Do Bees Dance? | #aumsum

Do Bees Dance? | #aumsum


It’s AumSum Time Hey guys. Hold on. Did you download my app from Google Play Store? Remember, it’s called ”It’s AumSum Time”. And follow my Facebook page. Now, let’s guess the title of my next video. Muahahaha. Because I told it to do so. Oh. Because of the flame, the air around the candle is hot. Rise hot air, as you are lighter. Hurry up. Write your guess in the comments section below. Do bees dance? Yes. I’m always invited. Nectar-producing flowers. C’mon. Time to tell the otherrs. Gather around everybody. It’s time for the waggle dance. It looks like the figure 8. Longer the dance, farther the flowers. But, which direction dude? The sun is here. So, this is the direction of the flower with respect to the sun. Let’s go. Topic: Rancidity Why is a bag of chips half full? Looks like you don’t believe me. Open the bag. See I told you. The bag of chips is indeed half full. Why is that so? It is mainly because of a concept called rancidity. When food becomes rancid. It develops an unpleasant smell and taste and it becomes unsafe for consumption. Rancidity generally refers to a condition where the fats and oils present in food get oxidized Resulting in food spoilage. Since the chips contain fats and oils, they
are likely to get rancid. Therefore, to prevent this, nitrogen gas is
flushed into bags of chips by manufacturers. But, why nitrogen? Nitrogen does not react with fats and oils. As a result, rancidity does not take place. Moreover, a gas in the bag serves as a cushioning agent and prevents the chips from crumbling. That is why the bag of chips is only filled
till half. Topic: Air pressure. How do straws work? They work very hard. No. Straws work because of air pressure. Is it similar to acupressure? No. Air pressure is the weight of air pressing
down on earth and all other objects present on it. Now, when a straw is in a liquid. The air pressure upon the liquid in the glass and the air pressure upon the liquid in the straw is similar. Causing the levels of liquid to be almost equal. However, when we drink the liquid through
straw. We first inhale causing the air from the straw to flow into our lungs. Now due to absence of air, the air pressure
in the straw decreases. Hence, the air pressure present on the liquid of the glass pushes the liquid into the straw. Causing it to move upwards and thus, helping us drink. Why do bees build hexagonal honeycombs? I don’t know. Honeybees build honeycombs to store honey, pollen, eggs, etc. The honeycombs are built using beeswax which honeybees produce themselves. However, honeybees produce very less amount of this wax. Hence, honeybees required a shape that would give them maximum storage using minimum beeswax. Now, if each cell of the honeycomb would be a circle. Then there would be a lot of gaps or wasted space between cells. So why didn’t honeybees make triangular or square cells? These shapes don’t leave any wasted space. Popular research suggests that hexagonal cells use less wax. Provide more space as compared to triangles and squares. This means honeybees can store more honey while using the least amount of wax. Besides this, the overall structure is much
more stable and strong. Why do our muscles get sore? Because they want to go to a spa. No. When we begin to go to gym or perform a new intense physical workout. Our muscles begin to feel sore the next morning. This soreness is called Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness or DOMS. DOMS occurs usually after eccentric contractions. What does that even mean? When a muscle is lengthening and contracting at the same time, it is known as an eccentric contraction. For example, when we lower a dumbbell, our biceps muscle is slowly relaxing and lengthening. But at the same time, it is still contracting
to hold the heavy weight of the dumbbell. Similarly, in a squat, as we lower ourselves,
our quadriceps muscle is lengthening. But at the same time, it is still contracting
to hold our upper body weight. Such eccentric contractions generate tension in the muscles, creating minute tears in them. Thus, causing the soreness or pain.

