QI | How To Save A Dying Bee

QI | How To Save A Dying Bee


You know when you find a bee and it’s crawling on its last legs, you give it honey It’s the only thing they eat makes sense when you think about it No point just talking to it! Give it honey They’re very much a one-recipe species I’m sorry, I’m intrigued because I would I gently give it the sole of my shoe Not to be harsh but you know You would stand on a struggling, crawling bee?? Well what, what? As opposed to rehabilitating it? I like honey on my porridge, you murderer! We depend on bees, we need the bees Okay, so in Future I should lure the bee back I like I Do I get a syringe of Honey Just A tiny amount of Honey I don’t I don’t feel Easy to see leave it with the Honey Don’t Tread [on] it it Should [be] Plenty fans that you Should be Arrested Excuse me you know, we’re in A hive Isn’t it true though that a bee in its entire lifetime makes an absolutely tiny amount of honey? Overall, I mean just a minute amount that you don’t have to give much rehabilitating honey to this one bee before the Nation – the World – is making a net loss I mean it’s useless, if you only get one teaspoon of honey from a whole Bee’s lifetime and every time we have to get it back on its feet, it takes a teaspoon and a half suddenly there’s no honey at all! This is more honey than this bee has seen in its life! You’re insulting it ! It’s like showing a very tired mason a whole cathedral! Well let’s let’s Say that You’re in Between our? Allen and Daraa so like allen You want to Help the big and it but like dari you, also want to kill kill kill What you can do is you get what I would turn too much Honey and you See the [bee] and you poor Martin? Hear Me out all right okay then, you Watch him die A slow Accession Yeah I can Yes i’ve now Heard you out [Yeah] that’s No Better, no? Worse than what I did [yeah] you May know Yeah I am Beyond You’re getting a kick out it let’s Forget Only to be ironically What’s the Money you Can T deal With? Me now very Good, well Thank you [for] that Interesting Fierce and I think Productive Debate Please With that we’re Gonna Move on now but the best

What Happens If All The Bees Die?

What Happens If All The Bees Die?


Bees play a crucial role on Earth – some even
claim that if they go extinct, humanity would be next. So with the dramatic decline in bee
population, should we be worried? What happens if the bees all die? Simply put, if a plant produces a flower,
you can bet that bees help them reproduce. This long-standing, working relationship evolved
with flowers being bright and fragrant to attract bees, and the bees fuzzy, velcro-like
bodies helping them to efficiently transfer pollen from the male part of the plant to
the female part. This seemingly simple mechanism is directly responsible for the production
of 70% of fruits, vegetables, seeds and nuts that we consume on a daily basis. 70%! Which
translates into almost $200 billion in global agriculture revenue. This huge responsibility
is accomplished by droves of commercial bees, reared by professional beekeepers for the
sole purpose of being transported to farms and orchards to pollinate crops. But since 2006, these hardworking, busy bees
have been mysteriously disappearing. This Colony Collapse Disorder has seen an average
of 1/3rd of commercial bees abandoning their hives. In fact, some beekeepers have even
reported that 90% of their bees have simply buzzed off. In some colonies, mites, viruses and parasites
have been to blame, but many are now looking at a class of insecticides called neonicotinoids.
This neurotoxin is used to kill off crop eating insects and pests, but also affects the central
nervous systems of bees when they consume contaminated nectar. And since nectar is brought
back to hives, the entire colony can be affected, leading to mass confusion and disorientation.
On top of this, other factors such as extremely cold and long winters, a lack of genetic diversity
in commercial bees, and less variable nectar in the fields may be at fault. If the trend continues, entire food chains
and webs may be at risk. Take almond plants for example; the hulls of these nuts are used
as feed for farm cattle and chickens. Fewer bees means fewer almonds, which could mean
declining livestock, and ultimately less milk, cheese, eggs and meat production. Not to mention
almonds are used in cereal, baking and many other food products. Beef and dairy cows would
also be harshly affected by the vanishing alfalfa fields which are used to harvest hay
for cattle. Looking for a morning buzz? Considering bees pollinate Coffea arabica, whose seeds
we grind for coffee, you can count that out. Without bees, our diet would consist of mostly
corn, wheat and rice, as they are wind pollinated plants. Like your clothes? Not only is cotton the
biggest cash crop in the US, it also makes up about 35% of the world’s fiber use. So
you can forget those blue jeans, towels, mattresses and high quality paper products. Simply put, we’d be living in a completely
different world without bees, not to mention suffering a substantial economic strain from
their disappearance. So while we may not necessarily go ‘extinct’ should the downward trend
persist, a world without the buzz of bees would definitely…sting! Want a free copy of our NEW book? Now you
can get one from Audible.com/asap which is the leading provider of audiobooks with over
150,000 dowloadable titles across all types of literature. Our book just came out this
past week and it covers a ton of questions that have never been answered in our videos
which we’re so excited to share with you! You can download it, or another audio book
of your choice, for free, at audible.com/asap. Special thanks to Audible for making these
videos possible, and to YOU for continually supporting our show and science education.
It means a lot! And if you missed our Live SCIENCE stream
last week where we performed the Periodic Table Song live and answered your burning
questions, be sure to check it out here, or by using the link in the description. And subscribe for more weekly science videos.

