The Goats with Spider Genes and Silk in their Milk – Horizon: Playing God – BBC Two

The Goats with Spider Genes and Silk in their Milk – Horizon: Playing God – BBC Two


These, yep, these are our goats So just regular goats! They’re absolutely regular. No,They’re totally incredible goats! So over here we have The kids that were born this year and then the older goats are all on that side And these are your spider goats, these are the spider goat? they’re eating my top. Hey come on. Okay? Hey hey, hey, just you’re in the camara to these kids have the genes for spider In them yes, this is it insane! And where does the spider silk actually come from [I] mean what we would get! It was a design so it comes in the milk. They look like such normal goats, but in fact They’re totally unique and bizarre. I mean, this is bizarre. I guess I would not say it’s bizarre. I think that it it’s It’s certainly different, but you know that they’re absolutely normal. I don’t think there’s anything different about him Hey Freckles Come here Freckles over here, right, so [we] have names for all the goats. He’s actually one of the very original goats that was created Can we actually milk them now? I mean yeah, we can um there’s the two They’re standing right here 57 and 59 who are putting in sweetie We can knock those and and you can see the milk Putting in sweetie putting in sweetie Freckles putting in sweetie the spider goats yes. Yes, just a just a totally regular farm. That’s right That’s right. Come on. I So well-behaved as well that’s right. That’s right. [they] know oh get that out of the way there you go there you go To the pumps just going like that That’s all there is to it. Oh, you can see it on there Yep You can actually see it coming up being seen [love] coming out [see] this is exactly the same as any normal goat man absolute cess Absolutely do exactly the same All right, so she’s about done and we can disconnect this We can [hunker] this open and you can take a look and see Well, just looks like normal milk looks like absolutely normal milk if you actually do an analysis of it And you look at all the components the milk the only thing you’ll find is different Is that there’s one extra protein in there, and that’s our spider silk [protein] all the rest of it looks absolutely like normal goat’s milk you

Fig Wasp Story

Fig Wasp Story


In nature, interactions among organisms
take many forms, and can have either positive or negative effects on the individuals involved. Competition is a type of interaction where
both individuals are negatively impacted because they are fighting for the same resource,
such as habitat or nutrients. Predation is a form of competition in which
one individual benefits while the other is harmed. The predator feeds and the prey… well, it
dies, when the predator is successful. Parasitism is a specialized form of predation,
where a larger organism is the host of a much smaller and sinister tenant. Parasites thrive
at the expense of the host. They have quicker They have quicker generation times and are
specialists, so most live their entire lives within a host. Mutualism is a relationship where both organisms
benefit from each other. Plants often recruit insects, to participate in a contract that
provides food in exchange for pollination. However, mutualism may share many characteristics
with parasitism, as is the case of obligate mutualism. Here,
instead of one thriving at the expense of the other neither can survive or reproduce without the
other. This is the definitive case of the fig tree
and the fig wasp. The fig is not a fruit, but a hollow garden
of flowers. A female fig wasp has laid her eggs and pollinated the flowers, which have
now reached maturity. The fig is a nursery, it has cared for the
future wasps by protecting them within its galls. The male wasps mature early. Wingless and
almost blind, they are the first to emerge from their galls. Then their essential ritual
begins, as he mates while the female is still in her gall, ensuring she has everything she
needs to produce eggs when she reaches maturity. Soon thereafter the females emerge. They look
very different, with antennae and large eyes, powerful wings
and a long ovipositor. They are not built to be enclosed, they are
meant to be free. They don’t have much time, for the fruit ripens
as soon as the galls are empty. Male wasps cut stamens and offer the pollen
to the females, which they take as a parting gift. Finally, the males proceed to dig a tunnel
to set the females free. They briefly witness the light of day in their
dying moments, while the females fly towards their quest
for another fig. The fig left behind rapidly ripens, which
attracts animals that will eat them and disperse their seeds.
This is the legacy of the wasp; she provides the pollination that completes the fig`s reproduction. Female wasps have very short lives and to
cope with this and the risk of missing out on pollination, fig trees randomly fruit throughout the year. And so the pollen-laden wasp reaches an immature
fig. But her journey is far from over; ahead lies the greatest challenge of her brief
life. Clawing and squeezing her way through the
gate her wings and antennae are ripped from her.
She makes the ultimate sacrifice, as the final push to enter bursts her abdomen. In an epic struggle between sacrifice and
survival, the mother wasp crawls through the narrow labyrinth towards the inner chamber. She is wounded
and weak, carrying only her eggs and the pollen gift of the former fig. If the wasp fails to pollinate the flowers,
no seeds will ever develop. Fig fruits with no future are costly to the tree, so they
will not receive an inflow of nutrients. If the wasp does not pollinate, the entire
fig may be aborted. However, if she devotes herself to pollination
as well as laying eggs, she ensures the fig will hold the promise of seeds. The tree will
pump sugars and nutrients into the fig, securing the future of seeds and larvae alike. When
they mature and leave, the fig will ripen, thus completing the cycle of mutual benefit
that has existed for millions of years. After so much effort, she finally reaches
the nursery to complete her mission. The pollen she carries will ensure the fig remains, and
so will her developing offspring. Struggling, she lays her eggs with her ovipositor
into receptive flowers. Finally, she unpacks her gift of pollen and
fertilizes the fig. After perpetuating the relationship, she lays
down in her grave of flowers. She has ensured life continues beyond her;
the tree will care for her young alongside its own developing seeds. In time, some seeds will grow into centennial
trees, and somewhere, out there, a mother wasp looks
for a fig. And so the mutual cycle starts anew.