Close up Wasp – Macro Adventure


Today I want to look for insects. And try to make some Macro Photos. Near where I live
Is a big street. On this Footpath are always hurt or dead Insects. This is Ivy
there are alot of Wasp and a Hornet up there
But I’m here for this. Back at home we are going to look at the findings. They are wasp or yellow jackets. I try to clean the worst
and take it to my microscope. There is still a lot of muck and pollen. They did lay on the ground for a while
so dirt is expected. I try to get some of the Dirt off
whitout destroying them. Next I want to stack some images and make
a big composite for that I take a movie
focus on every part and I try to overlapp a certain amount for
each stack. After I got a focus stack of ervery part of
the Body I cut it out of the movie
and export it as pictures I use Davinci resolve for this. Export as seperate clips in a picture format
and in seperate sub folders After the render is complete
I have 57 folders with images to stack. For the stacking I use Picolay. I open the folder choose my setting an let
it run Importen is I want to save the depth map for
later With every stack completed
I just need to sticth them together using Image composite Editor
That is quite good the wing I stitch manualy
and this is the result Now comes the fun part
You remember we saved the depthmap with picolay we can render a rocking 3D Animation
Just choose a stacked image an its coresponding Depth map
load it as result and depth map choose the dregrees and steps
and let it run if you don’t like the rocking action there
is another way You could do a circular motion you just need
the degrees I want 5 degree max rotation
for 45 Degrees I just take the sin of 45, times the degree I want
it is about 3,5 Degree and for the inbetewens I just take half of
45 22,5 Degree and multiply the sin and cosin
with my desired degree. After that I just add that manually into picolay
And I need to rename every picture so that it stays in the desired order
This is what I end up with. I will put every Programm I used in the comment
below.

Why do wasps build nests? | Natural History Museum


We have millions of wasp specimens here, and
amongst all the pinned insects we also have a more surprising collection, which is that
of about 1,000 or so wasp nests. These range in size from tiny little clay
pots to huge paper nests that fill people’s lofts. One of our most exciting examples of that
is this wasp nest. This is by the common wasp Vespula vulgaris. This made its nest in a bowler hat in an
outhouse on Sir Walter Rothschild’s estate. This is a fantastic example of how wasps
can be very opportunistic, making their nests anywhere which is safe,with
structural support.

Ants Fight to Share Dominance


Contests for dominance are common in social animals. Usually there’s a winner and a loser, a champion and a line of failed
contenders, but we discovered an animal society where there is more than one winner at the top. Where instead, a group of individuals share dominance. I’m Clint Penick, a biologist at North Carolina State University and I want to tell you about my new research on social
dominance in ants. This is the ant I studied, the Indian Jumping Ant,Harpegnathos saltator all members of the colony are capable of acting as a queen and when the Queen dies, the workers
stage a months long tournament to determine who gets to lay eggs doesn’t.
When these tournaments end, a group of 10 to 20 ants share the top position as
dominant egg layers in the colony. My study aimed to figure out was how these share dominance hierarchies emerged from simple dominance interactions. To study this we
track individuals in these tournaments by giving them unique paint markings. There are three behaviors to watch for, biting is when one ant bits another and there is a clear winner and loser. Policing is when subordinate workers bite and hold a
potential dominant to shut down her chances of rising in the hierarchy. Finally, antennal duelling is the most common dominance behavior where two or more ants exchange rapid antennal strikes. What’s different about dueling from other dominance behaviours is that there’s no clear winner or loser. We predicted dueling may be the key to
establishing share dominance. To test this prediction my friend Takao and I
developed a computer model to study how these tournaments work. In the model
individual ants assess the social status of each other and decide whether they
should engage and biting, policing, or dueling we set up the models so that
when an ant is bitten she loses 10 status points and the winner gains 10 points.
When an ant is policed she loses all of her status points. When two ants duel we
model this behavior as a so-called winner-winner effect where both ants
increase in social status. When we ran the model with biting alone, a linear
hierarchy emerged, when policing was added there was only one ant at the top and all others equally subordinate. Shared dominance hierarchies that mimic what we see in real jumping and colonies emerged only when dueling was added to the model and only when doing had a positive effect on both ants. What we think is
happening is that the ants use dueling to pump up each other’s dopamine levels. It’s is sort of like teammates hyping each other up before a game. Shared dominance occurs beyond ant
societies. Winner-winner behaviors like antennal dueling are likely important for
forming hierarchies in other species though these behaviors have yet to be described. The co-authors of this research and I hope this study will inspire others to
look at the formation of dominance hierarchies in a new way. If you want to
try the model for yourself is a link to download and run the model for free in the description below.

