Op. Gotta pee. (door closing) (zipper unzipping) There are three things I wanna tell you about urine. (intro: slam and discreet cough) Lesson one, there is a system responsible for discharging urine. It does not include the vagina. Urine is produced in the kidneys, it comes
down two tubes called the ureters, it’s held in the bladder and then exits through
the urethra in a hole called the meatus. Most meatuses are located here in the vulva
in between the vagina and the clitoris and here on the penis at the glans or head. And then because no body is the same, we’ve got meatuses that are sometimes located here and here and here and here. Note, none of these holes are the vagina. Many people think that vaginas are the
exit point for urine, but they’re not. Not typically anyway. So why do people think that urine leaves the body via the vag? Perhaps they weren’t taught, or didn’t learn. Perhaps they think that the vagina is
the opposite of the penis and therefore since urine comes out of the penis then
it must come out of the vagina. Or maybe because they sit down on the toilet, urinate, and it feels like it’s coming out of their vagina. Lesson two, there aren’t usually germs in the urinary tract. Germs do attack the urinary tract by going
through the meatus up the urethra. This is commonly referred to as a urinary tract infection, or a UTI. Some people call it the “Honeymoon Disease”. Why do they call it that? Because when a newlywed couple is getting
sloppy, there are bodily fluids everywhere that transmit the bacteria from the anus to the vagina. Now you’ve just been told. Ok. It’s incredibly painful. You’ll feel the urge to pee, you’ll go to the bathroom
and nothing will come out except maybe a trickle. This sensation will persist,
minutes later the same process again. Then you add feeling feverish, nauseous, achy…. If you finally do get anything out of your
system, it’s cloudy and pungent smelling. Oh, and it burns. So you’re ready to get help. When you do, the doctor might say something like “You’ve got a urinary tract infection,
here’s a prescription for antibiotics. Take these and you’ll feel better soon”. And you might reply, “Oh no, I don’t want to put
antibiotics in my system, no unnecessary things here. I don’t want to create a giant superbug
that’s going to be drug resistant”. And the doctor might say, “If you don’t do
what I recommend, you’ll probably be crawling back in here tomorrow much worse.” And you might take the prescription, surrendering to the excruciating, inflamed irritation between your legs. Okay, so a few hours later,
you go to the bathroom again, and you think it’s going to be this agonizing pain but it’s not, so even though the physical issue isn’t there you’re still scrambling to figure out how
to prevent it from ever happening again. I can help some of you with this, and for others, hopefully prevent it from ever happening, because most of the bacteria is getting into
your urethra from your body’s own system, the anus, wiping back to front, poor hygiene,
and sloppy sex. Let’s go back to anatomy. This body…. Here you have the meatus. This is the anus. On this body, the meatus is here. the anus is some place back here, so if bacteria were to travel, it’d have to go
around the scrotum and then the length of the shaft, whereas here you’ve got about an inch. Making this body much more susceptible to infection
because the distance is shorter and easier to travel. Lesson three: wipe front to back,
pee before and after having sex, practice good hygiene by washing your genitals
and wearing breathable clothing. Where’s my dildo? When it comes to having sex, make
sure that if you’re the receptive partner, you’re the one putting the penetrative
object inside your body, so take it like this and make sure that it
finds the right orifice, because otherwise this person could be boinking around and accidentally hit your perineum or the anus
that’s covered in E. Coli or other bacteria. Bring that right up the vagina, which you
already know is so close to the meatus that we think we pee out of it. If you do wanna play anally, make sure
that you wash with soap and water whatever object you’ve put inside the anus
before you carry it over to the vagina. All clean! (outro music)
Good morning everyone. First of all, it’s been fantastic being here over these past few days. And secondly, I feel it’s a great honor to kind of wind up this extraordinary gathering of people, these amazing talks that we’ve had. I feel that I’ve fitted in, in many ways, to some of the things that I’ve heard. I came directly here from the deep, deep tropical rainforest in Ecuador, where I was out — you could only get there by a plane — with indigenous people with paint on their faces and parrot feathers on their headdresses, where these people are fighting to try and keep the oil companies, and keep the roads, out of their forests. They’re fighting to develop their own way of living within the forest in a world that’s clean, a world that isn’t contaminated, a world that isn’t polluted. And what was so amazing to me, and what fits right in with what we’re all talking about here at TED, is that there, right in the middle of this rainforest, was some solar panels — the first in that part of Ecuador — and that was mainly to bring water up by pump so that the women wouldn’t have to go down. The water was cleaned, but because they got a lot of batteries, they were able to store a lot of electricity. So every house — and there were, I think, eight houses in this little community — could have light for, I think it was about half an hour each evening. And there is the Chief, in all his regal finery, with a laptop computer. (Laughter) And this man, he has been outside, but he’s gone back, and he was saying, “You know, we have suddenly jumped into a whole new era, and we didn’t even know about the white man 50 years ago, and now here we are with laptop computers, and there are some things we want to learn from the modern world. We want to know about health care. We want to know about what other people do — we’re interested in it. And we want to learn other languages. We want to know English and French and perhaps Chinese, and we’re good at languages.” So there he is with his little laptop computer, but fighting against the might of the pressures — because of the debt, the foreign debt of Ecuador — fighting the pressure of World Bank, IMF, and of course the people who want to exploit the forests and take out the oil. And so, coming directly from there to here. But, of course, my real field of expertise lies in an even different kind of civilization — I can’t really call it a civilization. A different way of life, a different being. We’ve talked earlier — this wonderful talk by Wade Davis about the different cultures of the humans around the world — but the world is not composed only of human beings; there are also other animal beings. And I propose to bring into this TED conference, as I always do around the world, the voice of the animal kingdom. Too often we just see a few slides, or a bit of film, but these beings have voices that mean something. And so, I want to give you a greeting, as from a chimpanzee in the forests of Tanzania — Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh! (Applause) I’ve been studying chimpanzees in Tanzania since 1960. During that time, there have been modern technologies that have really transformed the way that field biologists do their work. For example, for the first time, a few years ago, by simply collecting little fecal samples we were able to have them analyzed — to have DNA profiling done — so for the first time, we actually know which male chimps are the fathers of each individual infant. Because the chimps have a very promiscuous mating society. So this opens up a whole new avenue of research. And we use GSI — geographic whatever it is, GSI — to determine the range of the chimps. And we’re using — you can see that I’m not really into this kind of stuff — but we’re using satellite imagery to look at the deforestation in the area. And of course, there’s developments in infrared, so you can watch animals at night, and equipment for recording by video, and tape recording is getting lighter and better. So in many, many ways, we can do things today that we couldn’t do when I began in 1960. Especially when chimpanzees, and other animals with large brains, are studied in captivity, modern technology is helping us to search for the upper levels of cognition in some of these non-human animals. So that we know today, they’re capable of performances that would have been thought absolutely impossible by science when I began. I think the chimpanzee in captivity who is the most skilled in intellectual performance is one called Ai in Japan — her name means love — and she has a wonderfully sensitive partner working with her. She loves her computer — she’ll leave her big group, and her running water, and her trees and everything. And she’ll come in to sit at this computer — it’s like a video game for a kid; she’s hooked. She’s 28, by the way, and she does things with her computer screen and a touch pad that she can do faster than most humans. She does very complex tasks, and I haven’t got time to go into them, but the amazing thing about this female is she doesn’t like making mistakes. If she has a bad run, and her score isn’t good, she’ll come and reach up and tap on the glass — because she can’t see the experimenter — which is asking to have another go. And her concentration — she’s already concentrated hard for 20 minutes or so, and now she wants to do it all over again, just for the satisfaction of having done it better. And the food is not important — she does get a tiny reward, like one raisin for a correct response — but she will do it for nothing, if you tell her beforehand. So here we are, a chimpanzee using a computer. Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans also learn human sign language. But the point is that when I was first in Gombe in 1960 — I remember so well, so vividly, as though it was yesterday — the first time, when I was going through the vegetation, the chimpanzees were still running away from me, for the most part, although some were a little bit acclimatized — and I saw this dark shape, hunched over a termite mound, and I peered with my binoculars. It was, fortunately, one adult male whom I’d named David Greybeard — and by the way, science at that time was telling me that I shouldn’t name the chimps; they should all have numbers; that was more scientific. Anyway, David Greybeard — and I saw that he was picking little pieces of grass and using them to fish termites from their underground nest. And not only that — he would sometimes pick a leafy twig and strip the leaves — modifying an object to make it suitable for a specific purpose — the beginning of tool-making. The reason this was so exciting and such a breakthrough is at that time, it was thought that humans, and only humans, used and made tools. When I was at school, we were defined as man, the toolmaker. So that when Louis Leakey, my mentor, heard this news, he said, “Ah, we must now redefine ‘man,’ redefine ‘tool,’ or accept chimpanzees as humans.” (Laughter) We now know that at Gombe alone, there are nine different ways in which chimpanzees use different objects for different purposes. Moreover, we know that in different parts of Africa, wherever chimps have been studied, there are completely different tool-using behaviors. And because it seems that these patterns are passed from one generation to the next, through observation, imitation and practice — that is a definition of human culture. What we find is that over these 40-odd years that I and others have been studying chimpanzees and the other great apes, and, as I say, other mammals with complex brains and social systems, we have found that after all, there isn’t a sharp line dividing humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. It’s a very wuzzy line. It’s getting wuzzier all the time as we find animals doing things that we, in our arrogance, used to think was just human. The chimps — there’s no time to discuss their fascinating lives — but they have this long childhood, five years of suckling and sleeping with the mother, and then another three, four or five years of emotional dependence on her, even when the next child is born. The importance of learning in that time, when behavior is flexible — and there’s an awful lot to learn in chimpanzee society. The long-term affectionate supportive bonds that develop throughout this long childhood with the mother, with the brothers and sisters, and which can last through a lifetime, which may be up to 60 years. They can actually live longer than 60 in captivity, so we’ve only done 40 years in the wild so far. And we find chimps are capable of true compassion and altruism. We find in their non-verbal communication — this is very rich — they have a lot of sounds, which they use in different circumstances, but they also use touch, posture, gesture, and what do they do? They kiss; they embrace; they hold hands. They pat one another on the back; they swagger; they shake their fist — the kind of things that we do, and they do them in the same kind of context. They have very sophisticated cooperation. Sometimes they hunt — not that often, but when they hunt, they show sophisticated cooperation, and they share the prey. We find that they show emotions, similar to — maybe sometimes the same — as those that we describe in ourselves as happiness, sadness, fear, despair. They know mental as well as physical suffering. And I don’t have time to go into the information that will prove some of these things to you, save to say that there are very bright students, in the best universities, studying emotions in animals, studying personalities in animals. We know that chimpanzees and some other creatures can recognize themselves in mirrors — “self” as opposed to “other.” They have a sense of humor, and these are the kind of things which traditionally have been thought of as human prerogatives. But this teaches us a new respect — and it’s a new respect not only for the chimpanzees, I suggest, but some of the other amazing animals with whom we share this planet. Once we’re prepared to admit that after all, we’re not the only beings with personalities, minds and above all feelings, and then we start to think about ways we use and abuse so many other sentient, sapient creatures on this planet, it really gives cause for deep shame, at least for me. So, the sad thing is that these chimpanzees — who’ve perhaps taught us, more than any other creature, a little humility — are in the wild, disappearing very fast. They’re disappearing for the reasons that all of you in this room know only too well. The deforestation, the growth of human populations, needing more land. They’re disappearing because some timber companies go in with clear-cutting. They’re disappearing in the heart of their range in Africa because the big multinational logging companies have come in and made roads — as they want to do in Ecuador and other parts where the forests remain untouched — to take out oil or timber. And this has led in Congo basin, and other parts of the world, to what is known as the bush-meat trade. This means that although for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, people have lived in those forests, or whatever habitat it is, in harmony with their world, just killing the animals they need for themselves and their families — now, suddenly, because of the roads, the hunters can go in from the towns. They shoot everything, every single thing that moves that’s bigger than a small rat; they sun-dry it or smoke it. And now they’ve got transport; they take it on the logging trucks or the mining trucks into the towns where they sell it. And people will pay more for bush-meat, as it’s called, than for domestic meat — it’s culturally preferred. And it’s not sustainable, and the huge logging camps in the forest are now demanding meat, so the Pygmy hunters in the Congo basin who’ve lived there with their wonderful way of living for so many hundreds of years are now corrupted. They’re given weapons; they shoot for the logging camps; they get money. Their culture is being destroyed, along with the animals upon whom they depend. So, when the logging camp moves, there’s nothing left. We talked already about the loss of human cultural diversity, and I’ve seen it happening with my own eyes. And the grim picture in Africa — I love Africa, and what do we see in Africa? We see deforestation; we see the desert spreading; we see massive hunger; we see disease and we see population growth in areas where there are more people living on a certain piece of land than the land can possibly support, and they’re too poor to buy food from elsewhere. Were the people that we heard about yesterday, on the Easter Island, who cut down their last tree — were they stupid? Didn’t they know what was happening? Of course, but if you’ve seen the crippling poverty in some of these parts of the world it isn’t a question of “Let’s leave the tree for tomorrow.” “How am I going to feed my family today? Maybe I can get just a few dollars from this last tree which will keep us going a little bit longer, and then we’ll pray that something will happen to save us from the inevitable end.” So, this is a pretty grim picture. The one thing we have, which makes us so different from chimpanzees or other living creatures, is this sophisticated spoken language — a language with which we can tell children about things that aren’t here. We can talk about the distant past, plan for the distant future, discuss ideas with each other, so that the ideas can grow from the accumulated wisdom of a group. We can do it by talking to each other; we can do it through video; we can do it through the written word. And we are abusing this great power we have to be wise stewards, and we’re destroying the world. In the developed world, in a way, it’s worse, because we have so much access to knowledge of the stupidity of what we’re doing. Do you know, we’re bringing little babies into a world where, in many places, the water is poisoning them? And the air is harming them, and the food that’s grown from the contaminated land is poisoning them. And that’s not just in the far-away developing world; that’s everywhere. Do you know we all have about 50 chemicals in our bodies we didn’t have about 50 years ago? And so many of these diseases, like asthma and certain kinds of cancers, are on the increase around places where our filthy toxic waste is dumped. We’re harming ourselves around the world, as well as harming the animals, as well as harming nature herself — Mother Nature, that brought us into being; Mother Nature, where I believe we need to spend time, where there’s trees and flowers and birds for our good psychological development. And yet, there are hundreds and hundreds of children in the developed world who never see nature, because they’re growing up in concrete and all they know is virtual reality, with no opportunity to go and lie in the sun, or in the forest, with the dappled sun-specks coming down from the canopy above. As I was traveling around the world, you know, I had to leave the forest — that’s where I love to be. I had to leave these fascinating chimpanzees for my students and field staff to continue studying because, finding they dwindled from about two million 100 years ago to about 150,000 now, I knew I had to leave the forest to do what I could to raise awareness around the world. And the more I talked about the chimpanzees’ plight, the more I realized the fact that everything’s interconnected, and the problems of the developing world so often stem from the greed of the developed world, and everything was joining together, and making — not sense, hope lies in sense, you said — it’s making a nonsense. How can we do it? Somebody said that yesterday. And as I was traveling around, I kept meeting young people who’d lost hope. They were feeling despair, they were feeling, “Well, it doesn’t matter what we do; eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Everything is hopeless — we’re always being told so by the media.” And then I met some who were angry, and anger that can turn to violence, and we’re all familiar with that. And I have three little grandchildren, and when some of these students would say to me at high school or university, they’d say, “We’re angry,” or “We’re filled with despair, because we feel you’ve compromised our future, and there’s nothing we can do about it.” And I looked in the eyes of my little grandchildren, and think how much we’ve harmed this planet since I was their age. I feel this deep shame, and that’s why in 1991 in Tanzania, I started a program that’s called Roots and Shoots. There’s little brochures all around outside, and if any of you have anything to do with children and care about their future, I beg that you pick up that brochure. And Roots and Shoots is a program for hope. Roots make a firm foundation. Shoots seem tiny, but to reach the sun they can break through brick walls. See the brick walls as all the problems that we’ve inflicted on this planet. Then, you see, it is a message of hope. Hundreds and thousands of young people around the world can break through, and can make this a better world. And the most important message of Roots and Shoots is that every single individual makes a difference. Every individual has a role to play. Every one of us impacts the world around us everyday, and you scientists know that you can’t actually — even if you stay in bed all day, you’re breathing oxygen and giving out CO2, and probably going to the loo, and things like that — you’re making a difference in the world. So, the Roots and Shoots program involves youth in three kinds of projects. And these are projects to make the world around them a better place. One project to show care and concern for your own human community. One for animals, including domestic animals — and I have to say, I learned everything I know about animal behavior even before I got to Gombe and the chimps from my dog, Rusty, who was my childhood companion. And the third kind of project: something for the local environment. So what the kids do depends first of all, how old are they — and we go now from pre-school right through university. It’s going to depend whether they’re inner-city or rural. It’s going to depend if they’re wealthy or impoverished. It’s going to depend which part, say, of America they’re in. We’re in every state now, and the problems in Florida are different from the problems in New York. It’s going to depend on which country they’re in — and we’re already in 60-plus countries, with about 5,000 active groups — and there are groups all over the place that I keep hearing about that I’ve never even heard of, because the kids are taking the program and spreading it themselves. Why? Because they’re buying into it, and they’re the ones who get to decide what they’re going to do. It isn’t something that their parents tell them, or their teachers tell them. That’s effective, but if they decide themselves, “We want to clean this river and put the fish back that used to be there. We want to clear away the toxic soil from this area and have an organic garden. We want to go and spend time with the old people and hear their stories and record their oral histories. We want to go and work in a dog shelter. We want to learn about animals. We want … ” You know, it goes on and on, and this is very hopeful for me. As I travel around the world 300 days a year, everywhere there’s a group of Roots and Shoots of different ages. Everywhere there are children with shining eyes saying, “Look at the difference we’ve made.” And now comes the technology into it, because with this new way of communicating electronically these kids can communicate with each other around the world. And if anyone is interested to help us, we’ve got so many ideas but we need help — we need help to create the right kind of system that will help these young people to communicate their excitement. But also — and this is so important — to communicate their despair, to say, “We’ve tried this and it doesn’t work, and what shall we do?” And then, lo and behold, there’s another group answering these kids who may be in America, or maybe this is a group in Israel, saying, “Yeah, you did it a little bit wrong. This is how you should do it.” The philosophy is very simple. We do not believe in violence. No violence, no bombs, no guns. That’s not the way to solve problems. Violence leads to violence, at least in my view. So how do we solve? The tools for solving the problems are knowledge and understanding. Know the facts, but see how they fit in the big picture. Hard work and persistence –don’t give up — and love and compassion leading to respect for all life. How many more minutes? Two, one? Chris Anderson: One — one to two. Jane Goodall: Two, two, I’m going to take two. (Laughter) Are you going to come and drag me off? (Laughter) Anyway — so basically, Roots and Shoots is beginning to change young people’s lives. It’s what I’m devoting most of my energy to. And I believe that a group like this can have a very major impact, not just because you can share technology with us, but because so many of you have children. And if you take this program out, and give it to your children, they have such a good opportunity to go out and do good, because they’ve got parents like you. And it’s been so clear how much you all care about trying to make this world a better place. It’s very encouraging. But the kids do ask me — and this won’t take more than two minutes, I promise — the kids say, “Dr. Jane, do you really have hope for the future? You travel, you see all these horrible things happening.” Firstly, the human brain — I don’t need to say anything about that. Now that we know what the problems are around the world, human brains like yours are rising to solve those problems. And we’ve talked a lot about that. Secondly, the resilience of nature. We can destroy a river, and we can bring it back to life. We can see a whole area desolated, and it can be brought back to bloom again, with time or a little help. And thirdly, the last speaker talked about — or the speaker before last, talked about the indomitable human spirit. We are surrounded by the most amazing people who do things that seem to be absolutely impossible. Nelson Mandela — I take a little piece of limestone from Robben Island Prison, where he labored for 27 years, and came out with so little bitterness, he could lead his people from the horror of apartheid without a bloodbath. Even after the 11th of September — and I was in New York and I felt the fear — nevertheless, there was so much human courage, so much love and so much compassion. And then as I went around the country after that and felt the fear — the fear that was leading to people feeling they couldn’t worry about the environment any more, in case they seemed not to be patriotic — and I was trying to encourage them, somebody came up with a little quotation from Mahatma Gandhi, “If you look back through human history, you see that every evil regime has been overcome by good.” And just after that a woman brought me this little bell, and I want to end on this note. She said, “If you’re talking about hope and peace, ring this. This bell is made from metal from a defused landmine, from the killing fields of Pol Pot — one of the most evil regimes in human history — where people are now beginning to put their lives back together after the regime has crumbled. So, yes, there is hope, and where is the hope? Is it out there with the politicians? It’s in our hands. It’s in your hands and my hands and those of our children. It’s really up to us. We’re the ones who can make a difference. If we lead lives where we consciously leave the lightest possible ecological footprints, if we buy the things that are ethical for us to buy and don’t buy the things that are not, we can change the world overnight. Thank you.
