First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Identify Bee & Wasp Stings

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Identify Bee & Wasp Stings


You know, many times throughout the year,
many of us are bitten by the common bee, wasp, or hornet. Hi, I’m Captain Joe Bruni, and
what I’m going to talk about is how to identify that you’ve been stung or bitten by the common
bee, wasp, or hornet. Many times, the wasp or hornet will leave some type of what looks
like a small hole in the skin, or a dark spot. The area will swell and begin to turn red.
The common bee will leave some type of stinger as they detach it and fly off. Keep in mind,
the stinger from the common bee should not be removed with a pair of tweezers or with
anything that could squeeze the venom sac, and cause further envenomation of that stinger.
Something like a butter knife or a credit card could be used to scrape the stinger away
from the skin; against the grain, so the stinger can be easily removed without squeezing it
or injecting more toxin into the body. Apply ice, and wash the wound with soap and water;
monitoring for signs of some type of allergic reaction, which is commonly referred to as
an anaphylactic reaction. Anaphylaxis will include difficulty in breathing, a swelling
of the tongue, and some other sign that the person is going into some type of respiratory
distress, or hives forming over the rest of the body. If this occurs, seek medical attention
immediately. The common bee, wasp, and hornet can ruin anyone’s day. Identification that
you’ve been bitten by one of those is commonly some type of small hole or stinger left in
the, in the skin, accompanied by redness, burning sensation, and pain. I’m Captain Joe
Bruni. Stay safe, and we’ll see ya’ next time.

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

6. Insect circulatory system

6. Insect circulatory system


The roles of the circulatory system are
to transport essential metabolites from the fat body to the cells, carry waste
to the excretory system and provide immunity to harmful organisms. Insects have a simple open circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of a dorsal vessel running the length of the body. The dorsal vessel is divided into a posterior heart that contains intake valves called ostia and an anterior aorta The open space of the body is called the
hemocoel. The hemocoel is filled with insect blood called hemolymph. Since insect hemolymph does not transport oxygen, it does not contain hemoglobin and, therefore, lacks the red color that is characteristic of blood from
vertebrate animals. Hemolymph is pumped forward by the heart through the aorta, into the head and flows back through the body in the open hemocoel. Hemolymph re-enters the posterior heart through the ostial valves, and the cycle repeats. The hemocoel is always full of hemolymph, and the heart ensures it’s mixing. Auxilary, pulsatile hearts at the base of the antenna legs and wings pump hemolymph into those appendages.

Researchers tackle deadly blood infections

Researchers tackle deadly blood infections


(instrumental music) – [Narrator] Blood stream
infections, or sepsis, can be difficult to diagnosis and treat. And antibiotics appear to
be becoming less reliable in managing some of them. The University of Michigan Health System is utilizing a multidisciplinary approach to learn better ways to
diagnose and treat sepsis. Blood stream infections are infections that typically begin in
a local part of the body, say in the bladder or
in the skin or the lung, and then the bacteria that
caused those infections managed to, sort of, break
free from the usual defenses and make it into the bloodstream. And that gives the bacteria
an opportunity to go, essentially anywhere it wants. And once it’s in the
bloodstream it can travel to distant organs, it
can travel to the brain, it can travel to the heart. And it’s basically, sort
of, a horse out of the barn. Bloodstream infections are a problem because most of the defenses
that your body has built up to fight infections, are defenses that were built
against things like splinters and wound infections, and
you know, sore throats, and bladder infections, things like that. They’re defenses that
were built to go somewhere to do a thing. They’re a local defense. And the problem with bloodstream
infections is that it, when a bacteria is allowed to go anywhere, it has an opportunity
to rewrite the rules. And now defenses that were
local and designed to be local are suddenly being deployed everywhere. The standard treatment
for bacterial infections of the bloodstream or
elsewhere, are antibiotics. And what’s clear from the last 50 years, and antibiotics have
really only been around for about 50 years, is that they’re becoming
less and less reliable for taking care of infections. And so what we’re looking for, are ways of treating the disease and helping along the
host defense in such a way that doesn’t require antibiotics. And one of the ways that
we’re looking to do that, is we’re looking to find a
strategy to improve the ability of the bloodstream to
filter these things out. How can you get them out of
the bloodstream even faster? Are there mechanical
tricks that you can play on the bacterium that
don’t require antibiotics that will allow the body to grab it, pull it out of the bloodstream and resolve the infection faster. One of the things we’re
trying to understand are the rules for how bacteria
traffic in the bloodstream, and if you understand the
timing of those events you might be able to better understand how best to detect the
bloodstream infection when it’s present. That’s the first issue. The second thing that we’re working on, are looking for ways to
just fundamentally change the rules of engagement between
the bacteria and the host. There are mechanical features at play, in terms of getting these
bacteria and flowing blood out. If we can change the
mechanics of that event, then we can potentially have
a therapy that the bacteria doesn’t really have an
opportunity to defend against. That it doesn’t have the ability to develop a resistance against, and potentially can be a useful therapy. (instrumental music)

Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Immunity Explained

Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Immunity Explained


Our body has a powerful army that protects it from various types of threats. These threats can come in the form of mechanical injuries, the entry of germs, or the entry of other foreign particles like dust. This personal army is called the immune system. Every day, we encounter a huge number of bacteria, viruses and other disease-causing organisms. However, we don’t fall ill every other day. which is due to our immune system – an army of cells that is always roaming our body, ready to ward off any attack. The immune system can be broadly divided into
two parts – innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity or non-specific immunity is
the body’s first natural defense to any intruder. This system doesn’t care what it’s killing. Its primary goal is to prevent any intruder
from entering the body, and if it does enter, then the immune system kills this intruder. It doesn’t differentiate between one pathogen
and another. The first component of this defensive system
is your skin. Any organism trying to get into the body is
stopped by the skin, our largest organ, which covers us. Secondly, there is the mucous lining of all
our organs. The sticky, viscous fluid of this lining traps
any pathogens trying to get past it. These are the physical barriers. However, we also have chemical barriers, such
as the lysozyme in the eyes, or the acid in the stomach, which kill pathogens trying to
gain entry. The genitourinary tract and other places have
their own normal flora, or microbial community. These compete with pathogens for space and
food, and therefore also act as a barrier. The next line of defense is inflammation,
which is done by mast cells. These cells are constantly searching for suspicious
objects in the body. When they find something, they release a signal
in the form of histamine molecules. These alert the body, and blood is rushed
to the problem area. This causes inflammation and also brings leukocytes,
or white blood cells, which are soldiers in our body’s cellular army. Once they come, all hell breaks loose! Sometimes however, the intruder may not be
germ, but rather a harmless thing like a dust particle. The body still causes a full immune reaction to this intruder, which is how allergic reactions occur. In the fortress of our body, the leukocytes
are VIPs. They have an all-access pass to the body,
except, of course, to the brain and spinal cord. Our leukocytes come in many types. Those that belong to the innate system are the phagocytes. These cells can either patrol your body, like the neutrophils, or they can stay in certain places and wait for their cue. Neutrophils are the most abundant cells. They patrol the body and can therefore get
to a breach site very quickly. These cellular soldiers kill the infectious
cell and then die, which leads to pus formation. There are also the big bad wolves, or the
macrophages. These cells are like hungry, ravenous monsters
who simply engulf unwanted pathogens. Instead of roaming freely in our blood, they
are collected in certain places. These cells can consume about 100 pathogens
before they die, but they can also detect our own cells that have gone rogue, such as
cancer cells, and kill them too. Beyond that, we also have the Natural Killer
Cells. These cells can efficiently detect when our
own cells have gone rogue, or are infected with, say, a virus. NKCs detect a protein produced by normal cells,
called the Major Histocompatibility Complex or MHC. Basically, whenever a cell isn’t normal, it
stops producing this protein. The NKCs move around constantly, checking
our cells for this type of deficiency, and when they find an abnormal cell, they simply
bind to it and release chemicals that will destroy it. The last cells of our innate immune system
are the dendritic cells. These are found in places that come in contact
with the outside environment, such as the nose, lungs, etc. They are the link between our innate and adaptive immune systems. They eat a pathogen, and then carry information about it to our adaptive immune system cells. This information is produced and shared in
the form of antigens. Antigens are the traces that pathogens leave
around. They are molecules found on the surface on
pathogens that can be detected by our adaptive immune system for recognition. The dendritic cells pass on this information
to our T cells. However, macrophages can also perform this
function. Now, there is also the adaptive or acquired
immune system. This system is more efficient, as it can differentiate
between different types of pathogens. It has 2 main components – T lymphocytes and
B lymphocytes. T-cells come into play when an infection has
already occurred, thus bringing about the cell-mediated immune response. B-cells join the fight when the pathogens
have entered, but haven’t yet caused any disease. This is called the humoral immune response. Some T-cells take signals from the dendritic
cells or macrophages, and are thus called helper T-cells. They perform two key tasks: forming effector
T-cells, which are basically cells that cycle through the body and call in the cavalry,
namely other white blood cells. Helper T-cells also form memory T-cells, which
keep a record of this antigen for future reference. Sometimes, the some cells of our body know
that they have lost the battle. Essentially, the affected area or organ has
They have become heavily infected with pathogens, so there is no hope for them. At this point, the immune system brings out
the cytotoxic t cells. These cells rush over and perform a mercy
killing for the infected and dying cell. Furthermore, we have the B-cells. They produce chemicals called antibodies,
which fit on the antigens of pathogens, much like how a lock and key fit together. These antibodies crowd around a pathogen and
act like tags. They signal the macrophages to come and kill
the marked pathogen. B-cells also produce memory B-cells when they
encounter an antigen. The B- and T- memory cells jointly maintain
a record of all encountered infections, and thus strengthen and solidify the body’s
immune response to these infections. Our innate immune response is quicker, though
non-specific. It gets into action within hours and is pretty
strong. However, when things get out of hand, the
innate system calls for help from the acquired immune system. This system can take days to mount a response,
but the next time we encounter that pathogen, it won’t make us get sick. In short, every day that we spend being healthy is all thanks to our immune system. So, it definitely deserves our respect.

