It’s Jess with Everyday Science and I’m here at Stan Lee’s 2014 Comikaze Expo – check it out! It’s Molly Faulkner, I’m with Nature
Expressions these are my insects and arachnids – its
my artwork. I specialize in insects and
butterflies and arachnids for either television shows or students for school. a majority of my work is for
school – all the cases that I have are all openable so the kids can take them to
school and – let me give you an example here – so all the cases – the majority of kids actually have a show-and-tell you know no matter what age it’s
really nice so it’s easy it doesn’t have any
scent I spread em nice and big that they know
this is a rhinoceros beetle from Thailand it’s five horns – Jess: and where do you find them?
Molly: this one actually is from Thailand but when they are with them when they come to me
they are already dead and all scrunched together yes so you have different processes of opening these up, so, this for example it’s
easy you can just use a alcoholic and yeah have been relaxed and
then you spread em pin them all out when you have it about
maybe two weeks and it’ll dry – if it does not dry correctly and you put it in here gonna be all eaten by insects itself so we’ll have a lot of ants around–
Jess: It’s an insect eat insect world. exactly – hey Some of these things here – a majority of them are from Asia so we have I am for example I’ve got little sea life – these a little brittle stars you know from the Philippines Island so
these are all in muddy waters so you know that’s something that we can learn from but the majority of
these are actually being used for either scientific study or museums or you know a lot of these goes to schools. Jess: Very neat – and what got you into this? What kind of drove you to say: “I think I’m going to preserve insects now?” Well you know it it took a long
time – this is my – it’s been over 10 years. I started out when I went to school for biology and I wanted to be a veterinarian and obviously you learn
different things and one after another you end up having all these I’m hoping you know people or
young kids coming over saying “wow that’s really
nice”, and hopefully one day they’ll be a biologist! I’ve met a lot of people that are
now studying to be either a marine biologist or you know zoology Jess: Inspiring children and adults… Molly: Yeah, anything… Jess: Well thank you so much I appreciate you talking to us. Molly: You’re welcome. Thanks for coming.
Behold a very small and rather cute spider. This is clypeatus. A jumping spider. He doesn’t spin webs. Instead he uses silk as a lifeline, reeling
it out as he hops from place to place. But right now, he’s looking for a mate. The thread of a female spider that he can
trace back to its source. Problem is, she may have other priorities. While he’ll jump on pretty much anything
that moves…She only mates once. She’s picky. So he’s going to make his case… on the
dancefloor. Male jumping spiders perform courtship displays
that would make Bob Fosse proud. Jazz hands, leg-lifts…they even shimmy their
pedipalps. But he needs a soundtrack. So, by beating together the front and back
halves of his body, he creates vibrations that travel through the ground. This is what her ears look like. Tiny membranes stretched across slits in her
legs. To study these jumping spider pulses, researchers
at the University of California Berkeley use a sophisticated laser vibrometer developed
for quality-testing cars and airplanes. It turns those vibrations into something we
can hear. And guess what? It’s a song. The first verse sounds like this. A fast heartbeat. Thump thump thump thump thump thump thump. Then, more thumping. Followed by something new. A “BOOM.” This is verse two. That pattern, over and over again. For verse three he adds a third element. Almost like he’s casting a spell, right? From species to species, and there are thousands
of different jumping spiders, the songs vary. But one thing never changes: Male jumping
spiders sing like their lives depend on it. Because they do. She may mate with him. She might refuse. But she might just eat him instead. When the Berkeley scientists prevented the
males from singing while they danced, the females were three times as likely to hunt
them as prey. So he needs to go big. The closer he gets to her, the more danger
he’s in. The dance and the song get more and more urgent. But even with all that… She’s still calling the shots. Hi, it’s Amy. If female spiders are picky, with males, the
bar is so, so low. He’ll do this courting song and dance with
pretty much anything. In the lab, scientists use frozen specimens
this one. A dead female spider! And he still tries to mate with her. While you’re here, subscribe to Deep Look,
and thanks for watching.
The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected natural history museums in the world. Join me as we go behind the scenes! Dun dun dun! These are huge. They’re bigger than birds. They’re katydids from Papua New Guinea. It’s like a grasshopper in the order Orthoptera. In this order there are katydids, grasshoppers, and crickets. And katydids…
– So what abou- what’s a locust, then? Are they… A locust is a grasshopper, it’s-
– Okay. It’s a large grasshopper.
– I’m just trying to like put ’em all in the same thing. It’s a common name.
– So these are- Alright, yeah, yeah. Most people call cidadas locusts too, but they’re not.
– Okay, alright. It’s just the- the grasshoppers that are locusts.
– Mmkay. So, these are probably the largest katydids you’re gonna find. I mean, they’re gigantic! Yeah, ours are probably this big. The katydids in- in North America?
– Okay? Yeah, so this is over twice as long.
– Wow. With a huge wing. And they have a shield that looks like a leaf. So the whole thing is to mimic a leaf. I-d- it definitely looks like a giant leaf. Well, we have the mantids that- so these are clear mantids
– What? that look like leaves. And when an insect is going to copy a leaf, it’s usually a green leaf so it looks live, But…
– Exceptions to the rule. Yes.
– Whaaa- gluuuh- This is the top side, right?
– Yeah. And then when they’re at rest, they fold their wings and they look like a dead leaf. Now these guys took it to a whole new level. Not only do they have the vein of the leaf and the little minor veins, they have rust spots and diseases like a dead life.
– Wow. So they- they copied their host plant.
– How- How do you find these in the wild? Like, ho- what do you- how do you even know where to look for them? You wait till they fly.
-You- Really? Yeah, ’cause you’re not gonna notice that if it’s on a twig.
– No way. I would never, I mean you had to- I looked at these in here and I was like, well, you put some leaves in here for comparison, but obviously not. So this is the underside. Woaaahh!
– Isn’t that amazing? And lookit! Even the tails look like a stem.
– Yeah! Looking like a leaf is a good camouflage,
– Mmhmm. Bu- looking like sticks too.
– *Gasps* So this is the largest, this is the longest insect on the planet.