Two Giant Killer Hornet Colonies Fight to the Death


[MUSIC PLAYING] NARRATOR: The Samurai scouts
bring news that there’s an army on its way. [BUZZING] They rally the troops. But it’s too late. The Bamboo Battalion is on them. The Rock Samurais are ambushed
at their own entrance. When times are tough,
giant killer hornets turn on their kind. It’s like on like,
giant on giant. Claws, stingers, and mandibles,
all weapons deployed and heads will roll. Disabling the enemy is
the primary strategy. Beheading and severing
limbs, the mandibles are the ultimate weapon of war. It’s impossible to
determine who’s winning until the pillaging starts. The marauding Bamboo
giants enter the fortress. They’re conquered
the Rock Samurais and they’ve struck gold. The precious nursery of
developing princesses is ransacked, next year’s
queens killed and cannibalized in their chambers. The sentry can do nothing
but witness the devastation of her precious family.

I HANDLED IT! The Spider Shop UK unboxing


New additions This is one huge box when I was on this BTS expo the guys from the spider shop UK Approached me and said check the stuff that we have find something that you like and we will send it to you free of charge All you need to do is make a video about it, heck yeah! they didn’t really tell me how many animals or stuff can I choose? So I told them I like this This this and this and you pick something that you will send it to me that way it will be still a surprise for me Because I have no idea what is inside but I know what potentially could be inside and no matter what it is It is exciting Very exciting. I need a cutting knife. Ooh That’s a lot of insulation Actually here in Croatia. We have a snake that looks just like that and it is called smoky But it is it is yellow. I will get some and show you this is really confusing for me to look at this Some are green. Box within the box Maybe this wasn’t a smart idea. Look what I did..oopsie Oh, come on. More of that stuff. They actually sent me all the stuff that I that I pointed out. One…two….four. What a mess. Everything fell down now, now let’s go from from the animal that is easily handable I need a phone to check out the species name So this here is Asbolus Verrucosus and they are also known as blue death feigning bugs or beetles Blue death feigning BEETLE. Let’s check them out So they sent me two of these and the really interesting thing about these beetles when they feel threatened they pretend to be dead I guess you will see, you see both are alive and fine. And if I try to take one He doesn’t want to pretend to be dead he’s not scared of me he’s like whatever man I know you can’t hurt me Let’s see the other one No, he also, he also doesn’t want to pretend to be dead, come on guys you need to show to the people I’m grabbing you. I’m going to eat you They are trolling me, they are definitely trolling me, but they are so cute look at them Lets bring out the macro Sorry guy Can you like not escape What a silly bug? I won’t be setting up any enclosures in this video I will just open up and show you all the animals that I got and in some other video We will make an enclosure for all of them or at least some temporary enclosure, now As you see it is a huntsman spider I’m not sure if that’s a male It could be but it is a huntsman spider and you see Heteropoda David Bowie Actually, I’m lettin you should pronounce this David Bowie a bit different, but we will keep it David Bowie Mmm, they are really fast and I will take some bigger Cup and we’ll put him just temporarily in this even though this not This is not aboreal enclosure. I will keep it like this and he will be fine. Let me just check his temper It looks alright Mmm nice close-ups I should take the macro So this is actually my first huntsman spider and all I can say its very nice And let me try to coax him into this enclosure But we will see how that will go. Oh It’s actually really slow and chilled, look at that and I think he’s thirsty. Oh Definitely thirsty you see how is he’s drinking already drinking that water And I actually thought that there are a bit more more orangie so I guess females are more orangie Next one. This one is a bit bigger. It’s another Heterapoda order in this one. It’s not male It is heteropoda boei and I don’t know if you have seen I would actually like for this to be a male because once they mature males get Really really nice green color and look just amazing Truly amazing males are definitely one of the prettiest Heteropoda that I have ever seen there is also some other species that females are really really nice and they are called like lunula I think or lunula Something like that. Let me get another top Lets see how this one is Seems alright, but you should be ooooh Please don’t do anything stupid. It actually got a bit of that green tint just tiny bit but not as mature male So cool This is one of the species that I really really wanted to have Wanted to keep let’s try to get him in the enclosure or her whatever definitely like to be him Let’s show (replay) let’s show This is a struggle to bad, I cannot really show you but it is in the corner of this of this table These bolts are insane Crazy look at it Really fast almost teleporting. I think that I will just do this Maybe I can try to poke him outside through the through the closed lid Oh So fast, can you like stop I will lose this guy No, no, you can just take that cage Cup. I don’t need it anyway Rehousing this to new enclosure it will be intense not something that I’m looking for in this last addition reason why I Left it for last because it kind of looks not sure Is it dead or dying but I can also see that it is mature male So everything is possible, but no it is moving but it kind of looks weird The name is Gnatopalystes Kochi. That is the species that it is from Malaysia Java, Sumatra, Borneo, India hmm, really widespread. Let’s see how this one is. What is the mood of this one? And the light is dying don’t have really any other Appropriate enclosure. I mean even those aren’t really appropriate but For short period of time they will do, can this stand. Hi. How are you? Can I take the catch cup now? Maybe please Thank you, I mean you just spray a bit This one is not not drinking but it looks like it is ready to bolt. That’s why it doesn’t care about water mood check Potentially bolting all of these spiders are potentially bolting Which is This actually also looks like Whoa Ahahaha but this also looks like a Heteropota Boei you just compare. Or is this actually Kochi? When I’m looking at it, this looks more like Boei than this one. Maybe they mixed up the lids this one looks more like This that this definitely looks like an adult Adult Heteropota Boei. Should I remove it so I can show it better or not. I will risk it Yeah that’s definitely Boei I cannot believe that actually have these species Beautiful, tell me that this isn’t a beautiful spider No matter the angle It’s so nice i would also like to handle it but I’m scared that I will lose it Actually, it’s not dead bolty hmm. I will try not make a fool out of myself I am not scared of bite but I’m scared and it just fly across me and who knows where that will go that’s what I’m afraid of Oh it tickles It tickles I have Heterpota Boei on my arm Can you believe that you have no idea what this means to me a few years ago When I first time saw it, I was like, oh my god. This is so such a beautiful spider Wish I could get it and now it is on my arm Moving slowly and And a bit creepy It’s alright Exciting and just so we know their venom is not strong. So even if it bit me, it wouldn’t be it wouldn’t be big problem Go and drink little fella thank you for the experience Now this speed demon crazy how fast it is. I’m really impressed There are two reasons why I am getting into Heteropota the huntsman spiders one is obvious I want to keep them because they are really nice and they are even though there are spiders just like tarantulas They are greatly different when you compare them to the tarantulas every actions are different Their their way of we’re moving is different and everything is different The only similar thing is that they are both spiders but completely different So yeah, this is the first reason to have them second reason in the future. I would like to get Brazilian Wandering Spider Definitely any species? I don’t really care but I would like to have it and since those types of spiders are Potentially dangerous. I don’t feel ready enough to own it Even though I kept tarantulas you see how hit the reporters can be and Hetropotas are really similar to Brazilian Wandering Spider At least that’s how it looks to me So I want to train a bit with huntsman spiders and get a feel for them and then eventually in year or two get Brazilian Wandering Spider But yeah That’s for future for now owning such an animal is really big Responsibility and it is definitely not an animal that you should joke with so, of course I would like to thank once again to the spider shop UK. Thank them for sending me all these Beautiful spiders and these broken beetles. They aren’t really pretending to be dead even though they should pretend to be dead What are you trying to escape, huh? You goofball to be interesting to see how they feed definitely interesting to set up a appropriate enclosure for them I hope you enjoyed this video if you did thumbs it up and comment something if you want to support this channel even more there’s a patreon page if your new To this channel, make sure to subscribe I upload every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. So see you soon. Bye