Why Are The Bees Dying?

Why Are The Bees Dying?


[MUSIC] [MUSIC] A single honey bee weighs just a tenth of
a gram, but a beehive is worth more than its weight in gold. Crops pollinated by bees are worth $215 billion
worldwide, and they provide us with 75% of the fruits, veggies, and nuts we eat.
Their pollinating services are worth at least $24 billion to U.S. farmers, but that’s
probably an underestimate. Bees also pollinate the coffee plant. That
might be the most critical job on Earth. One could say that bees are the bee’s knees. To say that bees are important would be like
saying Beyonce is a pretty good singer. Incidentally, she has a bee-impersonating fly named after
her. When people talk about bee death, they’re
usually talking about the European honey bee. Cue the bee roll please.
This one species is basically a domesticated animal, just like cows, sheep, or chickens,
taken from the wild, put in a box, and used to harvest honey and pollinate crops. Each winter, it’s normal for a small fraction
of colonies to die off, but between 1947 and 2005 US beekeepers lost nearly half their
bees. By 2006 beekeepers were reporting losses as high as 90% and this honey bee apocalypse
was given a name: Colony Collapse Disorder. Talk about a buzz kill–
“Too soon!” A hive that falls victim to CCD is like a
ghost town: no adult worker bees, the honey and immature young left behind… it’s pretty
much just a lonely queen wandering around like her friends stranded her at a party. But honey bees’ wild, solo-living cousins
are in trouble too. It’s estimated that over the past 120 years,
as many as half of all wild bee species have gone extinct. Bee die-offs have been reported as far back
as 1868, but as far as we know they’ve never happened on this scale before. And we’re
not entirely sure what’s causing it. Pesticides are one of the likely culprits,
particularly a class of chemicals called neonicotinoids. Feeding on neonic-tainted food can be deadly
to bees, and even at nonlethal doses bees can lose the ability to communicate and forage. In some places, there’s just not as many
flowers as there used to be. Like humans, bees do best when they eat a balanced diet
from many different sources. Thanks to habitat loss, we’re giving them a buffet with just
a few choices, and it’s definitely not “all you can eat”. Just because they’re small doesn’t mean
bees can’t get sick. When a colony is weakened by pesticides or lack of food, they become
more vulnerable to viruses, parasites, and all kinds of other infections. Like these blood-sucking mites, which, judging
from their name I’m guessing are pretty bad. These bacteria can turn larvae into liquid.
And these parasites lay eggs inside the bees’ breathing tubes, suffocating them to death. Turns out some bees are naturally resistant
to some of these infections, so scientists are trying to breed entire colonies that can
fight off these microscopic horrors. According to a 2015 study in the journal Science,
it’s likely that instead of one culprit, bee declines are being driven by a perfect
storm of troubles: pesticides, habitat loss, and infections. But there are possible solutions, and all
of us can do our part. We can plant more flowers in more places,
reduce the use of pesticides, keep out invasive species, and take better care of our wild
bees. Most of all, we all need to keep an eye on
our relationship with nature, in the garden or in the grocery store. The Belgian writer
Maurice Maeterlinck wrote in 1901, “You will probably more than once have seen
her fluttering about the bushes, in a deserted corner of your garden, without realizing that
you were carelessly watching the venerable ancestor to whom we probably owe most of our
flowers and fruits, and possibly even our civilization.” As William Shakespeare once said, to bee or
not to bee. To bee. Stay curious.