Hi! I’m with Max Garett, and I just found out his position is called the replicator, which sounds like some kind of cool Transformer. – But, what is it that you do here? – Um, so, Here in the replication shop we make—or recreate objects that can’t be real or authentic for exhibits. – So everything that people see in the exhibits that is some kind of animal shape or recreation of a model—it’s made in house. – Yeah, so that could be anywhere from an animal to maybe an artifact—bones, remains, fossils, food. -That’s awesome.
-Yeah, a lot of food. – I did not even know until I started working here that many of the things were actually made here, so I think it’s really cool that you have this prop shop of sorts. – We’re working on an exhibit—Biomechanics—some things we have here are some baby loggerhead sea turtles. – They’re really cute. – The story behind them is the kind of built in GPS they have to migrate to the ocean, but this is something that I sculpted, and I took a mold of, and then cast into more durable material. So this is touchable. – Whoa! – So, something like this needs to be really strong so that anyone in the exhibit can’t break it, so these are— – Like kid proof.
– Exactly, yeah. – Okay. – And they’re pretty desirable too, to like take and stick in your pockets. – Oh yeah.
– Yeah, down on the deck pretty hard. – You caught me. You guys are gonna like check my pockets before I go, I’m gonna have like 12 baby sea turtles. – We made some extras, just because.
– Because they’re cute! – They’re so cute. They’re adorable. So this is, you know, cast is a plastic that is almost indestructible, painted with a paint that’s really durable. – Nice. – Just from everyone rubbing it and everything.
– Yeah. – It’s also really fun to make non-touchable objects, just ’cause you gotta— we’re really restricted on the materials we can use— can’t always come out exactly how we like it, but something like this Venus fly trap, which is not touchable— it’s going to be under kind of an acrylic dome—
– Mhmm. – Was really fun to work on and think about, because I got to use any material I wanted, so I could use a pretty nice rubber, paint it with something that’s not too durable, but looks really good, and airbrush it. In the Venus fly trap there’s trigger hairs—there’s 3 trigger hairs on each pad, and that’s what kind of makes the trap close on its prey and everything. So, I’m gonna have to inlay some little hairs in there too, which is really cool. – Is this actual size? Is this how big they are?
-Oh yeah, no, this is a five scaled up enlargement. – Oh, okay.
– Yeah. – Because this would be terrifying if I was in the forest.
– Yeah. – Like this would eat a person.
– I know, it’s from like a video game or… Yeah. – Yeah, oh, like Mario.
– Mario, yeah. Something like this also is a touchable, so this kind of snake is cast into—this is like all one solid piece, so this is all the same plastic, so it can never be really ripped off or anything. – Mhmm. – And it also needs to be painted with something that won’t rub off. – This is the flying snake—
– Yeah. – from Biomechanics.
– Yeah, this is the Paradise flying snake, and— – That sounds terrifying.
– Yeah. This kind of touchable part right here is why it’s kind of hanging off, and you can feel it’s— – Oh yeah.
– A heart was sculpted into it, – Oooh.
– because the way it kind of glides is it flattens its ribs and— One kind of defining feature is that its heart becomes pronounced in its chest— – Yeah. – because it flattens out, so there’s kind of a nice little area where you can—mess around with that. – That’s cool. – Yeah, all the kind of acrylic items are going to be pretty awesome, because they’re all going to be mounted and displayed on these kind of like, really big LED light disks—
– Whoa. – and just like illuminated above, yeah, so these are in these—cast in these nice water clear resins, which are really beautiful. and just to display the different chambers, we’re going to have a variety of different animals—I think this is a turtle heart. – Wow. – But there’s going to be like a turtle, a fish, amphibian, and these are all, you know, not to scale, but to see the different chambers, and everything. And these are just some different talons—different bird talons, like a Harpy Eagle, and stuff like that. – They’re beautiful. So, what else do you have? You have like a giant worm over here. – Yes, this large worm diorama. – Is this to scale?
– The worm actually is, yeah. – What? – This is from Queensland, Australia. It’s this large blue worm that gets to be about 3.5 feet long—it’s pretty awesome. – Wow. – It’s a hydrostatic skeleton, the way it kind of undulates its body to move through tunnels and everything. I got to 3D model this kind of shape, and then take it to the CNC machine, and—you know—cut it out. – The CNC being the magic table saw—
– Yeah, the beautiful robot— – Yeah.
– That makes things. The overall shape is pretty exact, and to do that by hand would have been pretty difficult— – Yeah. – So it’s nice to make this shape—but, you know, this was something also that originally we got the information from, and it was basically like create an excerpt of earth that can display the worm in its tunnels. We were able to kind of collaborate on a kind of more dynamic shape than just kind of like a block – Yeah.