– This is huge! The giant walking stick. This one I think is from Malaysia. That is- huge!
– And we joke around a little bit here… In-s- yeah, it says “more than seven feet.” I’m like, even I think that’s a little implausible. A lot of people don’t catch that, they’re like “what?”
– Really? Th-These things can be bigger than seven feet?! You can- you have the credentials being in a museum, you could say anything and people would believe you.
– Yes, exactly. And, are these insects too? I can’t even see what’s in here. They look like tiny, tiny dots.
– Yeah, those are probably some of the smallest beetles you’re gonna find. They’re beetles?
– They’re called feather-winged beetles because their wing- This is their wing. It looks like a feather. We have a huge collection of these that Hank Dybas, he was one of our curators here, Mmhmm.
– um , he collected. How do you collect these? We use traps.
– Oh. And we get a lot- we get a bunch of everything.
– Mmhmm. And then we sort out what we call the target taxa, things that we want to study. That’s a death’s head moth over there! Sorry, I just saw that, too. Yeah, the Silence of the Lamb moth. It has a skull on the back of it. So why does it have a skull, like, impression? No, the actual thing that it’s supposed to be looking like
– Mmhmm. is a giant bumblebee.
– Ohhhhh. Because they go into the hives and they’re able to either give off a smell or make a sound that, um, the other bees are like, “Oh, okay, you’re- you’re a friend. Doo doo doo doo.”
– Okay. And then it starts eating the honey and it’s takes it out.
– Wow. The way to collect moths is you hang a sheet and you put a light behind it,
– Yeahh. And the moths come to the sheet. And they run into it and you photograph it. These guys, certain parts of the year, they like cover your sheets, like “go away, I want other stuff!” Ohh, they’re so cool.
– And they- they run into the sheet and they knock the little stuff off. Bullies. These are the tarantula hawks. So, some people are afraid of tarantulas, but they should really be afraid of Tarantula hawks. Yeah.
– the tarantula hawks. See the stinger? So that’s where the venom comes through.
–*gasps*But he- but it doesn’t kill them right away. It paralyzes them, and they stay alive? Yeah, and then they’ll l- lay an egg inside.
– What!? And then the egg hatches, and then the larvae start eating the spider inside out. Kinda weird and gross and awesome. I mean I wouldn’t have my children that way,
– Well that’s one thing… but you know. To each his own.
– Insects are found everywhere, and they’re found in other insects too. We have a huge ectoparasite collection, so. Okay, ectoparasite meaning what for- If Bill collected a mammal, he can comb the fur and he’ll find fleas, and lice, and mites.
– Oh yeah! There’s a fly that lives on bats, called a- a bat fly. And many of them are wingless and they move like little crabs through the fur of the bats.
– Weird. And we collect them because, uh, Jim and his colleagues can identify them, and you can actually find how two different species of bats are related to each other based on the relationship of their ectoparasites. Weird!
– So as the ectoparasites evolve, and the relationships among different ectoparasites, reflects the relationship among the different hosts. So it’s a- it’s a- very, very
– It’s like networking, like social networking. Totally like networking.
– It’s like Facebook. Yeah.
– For parasites. Exactly.
– That’s great.
Honey bees are the ultimate social creatures and they’ve evolved to organize themselves in complex and interesting ways in order toprogress and optimize the productivity of their species In fact, they’re what we call “eusocial” animals This is a term given to organisms that live in multi-generational groups, cooperatively take care of their young, have a caste system, and have a division of labor. In eusocial societies, the workers, soldiers, caretakers and reproducers are different not only in their behaviors but in their physiologies as well For instance, a worker bee can’t reproduce at all. There can only be one reproducer: the queen bee, and her name is Beyonce. Eusociality has been observed in the order hymenoptera, which includes the bees, wasps and ants as well as in termites But that doesn’t mean that every species within the order are eusocial. There are varying degrees of social groupings and a lot can be learned about their lifestyles by looking at the places they call home. So today, we bring you Insect Cribs. Fire ants. Fire ants are pretty crazy. They invaded the United States in the 1930s and spread like, well, wildfire. If they encounter a flood, they’ll band together into a giant ball and float away. The queen of one of these colonies can live up to 7 years and give birth to a thousand eggs a day So, needless to say they’re fairly difficult to get rid of and very resilient creatures. “Wherever man is, there the ant is also.” This is an upside down cast nest of a fire ant colony. It was created by pouring molton aluminum into the colony, which made impressions of the various tunnels and chambers. The method was developed by ant scientist Walter Tschinkle, who wanted to know more about what the underground ant homes looked like. They’re hard to draw and observe in 3 dimensions, so instead he had the idea to pour casting material into them What results is an intricately detailed impression of the colony, and reveals information about the colony’s size and scope. Carpenter Ants Not all eusocial ants make nests in the ground There’s nothing quite like living in what you think is a stable property, only to learn that the walls of your home are essentially made out of swiss cheese. And if that’s so, you can thank Carpenter Ants. Even though they’re a total nuisance to the homeowners, they play an important ecological role by helping to speed up the decaying process in nature There are more than a thousand species and although they live in and bore through wood, they’re not eating it. Carpenter ants are unable to digest plant cellulose Instead, they forage on dead insects They’ll eat the internal fluids and juices, then decapitate their prey and bring the head back to the colony so the insect’s brains can be fed to a choice family member. These ants also receive nutrition by milking aphids like a herd of little invertebrate cows. The aphids feed on plant sap, which is rich in sugars. Ants love sugars, so they use touch and chemical receptors to create herds of aphids and entice them to excrete those excess sugars out of their butts, on command. The ants eat the fluid, which scientists call honeydew, but lets be honest, it’s sugar poop. Delicious. Stinging Ants Ants don’t only live in dead trees. some living trees have made accommodations for them, too. Certain species of acai and vachellia trees and stinging ants have evolved to co-exist in a mutually beneficial way. These trees have hollow thorns, or in the case of the Whistling Thorn Vachellia, grow special bulbous thorn chambers that the ants can chew a hole into and that becomes their home. A single colony of ants will dominate a tree, and rush out to prevent herbivores from attacking the leaves. In return for the security, the tree provides the ants with food and nutrients But it’s been observed by some scientists that the absence of giraffes and elephants, like when a border fence is placed around a tree, over a number of of years the tree produces fewer thorns and resources for the ants, who have nowhere else to go, and there exists a high competition for trees Let’s just say it’s a relationship that’s a work in progress. Weaver Ants And when a plant doesn’t directly adapt to the presence of its host ants, some species have constructed their own homes, and they’re enlisting their kids to help out. Weaver ants live in trees and build their own nests out of it’s leaves with silk. But the adults can’t produce the silk themselves, so they pick up a larvae in their mandibles and use it like