How Can Spider-Man Climb While Wearing a Suit? (Because Science w/ Kyle Hill)


– Today’s episode is
sponsored by Puzzle Quest. (web shooting and grunting) Spider-Man has a problem. He’s supposed to be
able to do anything that a spider can and, yet, he
covers it all up with a suit. If a radioactive spider bit
you and gave you spider powers, why would you make a suit that covered up all of your spider hairs? You know, the thing
that lets you ‘spider’? I think there is a way around the suit’s stickiness problem and it’s with science. Duh. (light techno music) Uncle Carben. Here is the scene I’m talking about from the first Spider-Man film. In it Peter Parker grows tiny
barbed hairs on his hands, and presumably, his feet, and it’s implied that it’s those hairs that allow him to scale surfaces like a spider can. But, if that’s the case, wouldn’t putting a full bodysuit over all of your skin negate the effect that that hair produces? Yes, yes it would. But before we figure that out,
how do spiders climb stuff? Here is a tiny, poorly drawn spider. Now, enhance. (light clicking) Those little hairs on its feet that you can see with your own eyes what are on Tobey Maguire’s hands are called setae and they
are just micrometers thick. They are very, very small, but that’s not why spiders stick to stuff. Now, enhance again. (light clicking) At the end of every one of those setae are hundreds of spatulae. They are just nanometers
thick and the real reason why spiders can stick to stuff. And maybe how the Powerpuff
Girls’ hands work. Oh, gross! Let’s take a closer
look at those spatulae. These spatulae are so small, in fact, they are on the scale of individual atoms. And because they are so small, if you brought them close
to another set of atoms, like the atoms that make
up a wall, for example, there can be a weak electrical attraction. Because the electrons
that orbit the nucleii of atoms aren’t really like particles, they’re more like clouds of charge, if you bring two atoms
close enough together there is a chance those
charges, as they whiz around, will end up attracting each other, even though the atoms
themselves may be neutral. This is a weak force,
but it’s still something and it’s called the Van der Waals Force. Van der Waals forces are where most people trying to explain
Spider-Man’s stickiness stop. (web shooting) If you add up all the tiny interactions at the atomic level over the millions of spatulae that spider’s have, that explains how they stick to walls. Even the Marvel Handbook,
the official one, says something like this. Spider-Man enhances the
flux of interatomic forces on the surfaces that he touches, increasing the coefficient of friction between that surface and himself. The first part is, essentially,
Van der Waals forces and the second part is wrong,
but we’ll let that go for now. But we can go further. Do Van der Waals forces explain how a human-sized thing
could stick to a wall and does it solve the suit problem? If Spider-Man tried to climb
walls with actual spider hair, (squishing) it wouldn’t work. You may have heard of this study that came out a couple of years ago. It looked at a number of
different species to determine whether or not humans could
ever climb like spiders. It looked at 225 different species with Van der Waals
forces-enabled foot pads and concluded that across a
wide range of surface areas they were directly
proportional to the mass of that animal, from geckos to mites. The authors of this study
then extrapolated it to the body mass of humans
and, as you can see, the surface area would have to go way up. The authors concluded that you would need to devote a full 40% of your
entire body’s surface area to sticky Van der Waals pads in order to cling to a wall like Spider-Man. This is far more than we
ever see Spider-Man use. It’d be like if your whole chest was just one big spider foot and
you had to put your chest against a wall and kind of, like, shimmy around if you wanted to climb. And then you’d kind of look like a, like Slug Man, and no one wants to be Slug Man, or Snail
Girl, or Snail Boy. But all this doesn’t necessarily mean that Peter Parker can’t climb stuff. Another way to interpret
this study is that nature is focusing on surface area
and not actual stickiness of the Van der Waals pads
across a range of body sizes. So, what if Peter Parker, instead of having a lot of surface area, had abnormally sticky Van der Waals pads? That’s fine, it would get around that problem and we can’t
really speak to that, we’d have to invent some new biology. But, we still have the suit problem. Because Van der Waals
forces work on the scale of nanometers, any suit,
even if it’s very thin, would interfere with that interaction. And so, Spider-Man’s suit needs to be made out of material that is just as sticky as his abnormally sticky hands and feet. Do we know of any
material that can do that? If Spider-Man augmented his suit, just like he did with his web shooters, with science that we already have, he would be able to get
around the suit problem and climb just like a spider does. Looking to the stickiness of gecko feet, university researchers at Dayton, Akron, the Air Force and the Georgia
Institute of Technology have created a material
out of carbon nanotubes. A material so thin and so fine it has a Van der Waals interaction 10 times that of a gecko’s foot. And remember, the gecko is
basically the best at this. Time to do the math. If Peter Parker is 76 kilograms
and is under Earth’s gravity and the new material made
out of carbon nanotubes can support a hundred newtons of weight for every square centimeter, then Spider-Man’s suit would only need to devote seven and a
half square centimeters, in total, to stickiness. But is this enough? When Spider-Man is climbing
it looks like he’s only using his fingertips and,
presumably, his toe tips. So is there enough surface area across all of your fingers and
toes to hold you up? Well, given that each one of my fingertips is around three square centimeters, and I have 20 of those, I get nine. Which means that there is
nine times more surface area than you need to stick
to a wall like Spider-Man if you’re using this
carbon nanotube material. That means you could definitely climb like Spider-Man if your suit was using this material on just
fingertips and toe tips. In fact, you could climb a wall just like Spider-Man and hold your whole body weight on a
wall using just three… (squirting) Oh, oh! Three fingers. And also, Spider-Man’s skin would need to be this sticky to work. Eww, ugh, ehhhh, ehhhh! So how does Spider-Man climb
walls if he’s wearing a suit? Well, Peter Parker is a science whiz, he would know that the
nanoscale interactions that allow him to climb
a wall with his bare skin would be negated if a suit came in between a wall and his skin. So, what I think he is
doing is augmenting his suit with science just like how
he did with the web shooters. He has created a material
that goes on the outside of the suit that gives it
the adequate stickiness to give him super spider powers. Spider-Man can do anything a spider can. And so his suit has to, too. It just needs a little help. Because science. (webs shooting) (light techno music) Thank you so much for watching. Make sure to follow me
on Twitter @Sci_Phile where you can suggest
ideas for future episodes. And on Facebook and Instagram where I’m now posting mini-episodes, Amy. And if you want more silliness
check out one of my shows with my colleague, Dan Casey,
it’s very, it’s very weird. It’s called Muskwatch, that’s
all you need to know about it. And if you want something a
little bit more, ooh, premium, check out my new show on ProjectAlpha.com called the S.P.A.A.C.E Program. It’s like Cosmos had a
weird, long-haired baby with Mystery Science Theater 3000. Thanks. Special thanks to Marvel Puzzle Quest for sponsoring today’s episode. If you like Marvel and Match 3 Games check out Marvel Puzzle Quest, and homecoming is the perfect
time to start playing. No, I’m not talking about teens, I’m talking about Spider-Man Homecoming. An all-new five star Spider-Man
has been added to the game in celebration of the web
slinger’s upcoming film. Recruit Spidey and play
two all-new boss missions featuring the Sinister Six. Grab it on the Apple App
Store or Google play now. Thanks, Puzzle Quest. It’s not just about how
Spider-Man sticks to stuff, it’s also, if you’re
climbing, you think about it, it’s also how you unstick from stuff. Using that material that
we just went through he’d be able to do three points of
contact and climb just fine. He could hold onto the wall
with just three fingers. But how do you stick and then unstick? Well, the cool thing is the orientation of this material matters. If it’s at one angle it’s sticky
and it will stay on a wall. If it is at another angle,
it will just detach, that’s how gecko feet work. I mean, just using, (squirts) oh! Gotta stop. Gotta stop doing that. (techno jingle)