How can research save lives from the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

How can research save lives from the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo?


One of the deadliest diseases on the planet has been recurring in
central Africa since the 1970s – ever more frequently. It was first identified near
the eponymous Ebola river and kills 30-80% of those it infects. Ebola can never be eradicated – it’s endemic in animals of
the forests of central Africa in most of which it causes no symptoms. People may come into contact with blood,
urine or saliva of animals in the forest or whilst hunting, but the main hosts
are thought to be bats, which are often eaten as bushmeat. From them, the virus spreads between
people through bodily fluids. Initially, we humans experience
flu-like symptoms as the virus evades the immune system,
preventing immune cells identifying it. Without these immune guards,
the virus can enter many cells and replicate rapidly
whilst the body is defenceless. The virus damages many
types of cell when it invades – including those in the liver
which control blood clotting. The body is overwhelmed, with the virus
triggering a strong immune response, inducing uncontrolled inflammation. This causes many tiny
blood vessels to leak. Because the blood can’t clot, when these vessels leak,
bleeding results – internally, and sometimes externally,
from the eyes, ears and nose. This loss of blood and
widespread damage to cells stops the body’s vital organs working. The only way to survive is to keep the organs functioning
by replacing lost blood through transfusions
and intravenous fluids, keeping the patient alive
throughout the onslaught long enough for the immune system
to develop antibodies to the virus. Even if you survive, the virus can remain
in areas such as the eyes and testes, which can leave people infectious
for more than a year after recovery. Because there is currently no cure, getting ahead involves
preventing people getting ill – through containment of those
infected with the disease and the development of vaccines. Countries which have not
experienced an Ebola outbreak tend to have low public and clinical
awareness around the disease, as well as poor diagnostic tools, meaning the alarm may only be raised
once the disease has spread widely. Many people may become infected, with containment made more difficult
by inadequate health infrastructure. As a result of such conditions, the 2014
West Africa epidemic lasted for two years, affected eight countries, and more than 11,000 people died. There are six known Ebola species. Four of which cause disease in humans. These differ in the nature
of their surface proteins and are recognised differently
by our immune cells. This makes many different
targets for vaccines. A vaccine against the deadliest and most common
– the Zaire species – has been developed. But it takes years of field testing for
a vaccine like this to be officially approved. Developing a vaccine that can target all the species
that cause disease in humans would be ideal. Identifying the Ebola species and implementing drug trials and
vaccinations as soon as possible is why genomic sequencing of
all human occurrences of the virus needs to be part of the Ebola
outbreak emergency response. By tracing the evolution of the virus, genomic sequencing allows scientists to
locate who caught the disease from who, identifying transmission
routes and potential contacts. As viruses also keep changing and mutating,
they are also moving targets. Vitally, genomic sequencing allows us to know
which parts of the virus are preserved, which parts are integral to its function
and good targets for vaccines. In future, we may even be able to develop vaccines
which act against multiple species at once. Research funded by Wellcome and
others during the West Africa crisis allowed the first Zaire-species
vaccine to be trialled. It successfully protected
against the Ebola virus. This vaccine was stockpiled
ready for later use on health workers and potential contacts of
those with the disease. When an outbreak arose in 2018
in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Wellcome donated 2 million pounds,
partly to support a vaccination programme for all those who may have come into
contact with those with the disease – in this case upwards of 3,000 people. The rapid release of emergency funds enabled not just containment and care, but also scientific research to be incorporated
throughout the emergency response – crucial to progress in combatting the disease. Only because this response was
well-practised and coordinated, was it possible for help
to be quickly assembled and to implement international policies,
such as border checks. Although the DRC’s May 2018 outbreak was stamped out within weeks,
and 33 people died, a new appearance of Ebola in an active
conflict zone in a different part of the country demonstrated the enduring
nature of the threat. Such situations add complication
to the outbreak response, but the international community is
now better-equipped to combat Ebola. So by keeping the pressure up
on the scientific research, in the lulls between clear
and present dangers, we can get ahead of the threat
simmering below the surface and contain Ebola’s
next inevitable incursion.

