic shock. A Canadian company recently reported that they have created
a vaccine that is effective in 99 percent of the test cases of monkeys. Unfortunately,
no vaccine or treatment has been approved for humans at this time. 1. HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which cripples a human’s immune system.
AIDS has been categorized as an epidemic by the CDC and the life expectancy has been extended
despite the lack of a vaccination or cure. While on its own, the Ebola virus is much
more deadly in the short term, most AIDS victims eventually succumb to death from an AIDS related
sickness.

Disease in Schools: Toward a solution for common tapeworm infection

Disease in Schools: Toward a solution for common tapeworm infection


Stanford University The Tibetan regions of Western Sichuan are high-elevation areas on the Himalayan plateau they’re inhabited by
poor Tibetan pig farmers. These people live in small villages and they have
free-range pigs. They don’t have toilets so oftentimes they will go out into the
fields and defecate there, which means that the pigs are actually running
around in areas where there’s readily humans stool available to eat. So this
puts this area at high risk for Taenia solium which is the pork tapeworm. When
people eat undercooked pork the tapeworm develops in their GI tract and that
means that person then sheds thousands and thousands of eggs in their stool. Those eggs then contaminate the environment and are eaten by the pig
which causes the pig to get the tapeworm which it then passes back to people. Once it gets into the brain it causes a wide spectrum of disease. All developing
countries that have small-scale pig farming have this disease. It was our
theory our hypothesis that children were especially vulnerable to this disease
mainly because here was a parasite that was getting in children’s brains during a
sort of a formative time in their lives. So what we did is we went into three
counties in western Sichauan and we surveyed all fifth and sixth graders in
those counties. What we found was that disease in these schools was highly
prevalent you know in some schools up to 22% of kids had evidence in their blood
that they had the disease. If you imagine kids dropping out of school from this
disease, that could actually enforce a cycle of poverty in these already poor
communities. We have a vaccine that is effective in pigs, we have treatment that
we can give to pigs. It will kill the parasite while it’s in the pig we know how to install hygiene stations at schools. We know how to design behavioural change in schools. So if we took all of these things and we could get them into the
field in a cost-effective way we could really decrease the burden of
this disease.

How can research save lives from the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

How can research save lives from the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo?