You Wish You Had Mites Like This Hissing Cockroach | Deep Look


Is there anything more lowly than the lowly
cockroach? Uh, yeah there is. That’s a cockroach mite. It lives its entire life on this cockroach. But these hitchhikers are doing a lot more
good than you might think. The mites are only on one type of cockroach – these
guys – Madagascar hissing cockroaches… …which are known for their hiss, of course. They do that when disturbed or looking for
a mate. They only live in the Madagascar rainforest
on an island off the coast of Africa. And they’re bigger than the cockroaches
you might find in your kitchen, like these brown-banded roaches. These pests will eat anything: food scraps,
poop, trash – you name it. As a result, they can spread disease or trigger
allergies. Hissing cockroaches are detritivores – they
mainly eat decaying leaves, tidying up the forest floor. They can even be kept as pets, because they’re
more docile than their common cousins. And most importantly, they’re a lot cleaner
… thanks to a permanent population of tiny housekeepers. Ok, yeah, it looks pretty bad. The mites crowd together in the crevices – places
where the cockroach can’t brush them off. They get their meals near the cockroach’s
head, gobbling up the food bits and saliva that the roach leaves behind. When they get thirsty, they head to the spiracles:
the openings the roach uses to breathe. The mites get water vapor from them. The roach also has one special hissing spiracle
for that signature sound. The mites live on a single roach, unless they
get passed on from roach parent to roach baby. They’re doing these cockroaches a favor. By cleaning up the old food and debris, the
mites help keep them free of mold and pathogens … potentially extending the roaches’ lives. Really, both a hissing cockroach and its mites
have the same important job: keeping the world a little bit neater. Not so lowly, after all. Looking for more wild science adventures? Journey to Earth’s most remote laboratory
in Antarctic Extremes, a harsh, thrilling and hilarious new show from NOVA and PBS Digital
Studios. Hosts Caitlin Saks and Arlo Pérez reveal
a world where science and survival meet. Find the show on Terra, PBS Digital Studios’
new science channel. Link is in the description.