a glue stick, gently squeezing and moving back and forth to stitch the leaves together. The entire colony lives in these melon-sized nests- the queen and her entire hard working family. Paper Wasps Wasps have different social structures than most ants and bees, and there are many different kinds of social wasps. You’re probably most familiar with yellow jackets, which are semi-social insects. In a semisocial structure, there can be a dominant queen, but all members can reproduce and she can be overthrown if she becomes week or replaced if she dies. These wasps make delicate papery nests by mixing their saliva with wood fibers and then regurgitating the paste to build individual chambers for eggs. You can easily find these nests hanging from a tree, or probably your garage. and the colors of the nest can change depending on what sort of wood or paper is available. Given colored options, they’ll make a rainbow nest. Gall Wasps Some wasp species don’t live socially and therefore, don’t need social structures. Gall wasps lay each of their eggs into individual plant and leaf stems. The wasp uses an ovipositer, which looks like a big hypodermic needle, to insert an egg into the stem of a plant. The plant responds by creating a large swollen growth around the egg, and then the egg hatches, and the larva develops and grows by feeding off of the plant material. Plant galls have been majorly important to human commerce for thousands of years, because they contain high concentrations of tannins. Some of the first permanent writing ink was created by combining iron salts and tannic acids from these insect galls. But they’ve also been used in dyes, lamp fuel, and medicines. Potter wasps Like gall wasps, potter wasps live solitarily. But since they take care of their young for a certain amount of time, they’re considered sub-social animals. Instead of simply laying their eggs in a plant and moving on, The female potter wasp begins constructing vessels out of mud, and they resemble tiny little pots. As she’s building up the home, she ventures out to collect snacks for her baby, but instead of killing the prey, which are usually small caterpillars, she paralyses them. That way they don’t begin spoiling before the larvae can hatch and get around to chowing down. Then she lays her egg and seals up the container. Mud Daubers Similar to potter wasps, mud daubers create clay and mud containers to house their offspring But, they’re also insects with unintentional destructive tendencies. Instead of making a single chamber at a time, some make long, narrow tubes with multiple chambers The female deposits a paralysed spider into each chamber, drops in an egg, and then seals them up. But if they find a preexisting tube, they’ll use that instead, like in a case where a plastic pipe was left behind a shelf in a post office in Arkansas, and a mud dauber set up shop. But more seriously, mud daubers have been known to create nests in pilot tubes and outflow valves on airplanes. They’ve been responsible for at least 3 major airline crashes that killed more than 200 people since 1980. Termites And, to bring it back to the beginning, where queen honeybees are at the top of their reproductive game, Queen termites are essentially slaves to their colonies A queen and king termite will bury themselves underground and begin reproducing- and fast. A termite queen can lay an egg every 3 seconds for 15 years, resulting in a quarter of a billion babies in her lifetime. So some of these colonies can grow to be more than 30 feet high. Her body becomes so big and distended that she becomes imprisoned within her royal chamber, constantly being tended to by her offspring, who will eventually kill her by licking her to death, draining her body of all of its fats and fluids. It still has brains on it
Op. Gotta pee. (door closing) (zipper unzipping) There are three things I wanna tell you about urine. (intro: slam and discreet cough) Lesson one, there is a system responsible for discharging urine. It does not include the vagina. Urine is produced in the kidneys, it comes
down two tubes called the ureters, it’s held in the bladder and then exits through
the urethra in a hole called the meatus. Most meatuses are located here in the vulva
in between the vagina and the clitoris and here on the penis at the glans or head. And then because no body is the same, we’ve got meatuses that are sometimes located here and here and here and here. Note, none of these holes are the vagina. Many people think that vaginas are the
exit point for urine, but they’re not. Not typically anyway. So why do people think that urine leaves the body via the vag? Perhaps they weren’t taught, or didn’t learn. Perhaps they think that the vagina is
the opposite of the penis and therefore since urine comes out of the penis then
it must come out of the vagina. Or maybe because they sit down on the toilet, urinate, and it feels like it’s coming out of their vagina. Lesson two, there aren’t usually germs in the urinary tract. Germs do attack the urinary tract by going
through the meatus up the urethra. This is commonly referred to as a urinary tract infection, or a UTI. Some people call it the “Honeymoon Disease”. Why do they call it that? Because when a newlywed couple is getting
sloppy, there are bodily fluids everywhere that transmit the bacteria from the anus to the vagina. Now you’ve just been told. Ok. It’s incredibly painful. You’ll feel the urge to pee, you’ll go to the bathroom
and nothing will come out except maybe a trickle. This sensation will persist,
minutes later the same process again. Then you add feeling feverish, nauseous, achy…. If you finally do get anything out of your
system, it’s cloudy and pungent smelling. Oh, and it burns. So you’re ready to get help. When you do, the doctor might say something like “You’ve got a urinary tract infection,
here’s a prescription for antibiotics. Take these and you’ll feel better soon”. And you might reply, “Oh no, I don’t want to put
antibiotics in my system, no unnecessary things here. I don’t want to create a giant superbug
that’s going to be drug resistant”. And the doctor might say, “If you don’t do
what I recommend, you’ll probably be crawling back in here tomorrow much worse.” And you might take the prescription, surrendering to the excruciating, inflamed irritation between your legs. Okay, so a few hours later,
you go to the bathroom again, and you think it’s going to be this agonizing pain but it’s not, so even though the physical issue isn’t there you’re still scrambling to figure out how
to prevent it from ever happening again. I can help some of you with this, and for others, hopefully prevent it from ever happening, because most of the bacteria is getting into
your urethra from your body’s own system, the anus, wiping back to front, poor hygiene,
and sloppy sex. Let’s go back to anatomy. This body…. Here you have the meatus. This is the anus. On this body, the meatus is here. the anus is some place back here, so if bacteria were to travel, it’d have to go
around the scrotum and then the length of the shaft, whereas here you’ve got about an inch. Making this body much more susceptible to infection
because the distance is shorter and easier to travel. Lesson three: wipe front to back,
pee before and after having sex, practice good hygiene by washing your genitals
and wearing breathable clothing. Where’s my dildo? When it comes to having sex, make
sure that if you’re the receptive partner, you’re the one putting the penetrative
object inside your body, so take it like this and make sure that it
finds the right orifice, because otherwise this person could be boinking around and accidentally hit your perineum or the anus
that’s covered in E. Coli or other bacteria. Bring that right up the vagina, which you
already know is so close to the meatus that we think we pee out of it. If you do wanna play anally, make sure
that you wash with soap and water whatever object you’ve put inside the anus