One of the deadliest diseases on the planet has been recurring in
central Africa since the 1970s – ever more frequently. It was first identified near
the eponymous Ebola river and kills 30-80% of those it infects. Ebola can never be eradicated – it’s endemic in animals of
the forests of central Africa in most of which it causes no symptoms. People may come into contact with blood,
urine or saliva of animals in the forest or whilst hunting, but the main hosts
are thought to be bats, which are often eaten as bushmeat. From them, the virus spreads between
people through bodily fluids. Initially, we humans experience
flu-like symptoms as the virus evades the immune system,
preventing immune cells identifying it. Without these immune guards,
the virus can enter many cells and replicate rapidly
whilst the body is defenceless. The virus damages many
types of cell when it invades – including those in the liver
which control blood clotting. The body is overwhelmed, with the virus
triggering a strong immune response, inducing uncontrolled inflammation. This causes many tiny
blood vessels to leak. Because the blood can’t clot, when these vessels leak,
bleeding results – internally, and sometimes externally,
from the eyes, ears and nose. This loss of blood and
widespread damage to cells stops the body’s vital organs working. The only way to survive is to keep the organs functioning
by replacing lost blood through transfusions
and intravenous fluids, keeping the patient alive
throughout the onslaught long enough for the immune system
to develop antibodies to the virus. Even if you survive, the virus can remain
in areas such as the eyes and testes, which can leave people infectious
for more than a year after recovery. Because there is currently no cure, getting ahead involves
preventing people getting ill – through containment of those
infected with the disease and the development of vaccines. Countries which have not
experienced an Ebola outbreak tend to have low public and clinical
awareness around the disease, as well as poor diagnostic tools, meaning the alarm may only be raised
once the disease has spread widely. Many people may become infected, with containment made more difficult
by inadequate health infrastructure. As a result of such conditions, the 2014
West Africa epidemic lasted for two years, affected eight countries, and more than 11,000 people died. There are six known Ebola species. Four of which cause disease in humans. These differ in the nature
of their surface proteins and are recognised differently
by our immune cells. This makes many different
targets for vaccines. A vaccine against the deadliest and most common
– the Zaire species – has been developed. But it takes years of field testing for
a vaccine like this to be officially approved. Developing a vaccine that can target all the species
that cause disease in humans would be ideal. Identifying the Ebola species and implementing drug trials and
vaccinations as soon as possible is why genomic sequencing of
all human occurrences of the virus needs to be part of the Ebola
outbreak emergency response. By tracing the evolution of the virus, genomic sequencing allows scientists to
locate who caught the disease from who, identifying transmission
routes and potential contacts. As viruses also keep changing and mutating,
they are also moving targets. Vitally, genomic sequencing allows us to know
which parts of the virus are preserved, which parts are integral to its function
and good targets for vaccines. In future, we may even be able to develop vaccines
which act against multiple species at once. Research funded by Wellcome and
others during the West Africa crisis allowed the first Zaire-species
vaccine to be trialled. It successfully protected
against the Ebola virus. This vaccine was stockpiled
ready for later use on health workers and potential contacts of
those with the disease. When an outbreak arose in 2018
in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Wellcome donated 2 million pounds,
partly to support a vaccination programme for all those who may have come into
contact with those with the disease – in this case upwards of 3,000 people. The rapid release of emergency funds enabled not just containment and care, but also scientific research to be incorporated
throughout the emergency response – crucial to progress in combatting the disease. Only because this response was
well-practised and coordinated, was it possible for help
to be quickly assembled and to implement international policies,
such as border checks. Although the DRC’s May 2018 outbreak was stamped out within weeks,
and 33 people died, a new appearance of Ebola in an active
conflict zone in a different part of the country demonstrated the enduring
nature of the threat. Such situations add complication
to the outbreak response, but the international community is
now better-equipped to combat Ebola. So by keeping the pressure up
on the scientific research, in the lulls between clear
and present dangers, we can get ahead of the threat
simmering below the surface and contain Ebola’s
next inevitable incursion.

Preventing TB transmission | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Preventing TB transmission | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