Save the bees! Wait, was that a bee? | Joseph Wilson | TEDxUSU

Save the bees! Wait, was that a bee? | Joseph Wilson | TEDxUSU


Translator: Jeff Broadbent
Reviewer: Nada Qanbar (Applause) So when I tell people I study bees, they
usually want to tell me one of two things; either about the last time the got stung
and how much it hurt, or they’ll tell me about their distant
relative that’s a beekeeper and how much they like his honey. So this kind of shows the superficial
understanding most people have about bees: they sting and they make honey. But recently, there’s been some
encouraging changes. Now when people talk to me about bees, besides talking about stinging and honey they want to ask how the bees are doing. Or they’ll tell me about an article they
read that said bees are disappearing or their populations are declining. So from a conservation standpoint,
this is nice because it shows that people are
beginning to care more about bees. They’re beginning to understand that
bees are more than stinging and honey and that they play important roles
in our lives. The problem is we can’t really help
save the bees – there’s a growing movement
to save the bees – but we can’t do this unless we know
what the bees are and know what their needs are.
So what do people know about bees? Well, most people assume there’s a
handful of bee species in the U.S.: honey bees, maybe some bumblebees. In fact most of the research on bees
and on populations declining is done on these bees,
honey bees and bumblebees. But, in fact, there’s more bees out there. There’s actually 4,000 different
species of bees in the U.S. So most people are dramatically
underestimating bee diversity here. It makes it hard to protect bees
if we don’t realize how many there are. Also, even scientists don’t really know
how these bees are doing. Because most of the research is done
on honey bees and bumblebees, we mostly don’t know much about
these other bees. It goes further than that. It’s not just that people underestimate
bee diversity, in a lot of instances people don’t know
which bugs in their yards are bees. For example, when I show people
this picture, and ask them to tell me
which ones are bees – and I’m sure you’re all looking at it
thinking, “Which one’s are bees?” – If you’re like most people, most people know that a fly, a
grasshopper, and a butterfly are not bees. And that’s good. Also, most people know that a honey bee,
a bumblebee, and a sweat bee are bees. The problem is, there’s these three bees
in the middle here. They’re all bees, but people don’t
recognize them as bees. They’re pretty common in our backyards, but people often think they’re
something else. So there’s misunderstanding about how many bees there are,
about what bugs are bees, and these misunderstandings lead to
misguided efforts to save bees. For example, I saw this poster
on the internet, “Save the bees, save humanity.” It’s a great idea, the problem is
that’s not a bee. (Laughter) That’s a yellow jacket wasp. (Laughter) Or you could buy a t-shirt to help save
the bees. It’s only $25, right? The problem with this t-shirt?
That’s not a bee either. That’s a cicada. (Laughter) So let’s look at one more. This is a meme from Facebook,
“I die, you die.” So the idea here is that bees pollinate
most of our food, and so if there’s no one to pollinate
our food, then we die. The problem is, that’s not a bee,
that’s a fly. And so that fly is not pollinating
the majority of our foods. But it’s not only that people mistake
other insects for bees like in these examples. In a lot of cases, when people want to
make efforts to help bees, they focus on the bee that they’re most
familiar with, which is the honey bee. In fact, there’s been a lot of news
stories and magazine articles focusing and teaching people
how to save bees, but they focus almost exclusively on
honey bees and on the needs of honey bees. This has led a lot of people to become
backyard beekeepers in efforts to help save bees. In fact, cities around the country
have changed regulations so people can keep beehives
in their backyards. For example, Morgan Freeman recently
bought 40 beehives, and he put them on his
ranch in Mississippi, and he says he planted fields of lavender
and clover to help save the bees. Now, this is a valiant effort. And other people have done this too. For example, Flea. He’s the bass player
from the Red Hot Chili Peppers. He was in Rolling Stone Magazine
this year, and they talked about how Flea is saving
the bees. But what Morgan Freeman and Flea might not
realize – and countless other beekeepers – is that honey bees are only one of
thousands of species, and they’re really different biologically
than most other bees. For example, you probably know that honey
bees live in big hives, there’s tens of thousands of workers,
there’s a queen, you know they make honey, you’ve probably heard they can sting you
once before they die. Well, those are all true facts
for honey bees, but they’re not true for the other bees
that live here, for the native bees in North America. You might not know that honey bees
aren’t native to North America. They’re from Europe. So what are these native bees like? What do those other thousands