The Death Of Bees Explained – Parasites, Poison and Humans

The Death Of Bees Explained – Parasites, Poison and Humans


Human society is extremely
complex and fragile, built upon various pillars. One of them is the honey bee. One out of three meals eaten by humans
is made possible by honey bees. They are so important that if all the
honey bees were to die out, thousands of plants would follow, which could lead to millions of people
starving in the following years. On top of that, honey bees have
a huge economic impact. The dollar value of plants
pollinated by them each year is around $265 billion. Food we take for granted would just
stop existing without them, or there would be a massive
decrease in productivity. Food including apples, onions, pumpkins,
and also plants used for feeding livestock and thus extremely important
for our milk and meat. Einstein is often quoted as having said, “If honey bees die out, humans
will follow a few years later.” Actually, he probably didn’t say that, but there might be some
truth in the statement. It’s unsettling, but honey bees
have started to disappear. Millions of hives have died
in the last few years. Beekeepers all over the world have seen an
annual loss of 30–90% of their colonies. In the US alone, bees
are steadily declining.>From 5 million hives in 1988
to 2.5 million today. Since 2006, a phenomenon called
“colony collapse disorder” has affected honey bees in many countries. And we’re not entirely sure
what’s causing it. All we know is that it’s pretty serious. Over the last few decades bees have seen
an invasion of very dangerous foes. Parasites straight out of a horror movie,
like Acarapis woodi, microscopic mites that infect the tracheae
(that’s the breathing tubes) of bees. Here, they lay their eggs and feed from
the fluids of their victims, weakening them considerably and spending
their whole life inside the bees. Or Varroa destructor, a fitting name
because they can only reproduce in honey bee hives and are one of
the bees’ greatest enemies. The female mite enters a honey bee brood
cell and lays eggs on the bee larva before it’s about to pupate and before the hive bees cover the
cell with a wax capping. The eggs hatch and the young mites and
their mother feed on the developing bee in the safety of the capped cell. The bee is not normally killed
at this stage, just weakened, so it still has enough strength to chew
its way through the wax capping and release itself from the cell. As it does, it releases the mother mite
and her new offspring from the cell, and these are free to
spread across the hive, starting the process over again
in a cycle of about 10 days. Their numbers grow exponentially,
and after a few months, this can lead to the collapse
of the entire bee hive. Once outside of the cell, adult mites
also suck the bodily fludis of bees and weaken them considerably. To make things worse, they also transmit
viruses that harm the bees even more and can lead to birth defects
like useless wings. But there are other threats too,
such as viruses and fungi. Under normal circumstances, these
phenomena should be manageable and are not enough to explain the horrendous amount of
dying going on in bees. Over recent years new insecticides
have been introduced that are deadly to bees. Neonicotinoids, a chemical family
similar to nicotine, was approved in the early 1990s
as an alternative to chemicals like DDT. They attack insects by harming
their nervous systems. Today, they are the most widely
used insecticides in the world. Globally, they saw sales
of €1.5 billion in 2008, representing 24% of the global
market for insecticides. In 2013, neonicotinoids were used in the
US on about 95% of corn and canola crops, and also on the vast majority
of fruit and vegetables, like apples, cherries, peaches, oranges,
berries, leafy greens, tomatoes, potatoes, cereal grains, rice, nuts,
grapes, and many more. Bees come into contact with the toxin while collecting pollen or
via contaminated water, often bringing material into the hive, where it can accumulate and
slowly kill the whole colony. The toxins harm bees in a
variety of horrible ways. In high enough doses, it quickly leads
to convulsions, paralysis, and death. But even in small doses, it can be fatal. It may lead to bees forgetting
how to navigate the world, so bees fly into the wild, get lost, and
die alone, separated from their hives. If this happens often enough, a hive
can lose its ability to sustain itself. We know that neonicotinoids
are harmful to bees and that we urgently need
an alternative to it, but there are billions of dollars
to be made in delaying this. Studies sponsored by the chemical
industry magically appear to prove a much lower toxicity to bees, compared to
those produced by independent scientists. There are even more factors
contributing to the demise of bees, like too much genetic uniformity,
crop monocultures, poor nutrition due to overcrowding,
stress because of human activities, and other pesticides. Each of those factors on its own is
a major problem for bees, but together, they probably account
for colony collapse disorder. With parasites upping their
game in recent decades, the honey bees are now
fighting for survival. It would be a catastrophe
if they lost this fight. This is a conundrum we have to solve
if we want to continue living with a relative abundance
and diversity of food. Humanity is deeply interconnected with
Earth and the other lifeforms on it, even if we pretend that we’re not. We have to take better care
of our surroundings, if not to preserve the beauty of nature,
then at least to ensure our own survival. This video is supported by the
Australian Academy of Science, which promotes and supports
excellence in science. See more at . It was a blast to work with them,
so go check out their site. Our videos are also made possible
by your support on . Recently, we passed
an important milestone, which is why there will be
an additional video in July. If you want to support us and become
part of the Kurzgesagt Bird Army, check out our Patreon page! Recently, the YouTube channel
Field Day gave us the oppotunity to make something different: a
short video about Game of Thrones. Go check it out on their channel! Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Crime-Solving With Insects

Crime-Solving With Insects


It’s no secret that the preserves offer thousands
of acres of beautiful scenery, prime wildlife habitat and wonderful recreational opportunities. But there’s also some fascinating research,
that goes on out of public view. With the cooperation of the District, local
law enforcement participated in a forensic entomology workshop to learn how to determine
a person’s time of death based on the bugs found on corpses. All of the animals used in the study died
of natural causes and were donated by local farmers. Over a series of weeks, District police collected
the animals and placed them in various spots within the preserve. The animals were secured to stakes to prevent
coyotes from dragging them away. It was then time to let nature take its course. Flies usually land on a body within seconds
after death. The types of bugs — and stages of them — are
key tools crime scene investigators use to determine a time of death. Flies come first. Then maggots. Followed by beetles. Investigators took turns collecting bugs and
documenting the scene. Tweezers are used to collect larvae and eggs,
mostly from the orifices. Nets are used to capture flies. Specimens are placed in jars with a solution
to preserve them for later analysis. They also learned techniques for properly
taking a temperature at the scene. It is a key variable with insects, and it’s
important to know the temperature when the body was discovered. All of this information is hard to simulate,
so it was important to make the hands-on experience as realistic as possible. Partnerships like this help law enforcement
be better prepared for death investigations.