– So we kind of created this like core sample of earth, kind of. – Do you have real—You have real twigs and stuff in there. – Yeah, the top layer was kind of like a recipe I made of real soil— so actually, the top is actually not even really replicated I guess, just dirt, but it’s like embedded with this resin. – I think I would be terrified walking around and then all of a sudden have this giant blue worm stick its head out of the ground. – Yeah, it’s pretty fantastic—and this is not even actually on of the largest earth worms. – What? – There’s some other ones that get to be about over 6 feet long. Kind of the same size in diameter, but, yeah. – I don’t even believe that. – This is a giant termite mound, and this is to display the architecture of the termite mound— – Wow. – and how the termites diffuse heat through their mounds, and how— kind of like contemporary architecture recreates that in some buildings today and everything – Is this actual size? Is this life size?
– Yeah, well this is on the smaller scale, but this is like— – What?
– the mean size of an actual termite mound. – And termites are not—they’re not big.
– No, they’re tiny. Yeah, they’re tiny. and like an actual termite mound too is—what it’s made of, their mounds are almost stronger than concrete, sometimes, and— – Whoa.
– But so, yeah, this is going to be done almost the same way. This is kind of an under-texture of fiberglass and a non-toxic resin we use – Okay. – And then we cover it in this kind of paste that the other one is covered in, and then texture it to make it look like dirt and earth. – Wow. – So, yeah, it starts off like this, and then it kind of goes to that as a next layer, and then we kind of coat it all. But this is too large to travel in one piece, so—
– Okay. – It’s going to be made into 2 separate pieces that kind of lock into each other. – Yeah, it’s massive.
– Yeah, it’s huge, it’s about 9 feet tall. But this is like the average size of a mound—I mean they can get way bigger too. – That’s insane.
– Yeah. – It makes me want to be an anteater.
– Yeah, I know – Like never ending food source. I like how you put Max—you carved your name in there.
– Just a test, you know— – Yeah. Do you guys—do you sign your work a lot? Like hide it in little places? Because I would. – It is fun to try to put little Easter eggs—there are like in a lot of dioramas around museums some little— people hide things, and stuff, that was made a long time ago. – Yeah.
– Yeah, maybe, maybe I’ll put something in there. – Whoa! – So that’s, that’s—so it’s going to be displayed like that, but it’s to—cartilage needs to be put on there, and then we cast in another water clear resin that’s kind of pigmented. Kind of pink for—it’s synovial fluid, I think it’s called—
– Yeah. – around the cartilage. But, so this is what’s kinda end up being like in displayed on— – That’s amazing.
– in a case like that. – So you must learn a lot of like biology and anatomy working in here. – Yeah,
– Synovial fluid, that is not a term most people know. – No. No. This is a recent thing for me, but yeah, it’s great because we have to do a lot of research on things also, but a project that comes along, we’re given in depth information packets by a developer – Mhmm. – to give us all the information that we need on what we’re doing and everything, so— yeah, no, there’s a lot of research and a lot of learning involved. – That’s cool. Learning is cool.
– Learning is cool. – We advocate learning on this channel. Is this actual size too?
– This is like as big as they get, yeah. – Someone was a little generous with this model.
– Yeah. little bit. – This thing is pretty big though. I would not want to be swimming and then run into this guy. – No. – Its eye is as big as my hand.
– Mhmm. – It must be really rewarding when you finally have the exhibit, and it opens, and people are running around putting their hands over everything. – Yeah, it’s super cool. I mean, for me at least, this is my first time in the replication shop making a lot of stuff from scratch and everything. It’s been—since I’ve been here, it’s a lot of like recreating things for shows that have already been built, so its been nice to make things from scratch and have some creative freedom and to change what an object— – That’s cool.
– looks like, yeah. – Yeah. I would have never imagined like having this kind of job, like having something where you have to be scientifically inclined, and you have to understand the reason why you’re trying to make something like this, make it presentable, – Mhmm.
– and make it fun. So what is your background in? – I studied sculpture at SAIC—School of the Art Institute of Chicago— – Nice. and I graduated in 2012, I was interning here my last semester— – Wow.
– and then they hired me. Full time, yeah. – That’s nice! So you haven’t even been here that long.
– No, like year and a half, yeah. It’s good. – How’s it been?
-Fantastic. – Good.
– Love it. – Good. We didn’t even pay him to say that.
– No, well… yeah. – A little bit.
Here’s a little song for all you out there
with exoskeletons and jointed appendages! Do you ever feel like a stinky shoe is blocking out the sun And next will step on you?
Do you ever feel like a roach motel was built just for you
Yeah, you’re its clientele Do you ever feel like you give folks the creeps?
Six year olds all scream grown men shut their eyes and weep
You may not have a spine but lift antennae high, ’cause you’re important guys
You may be living under a log Or high on a hog
Come on out of that bog But watch out for that frog!
’cause baby, you’re an arthropod Shake your segmented bod!
Let the people go “Ew! Ew! Ew!” Yeah, we all depend on you, you, you! Your legs are jointed and oh, so adaptable
That exoskeleton–so tough and practical It’s made of chitin strong
But it gets tight, you know So you bust out of it and then a new one grow. Rocking the ocean floor with pincers big & strong Your feet were first on land took to air before too long Y’all pollinate the plants You feed the human race You eat most anything and go most any place So spread your wings
You’re nature’s kings Let your stridulatings ring
But, please, don’t sting! ’cause baby, you’re an arthropod
Shake your segmented bod Crabs, spiders and bees, bees, bees
Shrimp, grasshoppers and millipedes Zoom, zoom, zoom
Yeah, you buzz around my room, room, room Here comes Mommy with a broom, broom, broom
Better get out of here soon, soon, soon! ’cause baby, you’re an arthropod
Mother Nature’s go-to squad Let the people go, “Gross! Gross! Gross!”
’cause without you we’d be toast, toast, toast Woo, baby, you’re an arthropod
Shake your segmented bod! Yeah, you make me go, “Whoah! Whoah! Whoah!”