of bee species do? Well most of North America’s native bees
are solitary ground-nesting bees. What does that mean? Well, they live by themselves – they’re
solitary – and they nest in the ground. So a single female bee digs a hole
in the ground, at the bottom of that hole she’ll
make little rooms and she’ll put pollen and nectar in there. Then she’ll lay an egg in each room,
cover up the hole and fly away. So there’s no queen, there’s no hive
with workers, and there’s no honey. So if we only focus on the needs of honey
bees, we’ll probably be doing very little to help these ground-nesting
solitary bees. Now, not all bees nest in the ground. There’s other bees that nest
in other places. For example, this is a leaf cutter bee, and she prefers to nest in holes
in pieces of wood. Here she’s bringing back a piece of a leaf
that she’ll use to line that hole, kind of like wallpaper. Again, she’s a solitary bee, so there’s no
queen and no hive and no honey involved. So, when I tell people about these native
bees, they often say, “Well that’s pretty interesting,
but they don’t really pollinate, right?” In fact, native bees do pollinate. They do the majority of the pollination
for most of our wildflowers and there are lost of studies that show that they’re important pollinators of
many of our crops as well. So why don’t people recognize these
native bees when they think about making efforts
to save bees? Well it could be because a lot of native
bees don’t really look like honey bees. They don’t have that yellow and
black striped abdomen like we see in the cartoons. These, for example, are all mason bees,
a native bee to North America. Mason bees come in metallic blue or green,
sometimes gold and purple. Mason bees can be really important
pollinators of many of our orchard crops. For example, the pollination that would
take a hundred honey bees to accomplish can be done in many orchard by
only two mason bees. So not only do they pollinate, in some cases they’re
much more efficient pollinators. There are a lot of factors that contribute
to this efficiency. One of these factors could be their
dietary preferences. A lot of native bees are picky eaters. This, for example, is a squash bee,
and squash bees only visit squash flowers. So because she has a preference
for squash flowers, she’s a really effective pollinator of our
pumpkins and our zucchinis and our cucumbers and
other members of the squash family. So again, if we only focus on the needs
of honey bees, and plant fields of lavender and clover,
for example, we might be doing very little for
these native bees that have different preferences.
They don’t like lavender and clover. Native bees have other abilities that
make them important pollinators. For example, tomatoes and their relatives
or blueberries produce more fruit when they’re buzz pollinated. Buzz pollination is when a bee
lands on a flower and vibrates it at a certain frequency
causing it to release more pollen. Honey bees don’t know how
to buzz pollinate. They just don’t have that ability. But a lot of our native bees do. So I’m not trying to say that honey bees
are necessarily bad. They play important roles in many
of our agricultural systems. But if we artificially increase honey bee
populations too much, then that can lead to competition
between honey bees and native bees and negatively impact
the native bee populations. So, I applaud people’s efforts
to save the bees. I think that this is a good movement
to get behind, but we need to realize that honey bees
are only one of thousands of species and these other bees are also playing
important roles in our environment and in our lives. So if you want to help bees, where do
we go to learn about these native bees? Well there’s a lot of resources that have
recently been made available. For example, a lot of books like
The Bee-Friendly Gardner, or my book The Bees in Your Backyard. Or there’s websites that teach us about
native bees like the Xerces Society or BugGuide.net. Or there’s pollinator workshops that
are being put on all around the country. So if you look into these resources, they’ll teach you that bees
need two things: they need food, as in flowers,
and they need nesting sights. So in our yards, we can make efforts
to help bees by planting flowers. If we plant a variety of different
kinds of flowers, different colors and shapes and sizes, we can attract a bunch of different
kinds of bees, bees that have different
dietary preferences. And also, in between those flowers, instead of putting ground cloth
or thick layers of mulch, we can leave bare patches of dirt
for the ground-nesting bees to nest in. Providing habitat for other bees
can be as simple as drilling a bunch of holes
in a piece of wood. Leaf cutter bees and their relatives
find these holes and they make their nests in them. So, if we as a society want
to protect bees, the first step should be to learn about
bees – all of the bees – including the native bees. These native bees are
playing important roles, and many of them need our attention too. We don’t want to be left saying,
“Save the bees! Oh wait a second, was that a bee?” Thank you. (Applause)