Narrator: Let’s say you’ve got two people and one person has Tuberculosis,
that’s this person over here, I’ll call him person A and another person
does not, this is person B over here. What are the things that are going
to make person A more infectious? What are the things we
need to think about, in terms of how likely it is that
person B will actually get sick with TB. There are a few things. We know that this person has to actually
cough out some TB particles, right? They’re going to cough them out and that
means that the strength of the cough, let’s say they have a real good cough
like that, versus a really weak, kind of puny cough, something
like that is going to matter. It turns out that the folks that have
the strongest cough are the adults. So, any adults, in general,
adults are going to have a much
stronger cough than children. So, that means that adults are
more infectious than children. Let me actually write that
as my first key point. It turns out that’s exactly right, that
we see that in terms of spreading TB, it’s the adults that spread
it much more than kids and
definitely much more than infants. A second point, is that
you need live bacteria. This seems obvious that of course
you’re not going to get anyone sick if you don’t have live bacteria. The way to know that
someone has live bacteria, you can actually just take
some of there sputum or some
of their mucus from their lungs and look under a microscope
and you would actually see
what we call a positive smear. That literally means you smear
out the mucus under a microscope and you look with a microscope and
you can literally see the TB bacteria. You can also do a culture and see if
you can actually grow the bacteria. If you can see the bacteria
or grow the bacteria, that’s a good indication that
there’s live TB bacteria there and that’s obviously going to make
the person more infectious as well. A third point, is if you look in their
lungs and you see large cavities, some times you call that cavitary disease,
but let me just write cavity here. If you see a cavity there, in
that cavity we know is going to
be full of little TB bacteria. Those cavities are classic for that and so
whenever you see or think about cavities, I want you to remember that the
folks that get cavities are the
secondary progressive disease folks. Remember there’s primary
and there’s secondary, and it’s the secondary progressive
disease that causes these cavities. These are the folks that are
going to be more infectious because they’re loaded
with live TB bacteria. What are the things we can do to
actually prevent the spread of TB? The first one is actually kind
of obvious, it’s medication. We have medications that are really
good for treating Tuberculosis. One classic thing that we’ve done is
what we call directly observe therapy, DOT, directly observe therapy. All that means is sometimes a physician or a nurse will actually watch
a patient take their medications so that they don’t forget or
sometimes people don’t like
to take their medications. This is an easy way to make
sure that someone’s actually
taking their medications. We call it DOT. That’s obviously going to be helpful
for killing off the bacteria, so we don’t have to worry
about live bacteria anymore. Usually that happens in about two
weeks, after two weeks of medications, that usually kills off the bacteria
so you no longer have those positive
smears and positive cultures. It also helps with symptoms,
so if you’re not sick with TB you may not be coughing as much. That’s another important
thing to keep in mind. What else would be important? You could imagine, isolation, making
sure the person is actually isolated. So, isolation is key. And specifically you want to make sure
they’re not around any young people, so definitely don’t want them around
anyone under the age of four years because, of course, children
are really, really susceptible
to getting very sick with TB, so you want to make sure
they’re away from young children and you want to keep
them isolated at night. So, at night when they’re sleeping
– I put a little @ symbol, but at night when they’re sleeping you
want to make sure that they’re isolated and maybe sleeping in their own room. Of course it’s ideal if the
person is completely isolated, but of course that’s not always
practical because they might be
with their family or their children, but you want to make sure that they’re
at least away from children under four and at night that they are sleeping alone. Another thing is a surgical mask. A surgical mask is really good
because it helps prevent too much of the stuff that’s coming out
of your mouth to enter the air. Actually, literally, let
me just draw it for you. It literally catches a lot of
this stuff and prevents it from
entering the space around you. This is a mask, let’s say a
surgical mask, it might hook
up like this, maybe like that, and what it does is it literally catches
the stuff that’s coming out of the mouth and makes it ricochet back in. You can still breath with a surgical mask
on, but it just keeps the large particles, maybe large droplets
from leaving your mouth. Now, what if you’re person B, what’s one
thing you could do if you’re person B? One obvious trick is just