How can research save lives from the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

How can research save lives from the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo?


One of the deadliest diseases on the planet has been recurring in
central Africa since the 1970s – ever more frequently. It was first identified near
the eponymous Ebola river and kills 30-80% of those it infects. Ebola can never be eradicated – it’s endemic in animals of
the forests of central Africa in most of which it causes no symptoms. People may come into contact with blood,
urine or saliva of animals in the forest or whilst hunting, but the main hosts
are thought to be bats, which are often eaten as bushmeat. From them, the virus spreads between
people through bodily fluids. Initially, we humans experience
flu-like symptoms as the virus evades the immune system,
preventing immune cells identifying it. Without these immune guards,
the virus can enter many cells and replicate rapidly
whilst the body is defenceless. The virus damages many
types of cell when it invades – including those in the liver
which control blood clotting. The body is overwhelmed, with the virus
triggering a strong immune response, inducing uncontrolled inflammation. This causes many tiny
blood vessels to leak. Because the blood can’t clot, when these vessels leak,
bleeding results – internally, and sometimes externally,
from the eyes, ears and nose. This loss of blood and
widespread damage to cells stops the body’s vital organs working. The only way to survive is to keep the organs functioning
by replacing lost blood through transfusions
and intravenous fluids, keeping the patient alive
throughout the onslaught long enough for the immune system
to develop antibodies to the virus. Even if you survive, the virus can remain
in areas such as the eyes and testes, which can leave people infectious
for more than a year after recovery. Because there is currently no cure, getting ahead involves
preventing people getting ill – through containment of those
infected with the disease and the development of vaccines. Countries which have not
experienced an Ebola outbreak tend to have low public and clinical
awareness around the disease, as well as poor diagnostic tools, meaning the alarm may only be raised
once the disease has spread widely. Many people may become infected, with containment made more difficult
by inadequate health infrastructure. As a result of such conditions, the 2014
West Africa epidemic lasted for two years, affected eight countries, and more than 11,000 people died. There are six known Ebola species. Four of which cause disease in humans. These differ in the nature
of their surface proteins and are recognised differently
by our immune cells. This makes many different
targets for vaccines. A vaccine against the deadliest and most common
– the Zaire species – has been developed. But it takes years of field testing for
a vaccine like this to be officially approved. Developing a vaccine that can target all the species
that cause disease in humans would be ideal. Identifying the Ebola species and implementing drug trials and
vaccinations as soon as possible is why genomic sequencing of
all human occurrences of the virus needs to be part of the Ebola
outbreak emergency response. By tracing the evolution of the virus, genomic sequencing allows scientists to
locate who caught the disease from who, identifying transmission
routes and potential contacts. As viruses also keep changing and mutating,
they are also moving targets. Vitally, genomic sequencing allows us to know
which parts of the virus are preserved, which parts are integral to its function
and good targets for vaccines. In future, we may even be able to develop vaccines
which act against multiple species at once. Research funded by Wellcome and
others during the West Africa crisis allowed the first Zaire-species
vaccine to be trialled. It successfully protected
against the Ebola virus. This vaccine was stockpiled
ready for later use on health workers and potential contacts of
those with the disease. When an outbreak arose in 2018
in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Wellcome donated 2 million pounds,
partly to support a vaccination programme for all those who may have come into
contact with those with the disease – in this case upwards of 3,000 people. The rapid release of emergency funds enabled not just containment and care, but also scientific research to be incorporated
throughout the emergency response – crucial to progress in combatting the disease. Only because this response was
well-practised and coordinated, was it possible for help
to be quickly assembled and to implement international policies,
such as border checks. Although the DRC’s May 2018 outbreak was stamped out within weeks,
and 33 people died, a new appearance of Ebola in an active
conflict zone in a different part of the country demonstrated the enduring
nature of the threat. Such situations add complication
to the outbreak response, but the international community is
now better-equipped to combat Ebola. So by keeping the pressure up
on the scientific research, in the lulls between clear
and present dangers, we can get ahead of the threat
simmering below the surface and contain Ebola’s
next inevitable incursion.

Preventing TB transmission | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Preventing TB transmission | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