The Real Life Spider-Men


It’s tougher than any man-made material It’s a combination of strength and elasticity. No other material can actually combine these
two features. Either material is strong or it’s elastic. Spider silk is both. Five times stronger than steel, spider silk
has been tantalizing the human imagination for decades. You want to be Spider Man?
You have to make fibers. But we can’t just farm the silk , because
spiders eat each other, so scientists have pursued other routes. A DNA sequencing breakthrough in Germany means manufacturing spider silk fiber is
no longer pure fantasy. The next step is really producing tons of
the material. In all the offices we have spiders and they’re
like pets. We like to have them around.
We think they’re beautiful. If eight-legged co-workers
make your skin crawl, then the biomaterials lab at Bayreuth
University probably isn’t for you. It’s here that Professor Thomas Scheibel
and his team study natural substances like spider silk in the hope of turning them into
super materials. Spider silk has for a lot of material scientists
been the holy grail for decades. If we take a thumb thick spider fiber, we
could actually get a jumbo jet holding up in air without tearing it apart. It can withstand hundreds of tons of load
in full speed without breaking. The best silk producers are orb-weaving spiders. They have seven different types of silk
with different properties. We find dramatic differences there concerning
mechanics but also concerning other properties. Wanting to harness these characteristics led
to Scheibel’s breakthrough in genetically modifying bacteria to produce
spider silk proteins. This patented technology formed the basis
of AMSilk, the company Scheibel founded with a postdoc from his research lab, Lin Roemer. The bacteria we are using as working horse
are very simple organisms. They only try to grow. And we exploit that, we’re feeding them, we give them
perfect conditions to live and they multiply and multiply. And afterwards we change
their way of living, we give a trigger so
that they stop proliferating and they start producing our protein. After purification, we have the protein in
form of a white powder. AMSilk takes the protein powder, and spins
it into a fiber. So what you can see here is our spinning machine where we produce our Biosteel fiber, which is then transferred to the yarner, who can make the yarn
and later the fabric out of the material. The material is a vegan and biodegradeable
synthetic biopolymer. Rather than use the BioSteel
material in their own product, AMSilk wants to produce it for established brands, who have expertise. Adidas used it to create a concept shoe and Omega made a special edition watch strap. Airbus are also exploring how
it can be used in aviation. They know their product.
We develop together with them, the product has much higher quality in comparison to what we could do on our own. The company has raised millions in venture
capital, but producing enough of the material is the biggest challenge. As it is very thin you need a lot of
the fibre, in a normal sports shoe there are more than 170
kilometres of this fiber, processed into the yarn
and later the fabric of the shoe The company says it has made hundreds of
thousands of kilometres of fibre so far but scaling it up further will take time and money. But like the orb-weaving spider
which uses different silks for different parts of the web, AMSilk is putting the spider silk proteins
to use elsewhere. In the beginning we had this great innovation.
We had thousands of opportunities how to use that for industry. This was a beautiful problem. You can use it for different applications. Everyone had the experience when
he goes to the basement that there might be a spider’s web. If it’s an old house, it might be there for
hundreds of year and it’s not degraded. The question is why? Microbes have a big problem
sticking to the web. If you’re lost in the woods, get a web. You
can use it as a wound coverage device, you can wrap your food. You can actually prevent
your food for rotting for a few days. The material is a proteinaceous materials.
We are all made out of proteins and our body responds very good to the protein and that’s
very suitable for a lot of medical devices. We probably have more than 80 different variants
of silk molecules that we can play with. Some of them are very well suited for tissue
regeneration, some of them are absolutely the opposite. We’re really just at the beginning into understanding
how this material has evolved to actually feature different kinds of applications. That’s exactly what we want. AMSilk is building up production facilities
to make its material at mass scale. It’s hoping to capitalize on the product’s broad potential
and take a lead in an industry harnessing the best attributes of natural substances. We’re living in a time where materials
made from proteins will become more important every day.