standing further away, you don’t have to stand so close to person
A, you can stand all the way back here. That’s going to make it less likely
that you’re going to get sick with TB. Let me write that here, is
create space, create space. Another key idea is, think about
what happens when someone passes gas, or there’s a horrible smell in a
room, what are you going to do? Usually people are going to find
the door, maybe they’ll open
the door and let some air in. This arrow indicates more air coming in. Maybe there’s a window here,
they’re going to open the window
and let the breeze come in. Basically do whatever you can to
dilute out that horrible smell. If there’s a fan, maybe you’ll try to
turn on the fan and get that spinning. If you can get the fan going that’s
also going to move around the air. You’re just trying to move around the air
to get a dilution of that horrible smell. Let me right it out, dilute. The idea here is that you can
just literally do simple things. You can open up doors and windows,
we call that natural ventilation. You can also turn on a fan to
kind of move the air around and
you’re just trying to dilute out that horrible bacteria so that less
of it is likely to enter your lungs. Another thing you can do is actually
put on an air purifying respirator. An air purifying respirator is
actually a little bit different
then the surgical mask. This one is actually going to keep
out very tiny, tiny particles. Unlike the surgical mask whick gets the
large things, spit and large particles, this one is actually going to
capture very tiny particles and it’s actually not going to allow them
into your breathing area, your airway. It’s actually going to make
things bounce off, essentially, or get caught inside the filter itself. It wont allow TB particles
into your nose or mouth. A common one here, you might have
heard of or seen, is called the N95. There are many other types as
well, but that’s one example
of an air purifying respirator. There are a couple more things
that you might see that are
slightly more expensive, but you might come across them
or at least hear about them. One is called ultraviolet, (writing) ultraviolet germicidal. Let’s see if you can kind of guess
how this works or what it does. (writing) Germicidal, cidal
means killing something. Germicidal irradiation, irradiation. A lot of times people will just
shorten this whole thing to UVGI. They’ll say a UVGI was
installed and what UVGI does, it literally takes ultraviolet
light and shines it out, and actually if there area
couple of TB particles, let’s
say one here and one here, that UVGI, that irradiation kills
that TB particle and X’s it out. So, it’s no longer alive and
the folks in that room are safe. The final thing I want to talk
about is called a HEPA filter. It’s a filter and if I was to draw the
ceiling it would look something like this. Maybe it has some spot on the
ceiling where air is flowing in and some spot where air is flowing out. Just erase these parts right
here and I’ll show you. Let’s say that air is coming in
this way, let’s say three arrows, and you’ve got air coming out
this way, you’ve got three arrows. So in the middle, somewhere in
this area you’ve got a filter. This filter is going to catch TB
particles, so we call it a High
Efficiency Particulate Air Filter. (writing) Particulate Air Filter. No one wants to say all of this because
it’s too long, so just for short, again they say HEPA filter. A HEPA filter is going to then catch some
TB particles that are going to flow in and they’re going to get
stuck in these filters, so coming out on the other
side you have nice clean air because the TB particle will
not get through that filter. You could even take this a step further. You could say well, how about
if we did this and actually, instead of having all of the air returned,
let’s say we return just part of it and actually allow some of the
air to escape outside of our room. Now you have a negative pressure in
this room because you have more air leaving the room then is re-entering
the room, you have negative pressure, almost like a vacuum because all
this air is going up into the filter and not as much is coming back out, so
this room becomes negative pressure. There’s kind of a vacuum in this room
and especially if you do it right. If you close off all these doors
and you close these windows, then you definitely create
a negative pressure. What that means is that now you
can really protect the area around because you close off the
door, you close off the window and now there’s no way that a TB particle
can leave and go into the hallway because if there’s a little bit
of a gap underneath this door, if
that’s the only crack in this room, then the negative pressure is going
to make air flow through that crack into the room instead of air
flowing out into the hallway. That’s actually another key trick that
they use to prevent TB from spreading, is they’ll create a negative
pressure where they pump air out, which is what we showed here, and
then they’ll seal off the whole room, and then the air from the
hallway starts entering the room and you can make sure that no TB particles
are going to get out into the hallway and get people in the hallway sick.