Group recruitment in golden tail sugar ant

Group recruitment in golden tail sugar ant


Hey I have finally been able to take a video
of my favorite behavior of one of my favorite ant species that you can find here in Australia
in Sydney its name is Camponotus aeneopilosus also known as the Golden tail sugar ant. And you can see on this video that there is
one first ant a small one that is leading a group of workers, so if you count there
are about seven workers only following that first ant the ant leading that group is called
a scout. It forages quite randomely around the nest
and as soon as it finds something it comes back straight to the nest, start bumping into
other workers, and when it feels that other workers are motivated to join her on a new
trip to the food source it stats running away from the nest leaving a very light pheromone
trail that does not last long behind, and the other workers try to follow that scout
using visual informations, so by looking at this ant and using of course the light pheromone
trails that the first worker leaves behind. This behavior is very interesting and it allows
these ants to recruit other foragers very very quickly which is of course very useful
when the resources are scarce. Another advantage of this technique of recruitment
is that by not leaving strong pheromone trails behind them, the other ants cannot use the
trails left by this species to find the same food source. Of course it sometimes happens that the leader
loose a few workers on the way, but they are able to go to the food source very quickly
and that is the essential part for the colony, so it is not such a big loss. In that case, the food source was not very
glamorous, sorry about that, it was hum… bird droppings. It is a quite common food source for ants. As you can see on this video the Camponotus
were not the first one on that food source and you can see the small black ants that
are everywhere here. They are probably Iridomyrmex or Tapinoma
ants. They are very very efficient foragers, which
also explains why it is important for ants like Camponotus to find ways to recruit other
workers very quickly. Thank you for watching I hope you enjoyed
this video.

#1 Barata Assassina?! / Killer Cockroach

#1 Barata Assassina?! / Killer Cockroach


Hey there, guys. Good night. I come back here with one more video and this time… this video will talk about curiosity, ok It´s been published in social networks an false information that says: brazillian scientists find a cockroach that fly, have poison and can kill. I as a student of the cockroaches… I can say that it´s a lie The cockroaches don’t have poison and they’re very important to the… although some people repudiate them, the cockroaches are very important to the enviroment, be acting as a garbageman in the nature or or spreading diseases, it plays a role in nature and this site, (www.portaldoholanda.com.br), is advertising the following: “brazillian scientists find a mutant cockroach which is reproducing impressively” cockroach indeed reproduces very fast, depending on the temperature and availability of food “it is the species “Blattodea mutation”” The term Blattodea refers to the name of the Order that… gathers cockroaches and termites and the worst is that they are cosmopolitans ok, some of species are cosmopolitans It also says that “this next generation of roaches also have a poison” “similar to a scorpion venom.” No, it´s not possible. “a bite of this cockroach”… cockroach dont bites, they dont have specialized mouthparts there are a lot of untruthful data and the site dont mentions any research, any researcher anyway it is another e-scam so stay calm because no cockroach have the power to kill see ya!