before you carry it over to the vagina. All clean! (outro music)
Good morning everyone. First of all, it’s been fantastic being here over these past few days. And secondly, I feel it’s a great honor to kind of wind up this extraordinary gathering of people, these amazing talks that we’ve had. I feel that I’ve fitted in, in many ways, to some of the things that I’ve heard. I came directly here from the deep, deep tropical rainforest in Ecuador, where I was out — you could only get there by a plane — with indigenous people with paint on their faces and parrot feathers on their headdresses, where these people are fighting to try and keep the oil companies, and keep the roads, out of their forests. They’re fighting to develop their own way of living within the forest in a world that’s clean, a world that isn’t contaminated, a world that isn’t polluted. And what was so amazing to me, and what fits right in with what we’re all talking about here at TED, is that there, right in the middle of this rainforest, was some solar panels — the first in that part of Ecuador — and that was mainly to bring water up by pump so that the women wouldn’t have to go down. The water was cleaned, but because they got a lot of batteries, they were able to store a lot of electricity. So every house — and there were, I think, eight houses in this little community — could have light for, I think it was about half an hour each evening. And there is the Chief, in all his regal finery, with a laptop computer. (Laughter) And this man, he has been outside, but he’s gone back, and he was saying, “You know, we have suddenly jumped into a whole new era, and we didn’t even know about the white man 50 years ago, and now here we are with laptop computers, and there are some things we want to learn from the modern world. We want to know about health care. We want to know about what other people do — we’re interested in it. And we want to learn other languages. We want to know English and French and perhaps Chinese, and we’re good at languages.” So there he is with his little laptop computer, but fighting against the might of the pressures — because of the debt, the foreign debt of Ecuador — fighting the pressure of World Bank, IMF, and of course the people who want to exploit the forests and take out the oil. And so, coming directly from there to here. But, of course, my real field of expertise lies in an even different kind of civilization — I can’t really call it a civilization. A different way of life, a different being. We’ve talked earlier — this wonderful talk by Wade Davis about the different cultures of the humans around the world — but the world is not composed only of human beings; there are also other animal beings. And I propose to bring into this TED conference, as I always do around the world, the voice of the animal kingdom. Too often we just see a few slides, or a bit of film, but these beings have voices that mean something. And so, I want to give you a greeting, as from a chimpanzee in the forests of Tanzania — Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh! (Applause) I’ve been studying chimpanzees in Tanzania since 1960. During that time, there have been modern technologies that have really transformed the way that field biologists do their work. For example, for the first time, a few years ago, by simply collecting little fecal samples we were able to have them analyzed — to have DNA profiling done — so for the first time, we actually know which male chimps are the fathers of each individual infant. Because the chimps have a very promiscuous mating society. So this opens up a whole new avenue of research. And we use GSI — geographic whatever it is, GSI — to determine the range of the chimps. And we’re using — you can see that I’m not really into this kind of stuff — but we’re using satellite imagery to look at the deforestation in the area. And of course, there’s developments in infrared, so you can watch animals at night, and equipment for recording by video, and tape recording is getting lighter and better. So in many, many ways, we can do things today that we couldn’t do when I began in 1960. Especially when chimpanzees, and other animals with large brains, are studied in captivity, modern technology is helping us to search for the upper levels of cognition in some of these non-human animals. So that we know today, they’re capable of performances that would have been thought absolutely impossible by science when I began. I think the chimpanzee in captivity who is the most skilled in intellectual performance is one called Ai in Japan — her name means love — and she has a wonderfully sensitive partner working with her. She loves her computer — she’ll leave her big group, and her running water, and her trees and everything. And she’ll come in to sit at this computer — it’s like a video game for a kid; she’s hooked. She’s 28, by the way, and she does things with her computer screen and a touch pad that she can do faster than most humans. She does very complex tasks, and I haven’t got time to go into them, but the amazing thing about this female is she doesn’t like making mistakes. If she has a bad run, and her score isn’t good, she’ll come and reach up and tap on the glass — because she can’t see the experimenter — which is asking to have another go. And her concentration — she’s already concentrated hard for 20 minutes or so, and now she wants to do it all over again, just for the satisfaction of having done it better. And the food is not important — she does get a tiny reward, like one raisin for a correct response — but she will do it for nothing, if you tell her beforehand. So here we are, a chimpanzee using a computer. Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans also learn human sign language. But the point is that when I was first in Gombe in 1960 — I remember so well, so vividly, as though it was yesterday — the first time, when I was going through the vegetation, the chimpanzees were still running away from me, for the most part, although some were a little bit acclimatized — and I saw this dark shape, hunched over a termite mound, and I peered with my binoculars. It was, fortunately, one adult male whom I’d named David Greybeard — and by the way, science at that time was telling me that I shouldn’t name the chimps; they should all have numbers; that was more scientific. Anyway, David Greybeard — and I saw that he was picking little pieces of grass and using them to fish termites from their underground nest. And not only that — he would sometimes pick a leafy twig and strip the leaves — modifying an object to make it suitable for a specific purpose — the beginning of tool-making. The reason this was so exciting and such a breakthrough is at that time, it was thought that humans, and only humans, used and made tools. When I was at school, we were defined as man, the toolmaker. So that when Louis Leakey, my mentor, heard this news, he said, “Ah, we must now redefine ‘man,’ redefine ‘tool,’ or accept chimpanzees as humans.” (Laughter) We now know that at Gombe alone, there are nine different ways in which chimpanzees use different objects for different purposes. Moreover, we know that in different parts of Africa, wherever chimps have been studied, there are completely different tool-using behaviors. And because it seems that these patterns are passed from one generation to the next, through observation, imitation and practice — that is a definition of human culture. What we find is that over these 40-odd years that I and others have been studying chimpanzees and the other great apes, and, as I say, other mammals with complex brains and social systems, we have found that after all, there isn’t a sharp line dividing humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. It’s a very wuzzy line. It’s getting wuzzier all the time as we find animals doing things that we, in our arrogance, used to think was just human. The chimps — there’s no time to discuss