Narrator: Let’s say you’ve got two people and one person has Tuberculosis,
that’s this person over here, I’ll call him person A and another person
does not, this is person B over here. What are the things that are going
to make person A more infectious? What are the things we
need to think about, in terms of how likely it is that
person B will actually get sick with TB. There are a few things. We know that this person has to actually
cough out some TB particles, right? They’re going to cough them out and that
means that the strength of the cough, let’s say they have a real good cough
like that, versus a really weak, kind of puny cough, something
like that is going to matter. It turns out that the folks that have
the strongest cough are the adults. So, any adults, in general,
adults are going to have a much
stronger cough than children. So, that means that adults are
more infectious than children. Let me actually write that
as my first key point. It turns out that’s exactly right, that
we see that in terms of spreading TB, it’s the adults that spread
it much more than kids and
definitely much more than infants. A second point, is that
you need live bacteria. This seems obvious that of course
you’re not going to get anyone sick if you don’t have live bacteria. The way to know that
someone has live bacteria, you can actually just take
some of there sputum or some
of their mucus from their lungs and look under a microscope
and you would actually see
what we call a positive smear. That literally means you smear
out the mucus under a microscope and you look with a microscope and
you can literally see the TB bacteria. You can also do a culture and see if
you can actually grow the bacteria. If you can see the bacteria
or grow the bacteria, that’s a good indication that
there’s live TB bacteria there and that’s obviously going to make
the person more infectious as well. A third point, is if you look in their
lungs and you see large cavities, some times you call that cavitary disease,
but let me just write cavity here. If you see a cavity there, in
that cavity we know is going to
be full of little TB bacteria. Those cavities are classic for that and so
whenever you see or think about cavities, I want you to remember that the
folks that get cavities are the
secondary progressive disease folks. Remember there’s primary
and there’s secondary, and it’s the secondary progressive
disease that causes these cavities. These are the folks that are
going to be more infectious because they’re loaded
with live TB bacteria. What are the things we can do to
actually prevent the spread of TB? The first one is actually kind
of obvious, it’s medication. We have medications that are really
good for treating Tuberculosis. One classic thing that we’ve done is
what we call directly observe therapy, DOT, directly observe therapy. All that means is sometimes a physician or a nurse will actually watch
a patient take their medications so that they don’t forget or
sometimes people don’t like
to take their medications. This is an easy way to make
sure that someone’s actually
taking their medications. We call it DOT. That’s obviously going to be helpful
for killing off the bacteria, so we don’t have to worry
about live bacteria anymore. Usually that happens in about two
weeks, after two weeks of medications, that usually kills off the bacteria
so you no longer have those positive
smears and positive cultures. It also helps with symptoms,
so if you’re not sick with TB you may not be coughing as much. That’s another important
thing to keep in mind. What else would be important? You could imagine, isolation, making
sure the person is actually isolated. So, isolation is key. And specifically you want to make sure
they’re not around any young people, so definitely don’t want them around
anyone under the age of four years because, of course, children
are really, really susceptible
to getting very sick with TB, so you want to make sure
they’re away from young children and you want to keep
them isolated at night. So, at night when they’re sleeping
– I put a little @ symbol, but at night when they’re sleeping you
want to make sure that they’re isolated and maybe sleeping in their own room. Of course it’s ideal if the
person is completely isolated, but of course that’s not always
practical because they might be
with their family or their children, but you want to make sure that they’re
at least away from children under four and at night that they are sleeping alone. Another thing is a surgical mask. A surgical mask is really good
because it helps prevent too much of the stuff that’s coming out
of your mouth to enter the air. Actually, literally, let
me just draw it for you. It literally catches a lot of
this stuff and prevents it from
entering the space around you. This is a mask, let’s say a
surgical mask, it might hook
up like this, maybe like that, and what it does is it literally catches
the stuff that’s coming out of the mouth and makes it ricochet back in. You can still breath with a surgical mask
on, but it just keeps the large particles, maybe large droplets
from leaving your mouth. Now, what if you’re person B, what’s one
thing you could do if you’re person B? One obvious trick is just