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs

Cockroaches, Alligators & Other Weird Sources of New Drugs


Antibiotics are one of humankind’s most amazing
discoveries. Ever since that fateful day in 1928 when Scottish physician Alexander Fleming
noticed a funny mold growing in one of his petri dishes, antibiotics have been kicking
bacterial butt. That famous mold, of course, was producing
penicillin, the founding antibiotic superstar, which has since extended the average human
life by at least a decade. It fundamentally changed the face of medicine. Antibiotics,
or antimicrobials, are basically selective poisons designed to either kill or slow the
growth of bacteria to the point where your body’s own immune system can clean up. These
drugs target a specific part of bacteria or some important stage in their development
without damaging the body’s host cells. And they’re really great their job. Until they
aren’t. Lately, antibiotic technology has been having
a hard time keeping pace with bacterial evolution. We’ve talked here on SciShow about how lots
of your die-hard, go-to favorite antibiotics are starting to lose their mojo in the face
of sneaky and rapidly evolving bacteria. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that at least 2,000,000 Americans became infected with drug-resistant bacteria
in 2012, and 23,000 of them died as a result. These superbugs are deadly serious and could
quickly unleash a global health crisis if we don’t find a way to keep them in check.
The problem is we’ve already hit up many of the most obvious sources of antibiotics, like
fungi, which includes penicillin, and synthetic molecules.
Fortunately, we humans have big, delicious brains, and some of the best of them are hard
at work trying to invent all-new ways to kill dangerous bacteria or find other organisms
on the planet that are better at it than we are so we can steal their secrets. And while
they’re finding some promising leads, I gotta say, they’re looking in some pretty weird
places. [Intro] You know how everyone jokes that after some
big global disaster, only cockroaches will survive? Well, we recently found what may
partially explain their famous, and infuriating, tenacity. Research from the University of
Nottingham suggests that certain insects, like roaches and locusts, have brain tissues
that are infused with super-powered antibiotic juju. The researchers found nine different
antibiotic molecules tucked into the roaches’ nervous systems that may be protecting them
from otherwise lethal bacteria. They’re all a type of molecule known as peptides, short
chains of amino acids that make up proteins, kinda like proto-proteins. And these peptides
are specific to the bugs’ brains. They seem to be chemicals that roaches” brain cells
use to communicate with each other, y’know, whenever a cockroach is sitting around thinking
about stuff, which I guess can happen, and although we’re not sure how these peptides
actually work, laboratory tests have shown that they’re incredibly effective at eliminating
some of our least favorite bacteria, like the most dangerous strains of e.coli, which
cause gastrointestinal infections. And even MRSA, a super-resistant type of staphylococcus
bacterium that can cause unstoppable deadly infections in humans, particularly in hospitals.
In lab trials, these roach brain molecules killed over 90% of MRSA bacteria, without
harming any host cells. So I can guess what you’re thinking: shut
up and take my money! Well, hold on a sec, because we’re a bit away from having cockroach
brains on the pharmacy shelves. There’s still loads of technical hurdles to overcome, tests
to conduct, basic things we need to figure out, like how exactly these molecules work.
But roaches aren’t the only hardy animals out there. Alligators are some of the Earth’s
most rugged beasts. They essentially live in cesspool swamps teeming with bacteria and
fungus and other microbes, and more than that, they’re known brawlers. Put just a few territorial
800 pound toothy reptiles together in a dirty swamp, and you will no doubt come out with
some serious bite marks and bloody wounds, even missing limbs. But amazingly, what you
probably won’t find are any infections. This got some bayou scientists to thinkin’!
Dr. Mark Merchant, a biochemist at McNeese State University in Louisiana, helped conduct
a decade long study that investigated what makes alligators so unusually resistant to
bacterial and fungal infection. Turns out, it’s in their blood. An alligator’s
immune system is largely innate, meaning it can fight off harmful micro-organisms without
having any prior exposure to them. They just pop right out of their eggs ready to do battle.
We humans also have some innate immunity, provided by things like our skin and white
blood cells, but a big part of our immunities are adaptive, meaning we often develop a resistance
to specific diseases only after being exposed to them. Which of course is not ideal all
the time, but alligators get to skip this step. Researchers examining blood samples from American