So many kinds of you to know, know, know [laughing] [cameraman says] I love it… [laughing] [Cameraman say] Can you do, like, the robot? “Aww!” (antennae fall off actor’s head)
What if the Measles Outbreak Was Worldwide? Thanks to increasingly advanced science and
medicine, we’ve prevented and almost eradicated various deadly contagions that have historically
killed millions of people. But even the best science isn’t foolproof,
and outbreaks of old diseases we thought we’d conquered may indicate a backwards step. This is Unveiled, and today we’re answering
the extraordinary question; what if the measles outbreak was worldwide? Are you a fiend for facts? Are you constantly curious? Then why not subscribe to Unveiled for more
clips like this one? And ring the bell for more fascinating content! In the year 2000, the Centers for Disease
Control – the CDC – declared measles was completely eradicated in the United States. Fast forward to 2019, though, and by late
April it had already become the worst year for measles outbreaks since 1994. Within four months, the number of measles
cases in the US doubled on figures for the whole of 2018, with similar trends seen in
Europe. The US has an estimated 2.5 million unvaccinated
children, while European countries including Serbia and Ukraine also post extremely high
rates of measles infection. In the US, the Pacific Northwestern Measles
Outbreak is the worst offender, but there have been reports of other major outbreaks
in Rockland County, Brooklyn, and parts of Texas and Arizona. The main cause of the influx in measles cases
is the anti-vaccine movement gaining traction in both Europe and North America, which the
World Health Organization listed as one of the top 10 global health threats of 2019. A major catalyst for the movement was a study
from 1998 carried out by struck-off and discredited doctor Andrew Wakefield who, from a sample
of only 12 people, drew a false link between vaccines and autism. Despite zero scientific evidence for this
and Wakefield having his medical license revoked, the study sparked fears in parents and has
slowly led to more and more children not getting vital vaccinations as infants. Since 2001, the number of children under the
age of two who aren’t getting the MMR vaccine – which also protects against mumps and
rubella – has quadrupled in the US, with similar results in Europe. The measles vaccine is needed to create herd
immunity (a widespread resistance across an entire population), with a minimum of 95%
of people needing to be vaccinated for it to work. But, Wakefield’s misguided warning plus
fears about vaccines giving other adverse side-effects, especially anaphylactic shock,
have spurred many parents to refuse to have them administered. It’s a deadly situation because it puts
those who can’t be vaccinated – that is, new-born babies, people with autoimmune disorders,
and those who do have adverse reactions to vaccines – at huge risk were they to contract
measles. The threat levels even for those who are vaccinated
have also increased. And, while the effectiveness of the jab is
as high as 97%, the contagion is still unpleasant and highly infectious. But there have been various versions of the
jab, and immunity wanes over time. Those vaccinated before 1989 – going back
to the original vaccine’s introduced in 1963 – are encouraged to seek medical advice
about being re-vaccinated. Second vaccinations may be a key first step
in curbing a worldwide outbreak, serving to essentially ‘top up’ our herd immunity. In fact, even those who got the jab after
1989 should double-check with their doctor that they’re up to date. Regardless, measles remains a deadly and very
common threat in developing countries, particularly across Asia and Africa. Even in a world where vaccines are available,
it’s estimated that roughly 20 million people contract measles every year, and around 100,000
of them die, primarily unvaccinated children. In the case of a global contagion, unfortunately
it’d be young children and babies at the highest risk. Even when measles sufferers survive it can
lead to other serious and equally fatal conditions like pneumonia and meningitis. In a worldwide catastrophe, we’d see general
disease and sickness on the rise and infant mortality rates skyrocketing to levels comparable
to before modern medicine. We only need to glance at deadly past cases
to see what an outbreak in the future could look like. First described in the 9th century by a Persian
doctor, measles didn’t affect areas outside of Europe and Asia until the 1500s, when European
colonists invaded the Americas. It was just one of many diseases the settlers
brought with them, with devastating effects. Upwards of 50% of the Native American population
may have been wiped out because of European diseases, and as recently as 1951 a Danish
traveller mistakenly brought measles to an isolated settlement in Greenland. The result was a 99.9% infection rate, with
only 5 of the 4,262 natives showing no signs of illness. The last major measles outbreak in the Americas
was in 1997 in Sao Paulo, where there were 42,000 recorded cases. But, it’s feared that similarly severe outbreaks
could be close for as long as the number of unvaccinated children continues to rise. Quarantines are usually the first method employed
when trying to contain any contagion. For example, in a 2007 measles outbreak in
Tokyo, schools and colleges were closed to avoid it spreading. If the problem in the US worsens, then screening
methods could soon be put in place to at least try and control it. In April 2019, in Rockland Country New York,
unvaccinated children were barred from public spaces. It’s also been suggested that unvaccinated
kids shouldn’t attend school, while in some countries there are already various jobs where
vaccinations are compulsory for all workers. In a worst-case scenario, we’d also see
strict regulations when crossing borders between countries, as every airport in the world vets
for vaccines. But, there are ongoing ethical concerns here
as well, as we could then see a world where unvaccinated children are forced into isolation. Mandatory vaccines are common in lots of European
countries, but efforts to force parents in the US into vaccinating their sons and daughters
haven’t always been well-received – with claims it would violate personal freedom. Regardless, mandatory jabs have proven to
work well as a short-term solution to other epidemics – ensuring a lot of people are immunised
quickly. So, it could simply become a law and order
matter, with governments enforcing vaccinations – no exemptions, no opting out. It’d be another controversial move, made
in an increasingly tense and active situation. No matter how fast or firm the response was,
though, should measles become a global epidemic, it would result in hundreds-of-thousands possibly
millions of people dying. The 100,000 deaths a year current figure would
quickly spike upwards, not least because the doctors and nurses striving to stop the outbreak
could be most at risk of an incredibly infectious condition. With hospitals turning into hotbeds, even
the best medical care could fall short, because the unsettling reality is that measles doesn’t
have a standard ‘cure’. Much like the various strains of the ‘common
cold’, the body needs to fight it off for itself. Which is why the anti-vax movement is so dangerous,
because that’s so much harder to do if you aren’t immunized. A measles outbreak would be a huge backwards
step away from so many medical advancements made over centuries. It’d be history repeating itself in terms
of human suffering, only this time it’d be in-part the consequence of a choice not
to vaccinate. Perhaps, in the long-term, it’d convince
people to once again trust the MMR jab. But, not before some very dark times. And that’s what would happen if the measles
outbreak was worldwide. What do you think? Is there anything we missed? Let us know in the comments, check out these
other clips from Unveiled, and make sure you subscribe and ring the bell for our latest
This one’s called a Black Prince G’day, I’m Jacob from Make Science Fun. Thanks for joining me. Now it’s summer in Australia It’s not raining, and I’m not using the umbrella to keep the Sun of my face. I’m actually using it, so I don’t get drenched in cicada pee. Australia’s got this infestation of Cicadas at the moment.Can you hear them, they’re driving me crazy! Check out this footage using the drone This one’s called a Brown Baker oh What a noise it makes look theres the vibration right there Man they can make a lot of noise listen to that I’ve just found a cicada that’s obviously just climbed out of its shell. Notice how its wing’s a bit bent So it’s gonna unfold its wing, and then it will probably fly off Don’t know how long that will take but if they don’t do it quickly this is what happens, come with me. Heres one that didn’t hatch quick enough and the ants got him So, this is a black prince notice its body is black and its eyes are like bright red look at that It’s an insect. It’s got six legs it’s got a head a thorax and an abdomen This one Doesn’t make any noise must be the female, back there that there is the proboscis that it digs into the tree with And it makes all these thousands of little pinprick holes I’ll let him go The Cicada’s lay eggs and then when the mutes hatch they actually climb down the tree they bury themselves in the roots And they take a few years to develop and then they climb up out and they look like these, right and this is what metamorphosis and the Cicada actually climbs out of the shell and flies away There’s lots and lots of these empty Cicada shells They’re everywhere . Look at this, It’s just a shell, just hollow You can even see his little eyes look at that I love where I live, but i have to put up with this racket every couple of years or so, It doesn’t last that long, i think the Cicada’s only live for three weeks or so before they die again. And then we have peace and quiet for another seven years or so All right, thanks for joining me today bye for now!