their fascinating lives — but they have this long childhood, five years of suckling and sleeping with the mother, and then another three, four or five years of emotional dependence on her, even when the next child is born. The importance of learning in that time, when behavior is flexible — and there’s an awful lot to learn in chimpanzee society. The long-term affectionate supportive bonds that develop throughout this long childhood with the mother, with the brothers and sisters, and which can last through a lifetime, which may be up to 60 years. They can actually live longer than 60 in captivity, so we’ve only done 40 years in the wild so far. And we find chimps are capable of true compassion and altruism. We find in their non-verbal communication — this is very rich — they have a lot of sounds, which they use in different circumstances, but they also use touch, posture, gesture, and what do they do? They kiss; they embrace; they hold hands. They pat one another on the back; they swagger; they shake their fist — the kind of things that we do, and they do them in the same kind of context. They have very sophisticated cooperation. Sometimes they hunt — not that often, but when they hunt, they show sophisticated cooperation, and they share the prey. We find that they show emotions, similar to — maybe sometimes the same — as those that we describe in ourselves as happiness, sadness, fear, despair. They know mental as well as physical suffering. And I don’t have time to go into the information that will prove some of these things to you, save to say that there are very bright students, in the best universities, studying emotions in animals, studying personalities in animals. We know that chimpanzees and some other creatures can recognize themselves in mirrors — “self” as opposed to “other.” They have a sense of humor, and these are the kind of things which traditionally have been thought of as human prerogatives. But this teaches us a new respect — and it’s a new respect not only for the chimpanzees, I suggest, but some of the other amazing animals with whom we share this planet. Once we’re prepared to admit that after all, we’re not the only beings with personalities, minds and above all feelings, and then we start to think about ways we use and abuse so many other sentient, sapient creatures on this planet, it really gives cause for deep shame, at least for me. So, the sad thing is that these chimpanzees — who’ve perhaps taught us, more than any other creature, a little humility — are in the wild, disappearing very fast. They’re disappearing for the reasons that all of you in this room know only too well. The deforestation, the growth of human populations, needing more land. They’re disappearing because some timber companies go in with clear-cutting. They’re disappearing in the heart of their range in Africa because the big multinational logging companies have come in and made roads — as they want to do in Ecuador and other parts where the forests remain untouched — to take out oil or timber. And this has led in Congo basin, and other parts of the world, to what is known as the bush-meat trade. This means that although for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, people have lived in those forests, or whatever habitat it is, in harmony with their world, just killing the animals they need for themselves and their families — now, suddenly, because of the roads, the hunters can go in from the towns. They shoot everything, every single thing that moves that’s bigger than a small rat; they sun-dry it or smoke it. And now they’ve got transport; they take it on the logging trucks or the mining trucks into the towns where they sell it. And people will pay more for bush-meat, as it’s called, than for domestic meat — it’s culturally preferred. And it’s not sustainable, and the huge logging camps in the forest are now demanding meat, so the Pygmy hunters in the Congo basin who’ve lived there with their wonderful way of living for so many hundreds of years are now corrupted. They’re given weapons; they shoot for the logging camps; they get money. Their culture is being destroyed, along with the animals upon whom they depend. So, when the logging camp moves, there’s nothing left. We talked already about the loss of human cultural diversity, and I’ve seen it happening with my own eyes. And the grim picture in Africa — I love Africa, and what do we see in Africa? We see deforestation; we see the desert spreading; we see massive hunger; we see disease and we see population growth in areas where there are more people living on a certain piece of land than the land can possibly support, and they’re too poor to buy food from elsewhere. Were the people that we heard about yesterday, on the Easter Island, who cut down their last tree — were they stupid? Didn’t they know what was happening? Of course, but if you’ve seen the crippling poverty in some of these parts of the world it isn’t a question of “Let’s leave the tree for tomorrow.” “How am I going to feed my family today? Maybe I can get just a few dollars from this last tree which will keep us going a little bit longer, and then we’ll pray that something will happen to save us from the inevitable end.” So, this is a pretty grim picture. The one thing we have, which makes us so different from chimpanzees or other living creatures, is this sophisticated spoken language — a language with which we can tell children about things that aren’t here. We can talk about the distant past, plan for the distant future, discuss ideas with each other, so that the ideas can grow from the accumulated wisdom of a group. We can do it by talking to each other; we can do it through video; we can do it through the written word. And we are abusing this great power we have to be wise stewards, and we’re destroying the world. In the developed world, in a way, it’s worse, because we have so much access to knowledge of the stupidity of what we’re doing. Do you know, we’re bringing little babies into a world where, in many places, the water is poisoning them? And the air is harming them, and the food that’s grown from the contaminated land is poisoning them. And that’s not just in the far-away developing world; that’s everywhere. Do you know we all have about 50 chemicals in our bodies we didn’t have about 50 years ago? And so many of these diseases, like asthma and certain kinds of cancers, are on the increase around places where our filthy toxic waste is dumped. We’re harming ourselves around the world, as well as harming the animals, as well as harming nature herself — Mother Nature, that brought us into being; Mother Nature, where I believe we need to spend time, where there’s trees and flowers and birds for our good psychological development. And yet, there are hundreds and hundreds of children in the developed world who never see nature, because they’re growing up in concrete and all they know is virtual reality, with no opportunity to go and lie in the sun, or in the forest, with the dappled sun-specks coming down from the canopy above. As I was traveling around the world, you know, I had to leave the forest — that’s where I love to be. I had to leave these fascinating chimpanzees for my students and field staff to continue studying because, finding they dwindled from about two million 100 years ago to about 150,000 now, I knew I had to leave the forest to do what I could to raise awareness around the world. And the more I talked about the chimpanzees’ plight, the more I realized the fact that everything’s interconnected, and the problems of the developing world so often stem from the greed of the developed world, and everything was joining together, and making — not sense, hope lies in sense, you said — it’s making a nonsense. How can we do it? Somebody said that yesterday. And as I was traveling around, I kept meeting young people who’d lost hope. They were feeling despair, they were feeling, “Well, it doesn’t matter what we do; eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Everything is hopeless — we’re always being told so by the media.” And then I met some who were angry, and anger that can turn to violence, and we’re all familiar with that. And I have three little grandchildren, and when some of these students would say to me at high school or university, they’d say, “We’re angry,” or “We’re filled with despair, because we feel you’ve compromised our future, and there’s nothing we can do about it.” And I looked in the eyes of my little grandchildren, and think how much we’ve harmed this planet since I was their age. I feel this deep shame, and that’s why in 1991 in Tanzania, I started a program that’s called Roots and Shoots. There’s little brochures all around outside, and if any of you have anything to do with children and care about their future, I beg that you pick up that brochure. And Roots and Shoots is a program for hope. Roots make a firm foundation. Shoots seem tiny, but to reach the sun they can break through brick walls. See the brick walls as all the problems that we’ve inflicted on this planet. Then, you see, it is a message of hope. Hundreds and thousands of young people around the world can break through, and can make this a better world. And the most important message of Roots and Shoots is that every single individual makes a difference. Every individual has a role to play. Every one of us impacts the world around us everyday, and you scientists know that you can’t actually — even if you stay in bed all day, you’re breathing oxygen and giving out CO2, and probably going to the loo, and things like that — you’re making a difference in the world. So, the Roots and Shoots program involves youth in three kinds of projects. And these are projects to make the world around them a better place. One project to show care and concern for your own human community. One for animals, including domestic animals — and I have to say, I learned everything I know about animal behavior even before I got to Gombe and the chimps from my dog, Rusty, who was my childhood companion. And the third kind of project: something for the local environment. So what the kids do depends first of all, how old are they — and we go now from pre-school right through university. It’s going to depend whether they’re inner-city or rural. It’s going to depend if they’re wealthy or impoverished. It’s going to depend which part, say, of America they’re in. We’re in every state now, and the problems in Florida are different from the problems in New York. It’s going to depend on which country they’re in — and we’re already in 60-plus countries, with about 5,000 active groups — and there are groups all over the place that I keep hearing about that I’ve never even heard of, because the kids are taking the program and spreading it themselves. Why? Because they’re buying into it, and they’re the ones who get to decide what they’re going to do. It isn’t something that their parents tell them, or their teachers tell them. That’s effective, but if they decide themselves, “We want to clean this river and put the fish back that used to be there. We want to clear away the toxic soil from this area and have an organic garden. We want to go and spend time with the old people and hear their stories and record their oral histories. We want to go and work in a dog shelter. We want to learn about animals. We want … ” You know, it goes on and on, and this is very hopeful for me. As I travel around the world 300 days a year, everywhere there’s a group of Roots and Shoots of different ages. Everywhere there are children with shining eyes saying, “Look at the difference we’ve made.” And now comes the technology into it, because with this new way of communicating electronically these kids can communicate with each other around the world. And if anyone is interested to help us, we’ve got so many ideas but we need help — we need help to create the right kind of system that will help these young people to communicate their excitement. But also — and this is so important — to communicate their despair, to say, “We’ve tried this and it doesn’t work, and what shall we do?” And then, lo and behold, there’s another group answering these kids who may be in America, or maybe this is a group in Israel, saying, “Yeah, you did it a little bit wrong. This is how you should do it.” The philosophy is very simple. We do not believe in violence. No violence, no bombs, no guns. That’s not the way to solve problems. Violence leads to violence, at least in my view. So how do we solve? The tools for solving the problems are knowledge and understanding. Know the facts, but see how they fit in the big picture. Hard work and persistence –don’t give up — and love and compassion leading to respect for all life. How many more minutes? Two, one? Chris Anderson: One — one to two. Jane Goodall: Two, two, I’m going to take two. (Laughter) Are you going to come and drag me off? (Laughter) Anyway — so basically, Roots and Shoots is beginning to change young people’s lives. It’s what I’m devoting most of my energy to. And I believe that a group like this can have a very major impact, not just because you can share technology with us, but because so many of you have children. And if you take this program out, and give it to your children, they have such a good opportunity to go out and do good, because they’ve got parents like you. And it’s been so clear how much you all care about trying to make this world a better place. It’s very encouraging. But the kids do ask me — and this won’t take more than two minutes, I promise — the kids say, “Dr. Jane, do you really have hope for the future? You travel, you see all these horrible things happening.” Firstly, the human brain — I don’t need to say anything about that. Now that we know what the problems are around the world, human brains like yours are rising to solve those problems. And we’ve talked a lot about that. Secondly, the resilience of nature. We can destroy a river, and we can bring it back to life. We can see a whole area desolated, and it can be brought back to bloom again, with time or a little help. And thirdly, the last speaker talked about — or the speaker before last, talked about the indomitable human spirit. We are surrounded by the most amazing people who do things that seem to be absolutely impossible. Nelson Mandela — I take a little piece of limestone from Robben Island Prison, where he labored for 27 years, and came out with so little bitterness, he could lead his people from the horror of apartheid without a bloodbath. Even after the 11th of September — and I was in New York and I felt the fear — nevertheless, there was so much human courage, so much love and so much compassion. And then as I went around the country after that and felt the fear — the fear that was leading to people feeling they couldn’t worry about the environment any more, in case they seemed not to be patriotic — and I was trying to encourage them, somebody came up with a little quotation from Mahatma Gandhi, “If you look back through human history, you see that every evil regime has been overcome by good.” And just after that a woman brought me this little bell, and I want to end on this note. She said, “If you’re talking about hope and peace, ring this. This bell is made from metal from a defused landmine, from the killing fields of Pol Pot — one of the most evil regimes in human history — where people are now beginning to put their lives back together after the regime has crumbled. So, yes, there is hope, and where is the hope? Is it out there with the politicians? It’s in our hands. It’s in your hands and my hands and those of our children. It’s really up to us. We’re the ones who can make a difference. If we lead lives where we consciously leave the lightest possible ecological footprints, if we buy the things that are ethical for us to buy and don’t buy the things that are not, we can change the world overnight. Thank you.