alligators isolated their infection fighting white blood cells and then extracted the active
proteins working in those cells. And these two included a special class of peptides which
seemed to have a knack for weakening the membranes of bacteria, causing them to die. When pitted
against a wide range of bacteria including drug-resistant MRSA, these tough little peptides
proved to be effective killers. They also wiped out 6 of 8 strains of candida albicans,
a type of yeast infection that’s particularly troublesome for AIDS and transplant patients
with weakened immune systems. Such compounds may also be found in similar animals, like
crocodiles, Komodo dragons, and the skins of some frogs and toads. So far, lab trials
have shown that gator blood can kill at least 23 different strains of bacteria including
salmonella, e.coli, staph, and strep infections AND even a strain of HIV. For now, scientists
are working to find the exact chemical structures at work in four of these promising chemicals
and pinpoint which types are best at killing which microbes. One problem so far: high concentrations
of gator blood serum have already been found to be so powerful that they are toxic to human
cells. So other biologists are taking a different approach in the search for the next generation
of antibiotics. Rather than looking at other animals, they’re
exploring strange, new places, like cave soils and deep-sea sediments. Researchers have recently
discovered evidence of promising new fungi strains living way down in hundred million
year old nutrient-starved sediments in the Pacific Ocean. Everyone thought this was a
near-dead zone for life, too harsh and remote an environment for something like fungi to
survive in. Just a decade ago, the only living things known to inhabit such deep sediment
layers were single-celled bacteria and archaea, organisms known to flourish in extreme environments.
But while examining dredged up sediments from as deep as 127 meters into the sea floor,
scientists found fungi of at least eight different types, four of which they successfully cultured
in the lab. Some of the fungi even belonged to the genus Penicillium, which we have to
thank for the development of penicillin. Now, we’re not exactly sure how old these fungi
are, but they are definitely quite old and maybe, more importantly, they appear to have
been living in isolation for eons. If that’s the case, they may have evolved specific and
unusual defenses against bacteria, which, just like their penicillin kin in that famous
petri dish, could end up being a new and powerful source of antibiotics.
And there’s one more strategy that scientists are using, one that works in espionage as
well as in medicine. And that is seeing what the enemy is up to.
While exploring life in strange new places around the world, some biologists are looking
for bacteria that have never been exposed to our drugs, but still appear to be naturally
resistant to them. Wherever we find the most naturally resistant
bacteria, we might also find natural antibiotics that we never knew about.
And here, one of the most promising leads is again in one of the hardest-to-reach places:
New Mexico’s Lechuguilla cave, a place that was isolated from all human contact until
it was discovered in the 1980’s. One of the many fascinating things that scientists
have discovered here is that the cave bacteria seem to be resistant to everything.
Even though they’ve never been exposed to us or our drugs, all of the bacteria have
proven to be resistant to at least one major antibiotic, and many tend to fend off more
than a dozen of the most powerful antimicrobials we have. This suggests to scientists that
the bacteria have evolved to be this way because they live in an environment that’s rich in
naturally occurring antibiotics, ones that the germs we live with up here on the surface
have never encountered. Now we just have to find out what exactly
those compounds are. So look, I’m not going to lie to you: we have
a lot of work to do. While we might discover a new super-drug lurking
in a cave or under the sea or in a cockroach’s head, there’s a big difference between finding
a substance that cleans house in a petri dish and actually putting a new antibiotic in the
vein of a human patient. So the bummer is, as promising as some of
these bold new discoveries may be, none of them has yet yielded an actual marketable
drug. Still, there’s a long list of successful antibiotics
that we’ve managed to derive from strange sources, starting with Dr. Fleming’s rogue
fungus. So if we keep exploring strange new places
and studying how other animals deal with the problems we’re facing, we just might find
the next penicillin before the superbugs get the best of us. Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion,
especially to our Subbable subscribers. To learn how you can support us in exploring
the world, just go to Subbable.com. And as always, if you want to keep getting smarter
with us, you can go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe.