standing further away, you don’t have to stand so close to person
A, you can stand all the way back here. That’s going to make it less likely
that you’re going to get sick with TB. Let me write that here, is
create space, create space. Another key idea is, think about
what happens when someone passes gas, or there’s a horrible smell in a
room, what are you going to do? Usually people are going to find
the door, maybe they’ll open
the door and let some air in. This arrow indicates more air coming in. Maybe there’s a window here,
they’re going to open the window
and let the breeze come in. Basically do whatever you can to
dilute out that horrible smell. If there’s a fan, maybe you’ll try to
turn on the fan and get that spinning. If you can get the fan going that’s
also going to move around the air. You’re just trying to move around the air
to get a dilution of that horrible smell. Let me right it out, dilute. The idea here is that you can
just literally do simple things. You can open up doors and windows,
we call that natural ventilation. You can also turn on a fan to
kind of move the air around and
you’re just trying to dilute out that horrible bacteria so that less
of it is likely to enter your lungs. Another thing you can do is actually
put on an air purifying respirator. An air purifying respirator is
actually a little bit different
then the surgical mask. This one is actually going to keep
out very tiny, tiny particles. Unlike the surgical mask whick gets the
large things, spit and large particles, this one is actually going to
capture very tiny particles and it’s actually not going to allow them
into your breathing area, your airway. It’s actually going to make
things bounce off, essentially, or get caught inside the filter itself. It wont allow TB particles
into your nose or mouth. A common one here, you might have
heard of or seen, is called the N95. There are many other types as
well, but that’s one example
of an air purifying respirator. There are a couple more things
that you might see that are
slightly more expensive, but you might come across them
or at least hear about them. One is called ultraviolet, (writing) ultraviolet germicidal. Let’s see if you can kind of guess
how this works or what it does. (writing) Germicidal, cidal
means killing something. Germicidal irradiation, irradiation. A lot of times people will just
shorten this whole thing to UVGI. They’ll say a UVGI was
installed and what UVGI does, it literally takes ultraviolet
light and shines it out, and actually if there area
couple of TB particles, let’s
say one here and one here, that UVGI, that irradiation kills
that TB particle and X’s it out. So, it’s no longer alive and
the folks in that room are safe. The final thing I want to talk
about is called a HEPA filter. It’s a filter and if I was to draw the
ceiling it would look something like this. Maybe it has some spot on the
ceiling where air is flowing in and some spot where air is flowing out. Just erase these parts right
here and I’ll show you. Let’s say that air is coming in
this way, let’s say three arrows, and you’ve got air coming out
this way, you’ve got three arrows. So in the middle, somewhere in
this area you’ve got a filter. This filter is going to catch TB
particles, so we call it a High
Efficiency Particulate Air Filter. (writing) Particulate Air Filter. No one wants to say all of this because
it’s too long, so just for short, again they say HEPA filter. A HEPA filter is going to then catch some
TB particles that are going to flow in and they’re going to get
stuck in these filters, so coming out on the other
side you have nice clean air because the TB particle will
not get through that filter. You could even take this a step further. You could say well, how about
if we did this and actually, instead of having all of the air returned,
let’s say we return just part of it and actually allow some of the
air to escape outside of our room. Now you have a negative pressure in
this room because you have more air leaving the room then is re-entering
the room, you have negative pressure, almost like a vacuum because all
this air is going up into the filter and not as much is coming back out, so
this room becomes negative pressure. There’s kind of a vacuum in this room
and especially if you do it right. If you close off all these doors
and you close these windows, then you definitely create
a negative pressure. What that means is that now you
can really protect the area around because you close off the
door, you close off the window and now there’s no way that a TB particle
can leave and go into the hallway because if there’s a little bit
of a gap underneath this door, if
that’s the only crack in this room, then the negative pressure is going
to make air flow through that crack into the room instead of air
flowing out into the hallway. That’s actually another key trick that
they use to prevent TB from spreading, is they’ll create a negative
pressure where they pump air out, which is what we showed here, and
then they’ll seal off the whole room, and then the air from the
hallway starts entering the room and you can make sure that no TB particles
are going to get out into the hallway and get people in the hallway sick.