Hi! I’m with Max Garett, and I just found out his position is called the replicator, which sounds like some kind of cool Transformer. – But, what is it that you do here? – Um, so, Here in the replication shop we make—or recreate objects that can’t be real or authentic for exhibits. – So everything that people see in the exhibits that is some kind of animal shape or recreation of a model—it’s made in house. – Yeah, so that could be anywhere from an animal to maybe an artifact—bones, remains, fossils, food. -That’s awesome.
-Yeah, a lot of food. – I did not even know until I started working here that many of the things were actually made here, so I think it’s really cool that you have this prop shop of sorts. – We’re working on an exhibit—Biomechanics—some things we have here are some baby loggerhead sea turtles. – They’re really cute. – The story behind them is the kind of built in GPS they have to migrate to the ocean, but this is something that I sculpted, and I took a mold of, and then cast into more durable material. So this is touchable. – Whoa! – So, something like this needs to be really strong so that anyone in the exhibit can’t break it, so these are— – Like kid proof.
– Exactly, yeah. – Okay. – And they’re pretty desirable too, to like take and stick in your pockets. – Oh yeah.
– Yeah, down on the deck pretty hard. – You caught me. You guys are gonna like check my pockets before I go, I’m gonna have like 12 baby sea turtles. – We made some extras, just because.
– Because they’re cute! – They’re so cute. They’re adorable. So this is, you know, cast is a plastic that is almost indestructible, painted with a paint that’s really durable. – Nice. – Just from everyone rubbing it and everything.
– Yeah. – It’s also really fun to make non-touchable objects, just ’cause you gotta— we’re really restricted on the materials we can use— can’t always come out exactly how we like it, but something like this Venus fly trap, which is not touchable— it’s going to be under kind of an acrylic dome—
– Mhmm. – Was really fun to work on and think about, because I got to use any material I wanted, so I could use a pretty nice rubber, paint it with something that’s not too durable, but looks really good, and airbrush it. In the Venus fly trap there’s trigger hairs—there’s 3 trigger hairs on each pad, and that’s what kind of makes the trap close on its prey and everything. So, I’m gonna have to inlay some little hairs in there too, which is really cool. – Is this actual size? Is this how big they are?
-Oh yeah, no, this is a five scaled up enlargement. – Oh, okay.
– Yeah. – Because this would be terrifying if I was in the forest.
– Yeah. – Like this would eat a person.
– I know, it’s from like a video game or… Yeah. – Yeah, oh, like Mario.
– Mario, yeah. Something like this also is a touchable, so this kind of snake is cast into—this is like all one solid piece, so this is all the same plastic, so it can never be really ripped off or anything. – Mhmm. – And it also needs to be painted with something that won’t rub off. – This is the flying snake—
– Yeah. – from Biomechanics.
– Yeah, this is the Paradise flying snake, and— – That sounds terrifying.
– Yeah. This kind of touchable part right here is why it’s kind of hanging off, and you can feel it’s— – Oh yeah.
– A heart was sculpted into it, – Oooh.
– because the way it kind of glides is it flattens its ribs and— One kind of defining feature is that its heart becomes pronounced in its chest— – Yeah. – because it flattens out, so there’s kind of a nice little area where you can—mess around with that. – That’s cool. – Yeah, all the kind of acrylic items are going to be pretty awesome, because they’re all going to be mounted and displayed on these kind of like, really big LED light disks—
– Whoa. – and just like illuminated above, yeah, so these are in these—cast in these nice water clear resins, which are really beautiful. and just to display the different chambers, we’re going to have a variety of different animals—I think this is a turtle heart. – Wow. – But there’s going to be like a turtle, a fish, amphibian, and these are all, you know, not to scale, but to see the different chambers, and everything. And these are just some different talons—different bird talons, like a Harpy Eagle, and stuff like that. – They’re beautiful. So, what else do you have? You have like a giant worm over here. – Yes, this large worm diorama. – Is this to scale?
– The worm actually is, yeah. – What? – This is from Queensland, Australia. It’s this large blue worm that gets to be about 3.5 feet long—it’s pretty awesome. – Wow. – It’s a hydrostatic skeleton, the way it kind of undulates its body to move through tunnels and everything. I got to 3D model this kind of shape, and then take it to the CNC machine, and—you know—cut it out. – The CNC being the magic table saw—
– Yeah, the beautiful robot— – Yeah.
– That makes things. The overall shape is pretty exact, and to do that by hand would have been pretty difficult— – Yeah. – So it’s nice to make this shape—but, you know, this was something also that originally we got the information from, and it was basically like create an excerpt of earth that can display the worm in its tunnels. We were able to kind of collaborate on a kind of more dynamic shape than just kind of like a block – Yeah.