Sunflower Star Imperiled by Sea Star Wasting Epidemic

Sunflower Star Imperiled by Sea Star Wasting Epidemic


[Narrator] There’s an epidemic
in the ocean. Since 2013, a viral disease has been
turning sea stars in the Northeast Pacific into melted piles of goo. Of the 20 or so
species of sea stars affected by the virus, one of the hardest hit were sunflower stars.
Until now, we haven’t known just how bad the decline was. But new research
has begun to reveal the longer term continental scale impact of the
epidemic on certain species. Scientists in the US are now suggesting
we formally list the once common sunflower star as an endangered species. Trained citizen science divers from
California to Alaska counted sunflower stars on over 11,000 dives,
while scientific divers from the Hakai Institute carried out more detailed
surveys on the BC Central Coast. When they looked at all the data,
scientists noticed something in common where they saw outbreaks of the
virus—anomalously warm water. We still don’t know how these warm
water anomalies and the virus interact. But researchers say these warmer than
normal water temperatures were related to dramatic sea star declines. While divers
can patrol waters near the surface, we didn’t know whether sunflower sea stars
might have found refuge at deeper depths. But thousands of NOAA bottom trawl
surveys have revealed that when it comes to sunflower stars, the
disease didn’t stay in the shallows. For example, data from Washington State
shows a crash in populations in both shallow nearshore and deep offshore
environments after the epidemic began in 2013. Data from other areas on the coast
are similar. With population declines of as much as 80 to 100% in areas across the
3,000 kilometers from Alaska to California. Sea stars may appear to be the passive
bottom dwellers of the deep blue, but they are actually pivotal predators
in this ecosystem. The loss of sunflower stars is already
showing massive repercussions on ocean food webs and kelp forest
habitats up and down the coast. One thing is for sure, scientists and
recreational divers alike will be checking to see when, or if,
the sea stars recover.