How Bees Can See the Invisible


{music} Welcome to It’s Okay To Be Smart, I’m DOCTOR
Joe Hanson [cheering and music]. For bees and flower blossoms, springtime is
all about two things: feeding and fertilizing. See the flowers want to pass their genes on
to the next generation, and the bees need to eat so they can do the same. So they use
a little teamwork. But how do bees find flowers? And how do flowers find bees? What does a
bee see when they see one of these? For millions of years plants have evolved
to depend on insects and other pollinators to carry their genes on to the next generation. A flower is like a big neon sign they use
to say “land here!” In return for getting a helping hand in making
baby plants, most flowers offer up a tasty treat in the form of nectar. It’s like a dinner date, only you eat afterwards. Biologists call this kind of arrangement “mutualism”.
The flower gets to spread its genes, and the worker bee gets a sugary drink and packs her
knees with golden protein-rich pollen to take back to the thousands of hungry mouths back
at the hive. Everybody gets what they want. Flowers sure look pretty to us, but bees see
them in a completely different light. Literally. Not only do they see the world through these
compound eyes made of thousands of individual pixels, they see a world bathed in ultraviolet.
Way beyond what our eyes can see. We see this. And they see THIS. See, special pigments absorb the UV light
and they paint this big bullseye in the center of the flower, guiding the bee to the tasty
nectar and of course, that sweet, sweet pollination. Now the relationship between flowers and bees
goes way beyond the visual. Scientists from the University of Bristol recently discovered
that bees can sense a flower’s electric field. Just like when you run across a carpet in
your socks, bees build up a positive charge as they buzz through the air. And flowers
are slightly negative. This helps pollen jump from the flower to
the bee like electric velcro. It also helps the bee figure out if another worker has already
visited that flower and slurped up all the goodness. Now, nobody knows quite how the bees sense
that electric charge, but their fuzzy little bodies might be buzzing like your hair when
you rub a balloon across it. Now, evolution’s been playing matchmaker between
bees and flowers for millions of years, resulting in one of nature’s closest relationships. So next time you see a bee buzzing around
the garden on a warm spring afternoon, imagine how their world looks, and think about how
much of nature is invisible unless you see it through the right pair of eyes. Thanks for watching! Leave us a comment and
let us know if YOU have a question. Make sure to subscribe, and as always, stay curious
. . . and stop to smell the flowers.

Teens and Scientist Talk Ant Larvae

Teens and Scientist Talk Ant Larvae


I’m Adrian Smith I’m a biologist at the North Carolina Museum Natural Sciences and NC State and I’m going to be talking to a couple teens today about my new research on ant larvae. We’re going to three, two, one, clap. Oh, yeah! You have to do the hands… Hannah. Yes. let me show you this. Have you ever seen an ant that looks like that? No, that is disgusting. Yeah, so believe it or not that is an ant. That is so creepy. This is a picture from my new study and it’s a study describing the developmental stages of an ant, of three species of ants actually. We did this study because there are like 16,000 described species of ants. Like ants that have a name, right. We only know how many developmental stages an ant goes through before it becomes an adult for about sixty of those. So less than half of a percent. So what we did to actually do the study was make images like that it’s a scanning electron microscope image to sort of figure out if there’s certain body parts on unlock that distinguish a developmental stages from each other very cool okay so here we go oh my god yes so that believe it or not is larvae hatching from an egg so we start with the egg and then we hatched into this so this is the first instar larvae recall the developmental stages in stars what we found is actually like three stages of larval development so there’s three in stars so this is a second instar the second stage of larval development it looks sort of like the first but there’s and more complex hairs so all these little spires – you know our hairs and here’s what those hairs look like up close oh wow they’re really wrinkly at this stage of development do they what are they doing are they just sitting there and growing or until they do a do they move around or something yeah so that they are growing and they’re eating so larvae are the one things in the at content that can eat solid food they actually get their food place like right on their stomach and then they just bend their neck and start eating it right off their bodies Oh gross it’s really cool though yeah so one of the cool things that we describe for the first time is actually in this is in the first and second instar those things on its back are that the term that’s actually in the scientific literature is sticky doorknobs yeah so the other day like a gripping mechanism of some sort yeah exactly Wow here’s the close-up of it and they almost look suction cup and shaped like and that’s probably the purpose then yeah exactly the adult lance will actually take and pick up these larvae and stick them to the walls and ceilings of the nest and not to just like suspend them okay yeah and they lose the sticky doorknobs at the third stage the lobby sort of stretch out they lay all the way flat and then they get buried by their nest mate workers so the thing stretched out is varied and then what it does is it starts weaving a cocoon seriously yeah yeah I had no idea and winter rolls yeah they actually produce milk so they though I got you silk and we have a cocoon so the here’s the close-up of what that looks like nope whoa so like it’s just like as an ant inside of one of these sort of things or exactly that’s what it looks like inside of it that’s so creepy it looks like a snake is taking off his skin but it sounds okay doesn’t so that’s when they switched from from that that sort of larval form to an actual thing that might look start looking like an ant oh wow all right this is like the nicest and coolest pictures I’ve ever seen of ants so yeah that’s that’s sort of what we found okay but then I also try to think about like how is this sort of work this basic biology that’s like descriptive biology important like for society at large and that’s what I want to ask you okay think I mean I mean we see ants on like a daily basis for most part they live pretty much in our habitat in a way so I think being able to know so much about an animal that like you don’t have to go somewhere special to see pretty interesting for me you know up close they they look beautiful I think overall it would promote like appreciation for these amazing things in the natural world I see like looking through pictures of amps to be able a extremely interesting and it makes people who haven’t like learned about this stuff very and I feel like they would be interested as well and then they want to be more interested in stuff pertaining to science and let us have more scientists which will let us have a better capability of life I guess what this is great thanks for talking to me about thank you for asking me yeah I think we’re done