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Yellow Jacket Sting on Someone Who is Allergic

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Yellow Jacket Sting on Someone Who is Allergic


Few things can cause the amount of fear and
discomfort that come with an allergic reaction from a yellowjacket sting. Hi, I’m Captain
Joe Bruni. Now what I’m going to talk about is how to deal with and treat the allergic
reaction to a yellowjacket type of sting. Yellowjackets will leave some type of stinger
in the area that must be removed with the backside of a credit card or dull object like
the backside of a butter knife. Scrape the stinger away from the skin to keep from further
injecting any toxin into the body. The allergic reaction known as anaphylacsis will surface
by hives forming on other areas of the body, a swelling of the face, tongue our throat,
and also difficulty in breathing, and in sever cases a loss of consciousness. If the person
has an epi-pen because they know they’re allergic to yellowjackets, help this individual administer
the epinephrine through the device known as the epi-pin into the thigh area. If the person
is showing signs of an allergic reaction, and is not aware that they have an allergy
towards yellowjackets, if possible administer some type of oral antihistamine and then transport
to a medical facility. Few things can be as scary as an anaphylactic reaction. Knowing
the proper steps to take can help with a positive outcome when dealing with an allergic reaction
to yellowjackets. I’m Captain Joe Bruni, stay safe and we’ll see you next time.

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Brown Recluse Spider Bite

First Aid for Insect Bites : How to Treat a Brown Recluse Spider Bite


You know, one of the common insect bites that
can be very frustrating to deal with is that of the brown recluse spider. Hi, I’m Captain
Joe Bruni, and what I’m going to talk about is how to treat the bite that has occurred
from the brown recluse spider or fatal back spider. The brown recluse spider will form
some type of reddening area or possibly some type of pussy, pustule area followed by necroses
of some tissue after a brown recluse spider bite. Apply some type of antiseptic cream
or lotion to the bite area and then apply ice or a cold pack in intervals of twenty
minutes on, twenty minutes off to reduce swelling and pain. It would also be advisable to take
some type of pain reliever like Ibuprofen and not aspirin, as aspirin will thin the
blood. And then seek medical attention. If the pustule forms do not pop it or break it.
However, if it breaks on its own, re clean the area with soap and water, and antiseptic
as you seek medical attention. I’m Captain Joe Bruni. Stay safe, and we’ll see you next
time.