Inside One Of London’s Busiest Sexual Health Clinics | Sex Map Of Britain

Inside One Of London’s Busiest Sexual Health Clinics | Sex Map Of Britain


Feet on the edge. Fantastic.
Legs nice and relaxed. I’m just going to move the skin to see if everything
looks all right. I think you’ve got a bit of thrush
going on down here. Just going to feel on your groin to
see if you’ve got any swelling. Is that ticklish? Yes. Sorry! When you take it out, I always say
you want it to look like a Santa hat or a sombrero. If you see it that
way, it’s more like a Smurf hat. Oh, God. No disasters,
but there’s always a drama. Barnaby? I’m Joel,
I’m one of the doctors. Nice to meet you. I understand the reason
you’re here today is because of some sex
over the weekend. Yeah, on Sunday. Is that the first time
you’d had sex with them? Yeah. Did you use any drugs at all? Yeah. What drugs do you use? OK. OK. You lose a lot of your inhibitions
when you’re having chemsex. And you’ll do things that
you really wouldn’t do sober. When I get high enough,
you can sleep with, like, six or seven people in one night,
in rotation. I think I’ve had four injections
for gonorrhoea. Maybe chlamydia three times. Having lost my virginity at 18,
in four years, that’s not so bad. Hopefully. Now, this is telling us
your HIV status six weeks ago, so it’s not telling us anything
about yesterday, also not telling us anything about
any other sex in the last six weeks. CREW MEMBER: How do you feel about
doing this test? Absolutely fine, I’ve done it
quite a few times. And you were bottom without condoms,
is that right? Yeah. I feel very embarrassed,
for some reason, asking somebody to put a condom on. So I think I’ve just got into
the habit of not using one. Some people are more vulnerable to
getting infections, because they’re more vulnerable
as people. And it’s harder for them to
negotiate the kind of sex they want and it’s harder for them
to insist on using condoms. OK, I can see, Barney,
there’s just one dot there, which means it’s a negative test. It’s what they use to freeze
the warts. Sorry. That’s OK! Ooft! Sexual infections are kind of like
Russian roulette – you can be lucky and have sex
with loads of people and not get anything, or you can have sex with one person
and catch something. Charles? Hi, good morning,
how are you? All right, so, you’re here for
some condoms and an STI screening? Yeah. That’s all it is. I was with a long-time girlfriend
for a long time. And once that kind of ended,
you know, I just went all out. Not really
thinking about the consequences. CREW MEMBER: What are we talking? It’s not triple figures yet,
but it’s not far off. And, obviously, with all
the online stuff, Tinder, it’s so easy and accessible to
meet people. Sex is pretty available
if you want it. And that is the worry, as well,
the people you’re meeting, you don’t really know them
that well. And I’m not even asking
whether not they’re on the pill or what their contraception is,
it’s just kind of happening. And regretting it after, to be fair. There’s a lot of times after
I’ve just regretted it completely. But I seem to keep going back to it. Let me write the number down
so I can register you online. Are you worried? Yeah. You are worried.
I’m worried, yeah. I’ve been putting it off
for a long time. I like to think
I’ve got away with it so far. But this week is going to be
nervous for me. I can’t wait to call them up
and get the results, yeah. I’ve been with my partner
for about four, five months now. And we both decided we don’t want to
use condoms anymore. And so…I’ve been having
some discharge. We ask everyone, did you had sex
with anybody else? No! It can’t be me,
I haven’t done nothing! I mean, no, yeah, it can’t be me. I think he’s gone and messed around,
and he’s come back to me, and I’ve been given something… Ugh! It sucks, it really sucks. So, this is for the chlamydia
and gonorrhoea swab. Just pop this inside your vagina
and rotate it. Inside, OK? I’ll close
the curtain for you. Things like chlamydia,
Trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea – it’s treatable, but when you have
a positive result, it can have a really big impact
on that relationship. It could potentially break
a relationship. Sharp scratch. He’s probably walking out right now,
thinking he’s a free man, no-one knows nothing. While I’m sitting here
getting myself checked out. That’s the reality of it,
do you know what I mean? But someone’s misbehaved. So someone’s going to get
kicked to the curb. Yeah, look, the results are back,
it’s not great. She’s got a box in her hands. I know what that means. It’s thrush. So you have some candida, OK? Thrush?! Yeah. No way! You’ll be pleased to know. Thrush?! Oh, yeah, I’m very pleased
to know that. It’s not sexually transmitted. He’s cool, he’s all right. It’s thrush. Due to…tight panties, probably. Got to get some new ones. Patient number 68. There’s a lot of patients that will
come in and recognise me and be like, “Hi,
you had me last time.” But when you do see a regular, you’re thinking, “Oh, my God.” You start checking,
“When did I see him,” or, “When did I see her?” Hi, how are you? Good, thanks.
And you? I finally managed to get in contact
with him this afternoon, and, erm… he was saying
that he was HIV-positive, and then that it was 50% my fault, because I didn’t say to
use a condom. I can see where with the shame that
comes with it, why he may not say. I mean, he should have, but I should
have used a condom as well, so. Going to get those results by phone, and they should be ready on Friday. People can come with all sorts of problems
to the sexual health clinic. Sometimes it’s not related to
a sexually transmitted infection. I’ve got a young woman
in the consultation room, she thinks she might be pregnant,
but it doesn’t sound great, she’s in some pain. I went over to A&E