Hi Guys. I am Trisha with Insectopia here to talk to
you about the spiny leaf insect, sometimes called the Australian walking stick. Most of these individuals are found in Australia,
but they can also be found in New Guinea. These insects are fascinating because of their
relationship with ants and their defensive mechanisms. The adult female spiny leaf insect is pretty
good at camouflaging into its surroundings. They look like spiny leaves and the adult
female’s abdomen is normally curled over her body to look like a dried leaf. They have a behavior where they will wave
back and forth so they appear to be blowing in the wind. The adult female mostly stays in one place
and does not have a quick escape plan. The male walking stick actually has wings
and can fly! He will fly until he finds a female to mate
with. Although, the female can lay viable eggs with
or without the male. The ability of a female animal to lay eggs
without mating is called parthenogenesis. Without being mated, the eggs will all be
female. After she is mated, the eggs will be a mixture
of both male and female. The female will use her curved abdomen to
flick her eggs to the ground. The eggs of the spiny leaf insect are shaped
like rounded barrels and each have a knob. These eggs look a little like seeds. The knob of the egg is actually edible for
ants and will attract them. Ants will forage for seeds and pick up the
eggs and pile them in their food storage. The ants will eat the knob and put the still
intact egg into their waste chamber. This is helpful for the eggs because the ants
are protecting them from predators and obviously this relationship is good for the ants as
they get food out of the deal. This kind of relationship where both species
are getting a benefit is called commensalism. When the nymph spiny leaf insect hatches,
it is small, leggy, and mostly black other than its red head. The first instar is an ant mimic! This nymph looks just like an ant and will
use that to its advantage. It will run to the surface and climb up into
a tree. This is where they will eat and mature and
gain their natural light brown color. How awesome is it that in one insect you can
see examples of camouflage, mimicry, parthenogenesis, and commensalism? Check out these real life pictures of the
spiny leaf insect. On the left you can see the spiny leaf insect’s
eggs and on the right you can see the nymph that is an ant mimic. On the left you can see the adult female and
on the right you can see the adult male. Thank you for listening! If you have any questions about the spiny
leaf insect or a thought on what species you would mimic if you had a chance, let us know
in the comment section below! Make sure to like, comment, and subscribe
for more videos like this one. I will be posting videos frequently. Come back soon and check out our next epic
Aah, Southern California. Y’know, the whole “surf’s up, Tinseltown,
sun-soaked glamour” thing? Too bad this idyllic landscape is mostly make-believe. Take the palm trees. They’re not even real trees. They’re more closely related to grass. And they’re imported. Like this Canary Island date palm. It came halfway around the world to be one
of the more dazzling stars in the landscape. But this Hollywood success story is turning
into a horror movie. This little monster is the South American
palm weevil. Scientists first found it in San Diego in
2011. Weevils are just beetles… with snouts. This female uses hers as a drill, to get at
the palm’s apical meristem. It’s a bowl of juicy goodness at the top,
where the leaves sprout. She lays her eggs down in those tunnels. And her spawn eat the palm from the inside
out… starting with its heart. That’s right; it’s the same stuff you
can get at the supermarket. They’ll turn this palm’s healthy flesh
into a rotting mess that smells like a dumpster in the sun. Once they’re big enough, the larvae will
spin cigar-shaped cocoons from the leftover fibers they can’t eat. As the trees’ fronds starve and die, the
larvae hang out and gestate, morphing into pupae, and… Ew, that’s just, oh man… That’s gross. As adults, they burst out, take flight and
seek out a new host… leaving behind the dying, hollow shell of a once majestic palm. Mark Hoddle, at UC Riverside, is tracking
the weevil infestation. He puts them on a kind of aerial treadmill
in his lab to test their stamina. He’s trying to figure out how they got here,
whether they hitched a ride on imported palms, or made the trip themselves. Turns out they can fly up to 15 miles a day,
enough to hopscotch from palm to palm on their own. The only way to stop them: treat every palm
tree in their path with pesticides before the weevils get there. That’ll be tough to do. So these particular botanical icons could
be on the fast track to being just another Hollywood has-been. These weevils are pretty gnarly. So we asked Anna Rothschild from Gross Science
to do those animations for us. Thanks, Anna! ANNA: You’re welcome! It’s my pleasure. I love gross stuff. LAUREN: So there is one other way to manage
these larvae, sort of a biological control, which people do in some places, like Thailand,
Peru and Ghana. ANNA: Entomophagy! LAUREN: Eating bugs. Mmm. Tasty. ANNA: So hop over to my channel for a whole
episode about it. LAUREN: And thanks for watching this Deep
We’re here today because the town of Hanover and Jo Daviess Conservation Foundation have acquired this old soybean field and they’re restoring it as a prairie. And they’ve been working here for about six years and we’re surveying the insect population. Okay. So this is a carrion trap.
– Ewwww!! Wow.
– Oooh, lots of good stuff! So, there is lots of stuff in here. So how long was this in the ground for? Four and a half weeks, about a month.
– Really. And that’s a tea strainer, That’s a tea strainer.
– that you’re gonna strain through. That’s very sophisticated. Yeah, we are. So, it’s a carrion trap, so what does that mean? Okay, so this,
– Yeah. had four ounces of chicken liver in it- Sounds appetizing. -hung over the bucket. And the carrion trap- they’re compelled by the rotting meat smell to fall in. And there’s… Those are millipedes, yeah.