A Tiny Wasp, with a Big Evolutionary Secret to Tell

A Tiny Wasp, with a Big Evolutionary Secret to Tell


[Ellen Martinson] So, our study was done with the jewel
wasp, nasonia vitripennis, which is a parasitoid wasp and that means that
they inject venom into other organisms that changes the metabolism of that
organism so that it becomes a good environment for their young to be raised in. [Jack Werren] Parasitoids are a vast group of insects. Estimates of the number of species in the world range from 100,000 to up as
high as 600,000 and they play a very important role in keeping other insect
populations in check. [Ellen] You don’t actually know the function of venom until it’s injected into another organism and how it changes that organism and so when we
study wasp venom we can see these very close knit interactions of two different
species and see how those interactions evolve over time. In the past, most people
have attributed new gene functions to duplication and neofunctionalization
and that simply means that you have a gene and a gene has a function and then
the genes duplicates it changes into a new function. But the problem with that
theory is that it’s very slow and then if we’re looking at the time scale
we see with this wasp venom we’re seeing that that is happening much, much, much
faster. For example, to two of the species that we looked at are relatively closely
related. So they separated from each other only about 1 million years ago and
40% of their venom repertoire has changed in just that relatively short
period of time and when we saw that we realized that it couldn’t possibly be
described by duplication and neofunctionalization [Jack] Primarily what happens is a non-venom single-copy gene gets recruited and evolves the new function. It’s sort of
like it’s taking on a new job. it’s like they’re moonlighting. They have a day job
and now they’ve got a night job and the night job is being a venom and then the
question is what then happens next? Maybe the night job is more lucrative
and the gene evolves to become a venom specialist. Some of these genes actually
maintain both functions and then we even found that in some cases when a venom
gene stopped being a venom gene it appears to be going back to its day job.
This co-option method because it’s exploiting an existing gene can in
principle happen more quickly and therefore we think that this may be a
common process when organisms are subject to strong selection in a
changing environment. [Ellen] Venom research has important implications in medical research because venom is basically composed of metabolically active
compounds so these are things that will go into another organism and change a
gene or metabolite and venom in the past has actually been developed into new
pharmaceuticals and drugs [Jack] It has a vast potential resource for new drug discovery, which basically has not been explored at all. So I think
going forward that’s probably the largest implication of venoms and
parasitoids to medicine