Measles Explained — Vaccinate or Not?

Measles Explained — Vaccinate or Not?


Recently there has been
a lot of talk about measles. What does measles actually do,
and should you vaccinate against it? Or is this just hysteria? Measles is a virus: a hull of proteins, RNA, plus some more proteins for reproduction. It cannot reproduce by itself;
it needs a host cell to do so. To understand measles, we have to
understand the immune system. You might already have seen the visual system we developed
to help here. Now, let’s focus on the parts of
the immune system relevant to measles. The measles virus enters humans
through the nose, mouth, or eyes. The measles infection starts in the lungs. Measles is especially good at infecting
the body’s first line of defence: macrophages, powerful guard cells
that protect the lungs from intruders. They enter a cell and take it over. The virus reprograms the cell and transforms it into a dangerous
virus production center. Once a cell is filled with viruses, they leave the crippled cell
and begin the cycle over again. But the immune system has
powerful weapons against virus infections: natural killer cells. These cells basically patrol the body
and check other cells for infections. If they find an infected cell,
they order it to commit suicide. This is so effective that for
the first 10 days or so, you will not even notice that
you’re infected with measles. And now, the reason why measles
is so powerful. After a period of fighting and dying, macrophages alert the brain of the
immune system: the dendritic cells. The job of the dendritic cells is
to collect samples of intruders, travel to the lymph nodes, and then activate the heavy weapons that eradicate the infection very fast
in a team effort. But the measles virus uses
a dreadful tactic. It infects the dendritic cells and uses them as a Trojan horse
to enter deeper into the body. The infected cells travel to the next
lymph node to alert other immune cells. Once it arrives, the measles virus spreads around the
virgin T and B cells and infects them. It attacks the very system that
evolved to fight it. Now, things happen very fast. The lymph system spreads the virus
everywhere and it enters the bloodstream, infecting cells while traveling. Measles infects organs like the spleen, the liver, the intestines,
and, most importantly, the lungs. The symptoms range from a very high fever, headache, sickness,
bronchitis, and, of course, a rash. In the lungs, the immune system was
doing pretty okay. But now, millions of viruses
attack a second time and kill countless cells, wiping out
the defense systems. In this phase, you start coughing out
millions of measles viruses. Measles is so contagious at this stage, that if you meet someone
who isn’t vaccinated, there’s about a 90% chance
you’ll infect them. Without the protective army in the lungs,
other bacteria or viruses that would usually not stand a chance can
now enter the lungs and develop into harmful parallel infections that
can cause pneumonia, the most common way to
die from measles. Your body’s immune system is now
seriously wounded. Various protective systems are hurt
and disrupted. The virus spreads everywhere, infecting
the skin all over the body. The typical measles rash now
becomes visible. And in some cases, the measles virus reaches the brain and causes
a brain infection. If it does so, the chances of dying
are between 20 to 40 percent, and there may be long-term damage. But your body is far from giving
up at this stage, and it fights back agressively. Some dendritic cells survive
long enough to activate the anti-virus forces of the body. Plasma cells in the lymph nodes
start producing billions of antibodies, tiny proteins that mark infected cells
for destruction or clump the virus together. Killer T cells flood the body
and kill infected cells left and right. After 2 to 3 weeks, the body usually gets the upper hand and overwhelms
the infection. But the immune system is now
seriously weakened, and may take weeks or months to recover, leaving the body vulnerable
to other diseases. But, if you make it, you are now immune: the immune system remembers
the virus forever. Measles is no joke. Although 84% of all humans are
vaccinated against measles, 122,000 people died because
of the infection in 2014. Some people cannot get vaccinations, either because they’re too young,
because of chemotherapy or HIV, or because they’re allergic
to the vaccine. They need the rest of us to
stop the disease for them. The measles vaccination is
safe, cheap, and available. There are no benifits from having
measles at all. You don’t strengthen your immune
system and it’s not more natural. Most people who don’t vaccinate
only want the best for their children, which is honorable. But if you ask yourself, “Am I putting the life of my child
and other children at risk by not vaccinating against measles?” The sad answer is yes. Yes, you are. Let’s not play the blame game, though. Let’s work together and
eradicate this virus. Together, we can get rid of these
dreadful monsters and consign them to their rightful place:
the history books. Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Insects that PLAY DEAD! ☠💀