– So we kind of created this like core sample of earth, kind of. – Do you have real—You have real twigs and stuff in there. – Yeah, the top layer was kind of like a recipe I made of real soil— so actually, the top is actually not even really replicated I guess, just dirt, but it’s like embedded with this resin. – I think I would be terrified walking around and then all of a sudden have this giant blue worm stick its head out of the ground. – Yeah, it’s pretty fantastic—and this is not even actually on of the largest earth worms. – What? – There’s some other ones that get to be about over 6 feet long. Kind of the same size in diameter, but, yeah. – I don’t even believe that. – This is a giant termite mound, and this is to display the architecture of the termite mound— – Wow. – and how the termites diffuse heat through their mounds, and how— kind of like contemporary architecture recreates that in some buildings today and everything – Is this actual size? Is this life size?
– Yeah, well this is on the smaller scale, but this is like— – What?
– the mean size of an actual termite mound. – And termites are not—they’re not big.
– No, they’re tiny. Yeah, they’re tiny. and like an actual termite mound too is—what it’s made of, their mounds are almost stronger than concrete, sometimes, and— – Whoa.
– But so, yeah, this is going to be done almost the same way. This is kind of an under-texture of fiberglass and a non-toxic resin we use – Okay. – And then we cover it in this kind of paste that the other one is covered in, and then texture it to make it look like dirt and earth. – Wow. – So, yeah, it starts off like this, and then it kind of goes to that as a next layer, and then we kind of coat it all. But this is too large to travel in one piece, so—
– Okay. – It’s going to be made into 2 separate pieces that kind of lock into each other. – Yeah, it’s massive.
– Yeah, it’s huge, it’s about 9 feet tall. But this is like the average size of a mound—I mean they can get way bigger too. – That’s insane.
– Yeah. – It makes me want to be an anteater.
– Yeah, I know – Like never ending food source. I like how you put Max—you carved your name in there.
– Just a test, you know— – Yeah. Do you guys—do you sign your work a lot? Like hide it in little places? Because I would. – It is fun to try to put little Easter eggs—there are like in a lot of dioramas around museums some little— people hide things, and stuff, that was made a long time ago. – Yeah.
– Yeah, maybe, maybe I’ll put something in there. – Whoa! – So that’s, that’s—so it’s going to be displayed like that, but it’s to—cartilage needs to be put on there, and then we cast in another water clear resin that’s kind of pigmented. Kind of pink for—it’s synovial fluid, I think it’s called—
– Yeah. – around the cartilage. But, so this is what’s kinda end up being like in displayed on— – That’s amazing.
– in a case like that. – So you must learn a lot of like biology and anatomy working in here. – Yeah,
– Synovial fluid, that is not a term most people know. – No. No. This is a recent thing for me, but yeah, it’s great because we have to do a lot of research on things also, but a project that comes along, we’re given in depth information packets by a developer – Mhmm. – to give us all the information that we need on what we’re doing and everything, so— yeah, no, there’s a lot of research and a lot of learning involved. – That’s cool. Learning is cool.
– Learning is cool. – We advocate learning on this channel. Is this actual size too?
– This is like as big as they get, yeah. – Someone was a little generous with this model.
– Yeah. little bit. – This thing is pretty big though. I would not want to be swimming and then run into this guy. – No. – Its eye is as big as my hand.
– Mhmm. – It must be really rewarding when you finally have the exhibit, and it opens, and people are running around putting their hands over everything. – Yeah, it’s super cool. I mean, for me at least, this is my first time in the replication shop making a lot of stuff from scratch and everything. It’s been—since I’ve been here, it’s a lot of like recreating things for shows that have already been built, so its been nice to make things from scratch and have some creative freedom and to change what an object— – That’s cool.
– looks like, yeah. – Yeah. I would have never imagined like having this kind of job, like having something where you have to be scientifically inclined, and you have to understand the reason why you’re trying to make something like this, make it presentable, – Mhmm.
– and make it fun. So what is your background in? – I studied sculpture at SAIC—School of the Art Institute of Chicago— – Nice. and I graduated in 2012, I was interning here my last semester— – Wow.
– and then they hired me. Full time, yeah. – That’s nice! So you haven’t even been here that long.
– No, like year and a half, yeah. It’s good. – How’s it been?
-Fantastic. – Good.
– Love it. – Good. We didn’t even pay him to say that.
– No, well… yeah. – A little bit.
Here’s a little song for all you out there
with exoskeletons and jointed appendages! Do you ever feel like a stinky shoe is blocking out the sun And next will step on you?
Do you ever feel like a roach motel was built just for you
Yeah, you’re its clientele Do you ever feel like you give folks the creeps?
Six year olds all scream grown men shut their eyes and weep
You may not have a spine but lift antennae high, ’cause you’re important guys
You may be living under a log Or high on a hog
Come on out of that bog But watch out for that frog!
’cause baby, you’re an arthropod Shake your segmented bod!
Let the people go “Ew! Ew! Ew!” Yeah, we all depend on you, you, you! Your legs are jointed and oh, so adaptable
That exoskeleton–so tough and practical It’s made of chitin strong
But it gets tight, you know So you bust out of it and then a new one grow. Rocking the ocean floor with pincers big & strong Your feet were first on land took to air before too long Y’all pollinate the plants You feed the human race You eat most anything and go most any place So spread your wings
You’re nature’s kings Let your stridulatings ring
But, please, don’t sting! ’cause baby, you’re an arthropod
Shake your segmented bod Crabs, spiders and bees, bees, bees
Shrimp, grasshoppers and millipedes Zoom, zoom, zoom
Yeah, you buzz around my room, room, room Here comes Mommy with a broom, broom, broom
Better get out of here soon, soon, soon! ’cause baby, you’re an arthropod
Mother Nature’s go-to squad Let the people go, “Gross! Gross! Gross!”
’cause without you we’d be toast, toast, toast Woo, baby, you’re an arthropod
Shake your segmented bod! Yeah, you make me go, “Whoah! Whoah! Whoah!”
So many kinds of you to know, know, know [laughing] [cameraman says] I love it… [laughing] [Cameraman say] Can you do, like, the robot? “Aww!” (antennae fall off actor’s head)