Can Cockroaches live without their Heads? | #aumsum

Can Cockroaches live without their Heads? | #aumsum


It’s AumSum Time Easy peasy No way. What are these? Mini brains called ganglia. They control basic body movements. And all these holes are spiracles. They help the cockroach to breathe. That means, it can breathe without a head. But then, what about blood loss? No problemo. Cockroaches have low blood pressure. So, slow blood loss. Then how does it die? When it gets super hungry. Or by bacterial or fungal attacks. Topic: Light and sound. Why do we see lightning before thunder? Don’t go out tonight. A huge storm is coming. Look at the weather outside. See, there’s a huge lightning strike. Now, very soon, you are going to hear some thunder. I told you. Don’t get scared. Its just thunder. Do you know why you saw the lightning before you heard the thunder? I will tell you. An interesting fact is that lightning and
thunder occur at the exact same time. Then why do we see lightning first? This is because light travels faster than
sound. The speed of light is 300 million meters per second. While the speed of sound is only 340 meters per second. Thus, the light from the lightning travels
much faster to our eyes. As a result, we first see the lightning, shortly followed by the sound of thunder. Topic: Rain Why does rain smell? Maybe it applies a special perfume. No. Rain is just water and water doesn’t have
any smell. Yes dude. So, what’s that smell? The distinctive smell which frequently accompanies. The first rain after a dry weather is scientifically called petrichor. It basically comes from plants and bacteria called actinomycetes which live in the soil. Now during a long dry spell, the plants release oils into the soil to block other seeds from germinating. Thus reducing competition for water. Whereas, the actinomycetes produce a chemical called geosmin. Now when rain hits the ground, it brings up
the oils and geosmin which then mix with air. The combination of this geosmin along with the plant oils form the smell which we receive after the rain. What is a stroke? It is a new style of haircut. No. Through a complex system of arteries. Our brain gets a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients with the help of blood. The cells of our brain alone use more than
20% of oxygen in our blood. Hence, if the blood doesn’t reach the brain
cells, they can begin to die, thus giving us a stroke. The most common stroke is Ischemic stroke. Ischemic strokes occur when the arteries supplying blood to the brain get blocked. Like the roads get blocked in a traffic jam,
right? Indeed. Due to bad lifestyle choices and stress. Fats and cholesterol gradually start building up in the arteries and thus, narrow them. If this build up ruptures, a clot may form
blocking the complete artery. As a result, the brain cells begin to die
due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. Thus, giving an Ischemic stroke. Why do cats purr? To keep their voice melodious. No. According to a popular belief, people think
that cats purr when they are happy and satisfied. But did you know that cats purr in other situations also? Imagine a cat falls from a height and injures her bone. In such a situation also, the cat starts purring to heal her bones. Purring. To heal the bones. But how’s that possible? It is found that exposure to frequencies between 20 Hertz and 50 Hertz builds bone density. The frequency of a cat’s purr falls within the range of 25 Hertz to 150 Hertz. So, it is possible that a cat who has injured
her bone might be purring to build bone density. Thus, promote healing. That’s awesome dude. In addition to this, cats also purr when they
are stressed or feeling very hungry.