– What is it- those look like a lot of millipedes. Tons of millipedes.
– There’s a bunch of millipedes in here, bunch of grasshoppers. Oh, those are some huge grasshoppers. Yeah, this is one of the carrion beetles, Necrophila americana.
– Ohhh. Those are kinda cool looking. That’s one of the carrion beetles that we find here, and it’s really hard to tell what you’ve got until you get back to the museum and put it under the scope. Yeah, and identify a lot of the smaller ones.
– Yeah, and then you identify the smaller stuff. Lots of isopods- roly-polies. Yeah.
– Yeah, lots of different kinds of millipedes. How many different species of millipedes do you think are out here? Out here in this prairie?
– Yeah. Between fifteen and twenty. Really?
– Mmhmm. I didn’t know there were that many. There are at least six different orders of millipedes out here: Polydesmids, Spirobolids, Spirostreptids, Julids, Platydesmids, Polyxenidas, and possibly Polyzoniidas. So what does that mean? Do they have like, different numbers of legs or different numbers of body segments, or- They have different numbers of legs, different numbers of body segments, uh, their reproductive organs are in different places on the body. Oh, they’re not just like, where you would assume like, the genitals to be? No, some of them, the male genitals are on the second segment, some of them are on the seventh, some of them are on the eighth. So the second segment, like, on the neck.
– Just right behind the neck. So you have gonads like, on your head.
– Yeah, mhmm. That’s pretty crazy.
– They call them gonopods in millipedes. So they’re right behind, and they’re on the underside, on the belly.
– Okay, yeah. Right behind the head, or a few segments further down, or a few segments further down.
– Okay. And the females all have different types of genitalia as well. Well, you gotta correspond to the having gonads on your neck.
– Yeah. And then you just put the bucket back in the ground, and this is just propylene glycol. So you don’t want to use alcohol out here because it’ll evaporate.
– It’ll evaporate away. And so you use that…
– So you use propylene glycol, which is not toxic to mammals. So if a raccoon gets in, and drinks the fluid, it won’t hurt him. This is 50% propylene glycol, 50% water, and a couple of ounces of liquid dishsoap. And the dish soap breaks the surface tension.
– Okay. So when the insects fall in, they sink.
– Yeah, instead of… They don’t just float, because if they floated, in a couple hours the surface would be covered with insects. Other ones would land and just fly away.
– Ohh, I see. So they fall in, they sink, and they just keep falling in and sinking. Now here’s the part that’s so much fun for you. This is chicken liver, wrapped in gauze, tied up.
– That’s- Ooh. How long has this chicken liver been sitting out? About two and a half days at room temperature. So it’s starting to smell pretty good. Oh, mmm. It’s nice and fragrant, yeah.
– Isn’t that appetizing? So then you just hang that over the bucket, and the smell of the rotting chicken liver attracts all those carrion eating beetles. They fall in the bucket and sink down to the bottom. So why are you specifically trying to get carrion beetles? A lot of other things will fall in as well. Some of the beetles that are attracted to carrion are considered habitat indicators. One of the carrion beetles called Nicrophorus marginatus- that’s only found in fairly high quality prairies. The last set of traps we set had Nicropherus marginatus in it. They also had a scarab called Phanaeus vindex, which is a dung roller that is also only found in high quality prairies. So six years ago there were soybeans here, and now you’ve got a nice, healthy prairie.
– Yeah. So when you get a healthy prairie and you have all these good bugs as good indicators of how healthy the prairie is, that’s going to obviously attract birds and mammals, and all kinds of things to come back to this area
– If you get… that maybe hadn’t been here for years.
– If you’ve got good insects, you get more reptiles and amphibians, you get more birds. If you get more birds, more reptiles and amphibians, you get more mammals. And the populations and the community just keeps building and building over the years. This is exciting! So now we’ve got three or four pitfall traps,
– Okay. which are the same thing, but without the bait. Occasionally a mouse or something will fall in and it can’t get out, but then we take it to the mammal division at the museum.
– Oh, yeah. And it goes into their collections, and then they have records of them being here.
– Yeah. So nothing ever goes to waste.
– Yeah. And there’s some beetles, too. See the carabid beetles?
– Wow. Some grasshoppers, yeah. That’s a ground beetle, a carabid beetle.
– There’s some spiders in there. Yeah, there’s spiders, and you don’t usually find very many spiders in carrion traps, because most spiders are actually repulsed by the smell of carrion.
– Really? So spiders walk up close to a carrion trap, and then veer away. Oh, that’s interesting. I would have thought that everything would just, you know, swarm to the stink smell. There are a lot of beetles that are repulsed by the smell of carrion also.
– Right. Oh, okay. So they fall into these kinds of traps. So you gotta make sure you have diverse, different ways of collecting everything. The more ways you have of collecting, the more different types of insects you’re going to find. So far we’ve collected 800 spiders and insects at this point,
– Wow. in just over the same period of four weeks. 800 different species in four weeks.
– In four weeks, yes. We could easily find 1200-1500 over a full summer. So we should get a whole lot more than we have so far.
– That’s exciting. I can see where you’d really get into this. This seems relatively low technology. It is really very low cost, low technology, and basically, anybody can do it. You can go to the car part store and get a little bit of propylene glycol, put the holes in the ground,
– You just need some dish soap. some dish soap, some water,
– some old railroad spikes. and, to do the carrion trap, a little bit of chicken liver. You could set a full set of traps for fifteen bucks.
– That’s awesome. And then some alcohol, some rubbing alcohol to put them in.
– Yeah. Come on, start. We’re gonna go back, right in there between those trees and string the line. It is beautiful back here. Isn’t this a cool place? Yeah. This is gorgeous. Have you set up a sheet back here before? Yeah, I have, and if the weather’s good, it does pretty well.
– And… If the weather’s too cold, it doesn’t do anything. Okay. Bring it back around again. You have to have one to hang the sheet from and one to hang the light from. Oh, that makes sense. How long have you been doing this? How, like, how long have you been going out into the field and collecting bugs? 17-18 years now. I’d collect live things and bring them home and watch them.
– And watch them? I’d watch caterpillars eat, and grow, and spin their cocoons, and
– Yeah. wait for them to emerge whenever they came out. You know, there’s an old saying- If you love what you do, you’ll never work another day in your life.
– Yeah. I get a paycheck every other week, but I haven’t worked in 18 years. For me it’s great fun, and I get paid for it. I get paid for my hobby, what could be better? This will hold it down and keep the sheet from blowing. Ohp, there was a spider. This is a mercury halide light. It’s a 250 watt bulb. And that gets hung up here.