Insects that PLAY DEAD! ☠💀


Hey everyone,
today we’re gonna do a little feature of about two of our insects that love to
play dead. Now the first insect that we’ve got here is the Blue Death
Feigning Beetle. These guys are really cool, and they’re pretty cute too. These,
these guys are native to deserts of the southwestern United States and mainly
the Sonoran Desert. Now these guys are called Blue Death Feigning Beetles because they
like to play dead when threatened, and here we have one playing dead. Wake up
little guy. Come on. Oh, you’re okay. There you go. You’re good. There you go. All better. Now they get this really beautiful blue color. It’s actually due
to a wax that they secrete from the body, and this wax keeps their body nice and
moist so they don’t lose moisture at all. Um, that’s one of the reasons why that
you don’t have to keep water in with them. They get all the water they need
from their food and the wax helps keep them, helps them retain the moisture. Now
if you spray them too much they can actually get too, too humid, and they will
actually lose that beautiful blue color and turn black and stress out, so you
don’t want to keep water in there and you want to keep it nice and dry. You
don’t need any additional heat for these guys or any humidity of any sort, all you
need is some dry sand and you can give them some branches and cork bark to hide
in, because they do as you can see here they do like to hide under the cork bark
during the day. They can be fed all sorts of food you
can feed them like fruits like, fruits and veggies, like apples, carrots,
and you can also feed them proteins such as dead crickets or mealworms. So these
guys are scavengers, so they basically eat anything. So yeah, these guys are
really cute, really cool, and they don’t require a very big cage at all. As you
can see we keep a bunch of them in this really small cage, so if you’re looking
for a smaller pet this guy will be great for you.
So our next insect that plays dead is our Dead Leaf Mantis. Now these guys come
from the country of Malaysia. These guys are one of the larger praying mantis
species, they can get, females can get up to about three and a half inches long,
the males usually reach about 2.75 to three inches at most. So the males have
the longer wings that reach past their abdomen, while the females have shorter
wings and that do not extend past their abdomen. Now these guys are called Dead
Leaf Mantids because their bodies resemble dead leaves. Their coloring is
brown and black with just splotches of black brown and black all over them, and
it kind of makes them look like dead leaves. Like Blue Death Feigning Beetles
if they get too scared they will play dead. They will be
completely motionless with either their legs rigidly folded or stretched out,
kind of looking like a dead bug. Even if you pick them up or touch them, they will
not move. As adults, these guys will also scare predators by performing a,
something called a deimatic display. Now this is when they will stretch out
their wings and they’ll raise their forelegs and kind of try to, kind of wave
around and try to scare off predators. It looks pretty cool though. So these guys
don’t require a huge setup, so if you’re looking for a smaller pet to keep at
home these guys would be perfect. They only need about five gallon tank as
adults. All they needs is a little bit of a higher humidity, so just make sure to
spray them regularly.