and they told me to come over here. My doctor hasn’t got an appointment
for another two weeks, and I just wondered if there is
anything you could do for me to help me?
Because I am in so much pain. OK. I got pregnant
when I was 17, miscarried. It kind of feels like the last time. I can feel it specifically
on one side my tummy as well, and I had to leave work today because I was just doubled over
in pain, it was just ridiculous. Yeah. I’ve been with my partner
for about a year and a half. I do try to come in round about
every six months anyway. And when did you last have sex? Erm… Maybe last week, Thursday? OK. And was that with your partner? Yeah. And was that with condom
or without condoms? Without condoms,
but I’ve been taking my pill, so I was like, wahey! And then, going back from him, when was the last time you had sex
with someone other than him? Oh, Jesus Christ. When I was, like, 17? OK. WHISPERING: Is she? Is she pregnant?
Yeah. So, the thing we’re worried about
is pregnancy outside of the womb. So I’m going to go and explain that
to her. Poor girl. So, we’ve just done the pregnancy
test… Go on. ..and it’s positive. If it’s OK with you,
I’m going to get that scan. Absolutely. So, your appointment
is booked for tomorrow at 4pm. Mmm-hmm. Any questions? No, I’m done. I’m going home to
probably cry. I’m upset about the fact
that I’m in so much pain, and I know I’m probably
going to miscarry again. Whoa! Shit! Ugh. I’m about to have a fag. Judge me at your will. I’m not bothered right now. Hi, Mum. I’m pregnant. I’m pregnant. I don’t know, I’ve got an
appointment tomorrow, scan. Because there’s chance I
could miscarry again. Erm, I’m kind of afraid at
the moment. Don’t really… Yeah. As long as you’re there, that’s all
I need. Love you too, Mum, bye. Patient number 73. PHONE DIALS Hello? Hello. Hi, is that Selina? Hi, speaking. Oh, hi, it’s Joe calling from
Homerton Hospital. Are you able to talk at the moment? I am. OK. The test for
trichomonas or TV, was positive. So we need you to come back into the
clinic and get treatment for that. No! OK. This is fucking bullshit. It’s frustrating, I know. It didn’t show up on the test you
had done on Thursday, possibly because you had thrush
at the time. Yeah. It might have got in the way
and just stopped us from being able to see
the trichomonas. So we need to give you
some treatment, and also to give your partner some
treatment as well. Yeah. Ugh! I’m so pissed off. This is hard, you know, because… This is actually hard, like. This is fucking hard, because
fucking hell, like… You can’t trust many people, and
then you trust someone
and they break it. I can’t never go back with him. And I really liked him. I’ve had a sleepless night, still in
a lot of pain, but I’m pretty much just worried
about the baby at this point. Oh, there’s going to be cold and
jelly, ain’t it? Yeah, cold jelly. I’ve done this before. I’ve got me mum with me this time,
so, makes everything so much better. There’s the beginnings of the
pregnancy in there, called a yolk sac. But it’s too early to see a baby
with a heartbeat, all right? So you are going to need another
scan in a couple of weeks’ time. But we know it’s in the right place,
that’s the main thing, OK? That’s what we expect to see at five
weeks and two days. Are you happy with this
pregnancy, or…? I’ve got no idea. No idea. So you’re going to think about what
you want to do. Just time to digest it all. Once you have a kid, your whole
life is… Not down the drain, but your whole
life is for them, you know what I mean? Just the thought of a baby, someone
that’s dependent on me. I mean, I’m just learning how to be
independent myself. Please don’t, because I’ll
start crying! Bowel pain, because Danielle’s had
diarrhoea and upset stomach over the last four weeks. It’s more likely to
be bowel spasms. Eat little and often, lots
of fluids, and it will settle
itself down. Five weeks and two days. I’m not upset. I’m a responsible adult. Sort of girlfriend I liked the most,
I ended it, because I wanted to have sex with
other people. And since I’ve ended it, slept with
other people, I’ve regretted it. So, for me, getting tested is a time
for me to move on and, yeah, refresh and settle down
properly sometime. Do you want her back? Yeah, I do, yeah. I do want her back, yeah. Couldn’t really sleep last night,
to be fair. If it is clear, I’ll be very lucky.
Very lucky. RINGING TONE So, my ID number is 107629. That’s great. Thank you
for your help. Bye. I’m really pleased with that. I can’t hide it.
I can’t hide it. It’s really, really pleasing
to hear. Wow. Yes. I can’t believe it! I can’t believe it. I know people who’ve gone on holiday
for a week and had one one-night stand, they’ve got chlamydia
or something. Why have I got so lucky? Reaching a point where you’re really
worried about having an infection, can sometimes be a bit of a
reality check. But, for some people, it doesn’t make as much of
an impression on how important it is for them to change the type of sex
they’re having, or their behaviour in the future. You look happy. Hmm? You look happy.
Yeah, it’s a relief. Just effort, scheduling and working
around STIs. Nobody really wants to do it. So it’s more the inconvenience to
life than anything else at the moment? Yeah, that’s
literally it. I don’t want to alarm you, but I don’t think I would have been
that upset at all. It, like, it’s… I guess I’ve been in a lot of
situations where the risk of HIV is quite big. And that feeling of, for a month and not knowing whether
you have it on whether you don’t, it’s a very hollow feeling. I hope that it’s only a
matter of time before I start being more
practical about using protection. Because I think it’s just a matter
of having the confidence to ask somebody to put a condom on. But it’s not really something that
you bear in mind when you’re having chemsex.