The Evolution of Wasp Wings

The Evolution of Wasp Wings


The basic question we’re trying to address with the research is to gain a better understanding of how, when animals diverge in their morphology and development, how that’s accomplished at the level of the genes. The main thing that we learn from this research is that a gene that had previously been studied in another insect that was known to be involved in regulating growth in the specialization of cells, was also playing a role in changing the size of the wings in these wasps. So in effect what we’re doing is that we’re using the wings as a tool for measuring genes that are involved in growth. What we found was that there was this gene that has a distant similarity to genes in humans and mice that regulate growth, immunity, and cell differentiation. So it’s the same gene. That’s extremely interesting. And also, what we were able to uncover was how this gene is regulated differently in these closely related species to cause a change in growth. The way that we accomplished this research is using this new emerging insect model called Nasonia. It’s a small insect that has some interesting features in its biology that makes it particularly good for trying to do genetics. One of those is that male only have one set of chromosomes. So that makes it easier for us to detect the effects of any particular gene. So what we were able to do is cross between these very closely related species. We’re fortunate in having really young species so they haven’t diverged to the point where they can no longer make hybrids. They’re still at that early stage of speciation. So we’re able to do crosses between them and then grab parts of chromosomes that affect growth, move it into one or the other species, and then by using basically good old fashion recombination, we’re able to whittle down the size of the region, until we’re able to find out what gene it is. We can then break that apart into pieces that allow us to say, “Well, what parts surrounding the gene affect when that gene is turned on and when that gene is turned off.” The implications of this research are sort of two avenues. One has to do with just increasing our understanding of how growth is regulated in very diverse organisms. Of course growth is very important in human development and it’s a loss of growth regulation is the hallmark of cancer, for instance. It’s also interesting to give us a better understanding of how we get this incredible diversity of life that we see around us. Animals and plants diverge from each other in their shape and in their form. It’s one of the marvels of nature, but we still don’t have a very good understand of how that’s accomplished.

Why do Bees Die when they Sting us? | #aumsum

Why do Bees Die when they Sting us? | #aumsum


It’s AumSum Time. Why do bees die when they sting us? I don’t know. But it sounds super sad. Yes. Honeybees are the only bees that die after
stinging. But if they die, why do they sting? Bees only sting when they feel we are a threat
to their queen or their hive. Now, the stinger of a honeybee is barbed. After stinging, it can easily come out, if
the skin is thin. But since human skin is thick, the barbed
stinger gets stuck. Hence, when the bee tries to pull herself,
she ends up tearing the abdomen. Leaving behind her venom sac, parts of the
digestive tract, etc. and thus, killing herself. Now, although the bee is dead, we should make
sure that we remove the sting. Why? Because in spite of being detached from the
bee. The venom sac continues to pump venom, thus
increasing the pain. How do scars form? It is a secret process. I cannot reveal it. No. It’s not a secret process. A scar is formed when our skin tissue heals
itself after an injury. Our skin tissue has collagen. Collagen is a structural protein produced
by fibroblasts. Collagen keeps our skin firm and it is usually
arranged in a basket weave pattern. Can I use this basket to keep my bags of chips? Please listen. When we get injured, our skin tissue gets
damaged. So, in order to heal and close the wound,
fibroblasts produce more collagen. But, instead of arranging in a basket weave
pattern. The collagen cross links and aligns in a single
direction. As a result. The injured area of the skin appears different
from normal skin, thus causing a scar. Why do our muscles get sore? Because they want to go to a spa. No. When we begin to go to gym or perform a new
intense physical workout. Our muscles begin to feel sore the next morning. This soreness is called Delayed Onset Muscle
Soreness or DOMS. DOMS occurs usually after eccentric contractions. What does that even mean? When a muscle is lengthening and contracting
at the same time. It is known as an eccentric contraction. For example, when we lower a dumbbell. Our biceps muscle is slowly relaxing and lengthening. But at the same time, it is still contracting
to hold the heavy weight of the dumbbell. Similarly, in a squat, as we lower ourselves,
our quadriceps muscle is lengthening. But at the same time, it is still contracting
to hold our upper body weight. Such eccentric contractions generate tension
in the muscles. Creating minute tears in them, thus, causing
the soreness or pain. Can animals get a sunburn? Yes. Due to ultraviolet radiation of the sun, animals
can also get sunburns. However, to protect themselves from the harmful
radiation. Different animals have different biological
defenses. For example, reptiles have scales, birds have
feathers. Animals like sheep, dogs and cats have fur
or hair. Sperm whales have a special protein, fin whales
have more melanin, etc. Does anybody have Captain America’s shield? Please listen. Some animals even produce certain substances
to protect themselves from the harmful radiation. For example, hippopotamuses secrete a fluid
made up of red and orange pigments. Some fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds
produce a chemical called gadusol. In addition to this, animals like rhinoceroses,
elephants and pigs take mud baths. It is said that mud acts like a physical barrier
between their skin and ultraviolet radiation. Thus preventing them from getting sunburns.