How Spider-Sense Works

How Spider-Sense Works


– This episode of Because Science is brought to you by Destiny 2: Forsaken. I have a confession to make, I’ve been trying to science
Spiderman for years now and every time I have
been asked to look into the so called Spidey-sense, I’ve dismissed it out of hand without ever really looking into it. And now that I have, I have to apologize. I was so wrong. Spiders have tarsal claws down some of the most amazing
senses of any organisms on this planet. If Peter Parker had spider senses, they would definitely make him amazing. Ooooohhhhh. Spiderman’s Spidey-sense
has been a part of Peter Parker’s webatoir
since the hero first swung into the pages of Marvel Comics all the way back in 1963. Since then, comics, movies and video games have depicted spider-sense
as a feeling or premonition that something is about to happen or that something,
somewhere is going wrong. It’s an almost magical sixth sense without a solid biological backing. Like I said, you don’t
have to look any further than real spider senses
to make Spidey-sense make sense, sense. So let’s ignore the
weird precognitive stuff in the name of science and give this power
that biological backing. Spiders and many other
terrestrial arthropods like crickets, have three
main sensory systems that could add up to
theoretically give a spiderperson a spectacular sense of their surroundings. Two of these systems use tiny hairs to detect touch and motion, tactile hairs and trichobothria. The third uses a fascinating little organ called slit sensilla. Let’s start with the tactile hairs, as they are the closest thing to a sense that we are familiar with. Oh you’re a big boy. The most common sensory
structures in the animal kingdom aren’t eyes or ears, they are hairs. Most of the human body is
covered in hair of some type and all of those hairs add up along with other receptors in your skin to give us an exquisite sense of touch. We can feel if even a
single hair is disturbed. Ooh, excelsior. We mostly hairless apes have about 60 hairs per square centimeter
of surface area of skin. Which makes our sensitivity
to physical disturbance, our mechanoreception, pretty good. Spiders though, are on another level. They have around 40,000
hairs in the same amount of surface area and they
have up to three nerves per hair for sensation,
whereas we only have one. Wow. Hey if you were that big, how are you even breathing right now, cause I’m pretty sure if
you scaled up your volume based on your… These thousands of spider tactile hairs, like human tactile hairs, will trigger a sensation in the animal if they are deflected a certain amount. Like pushing or pulling a simple lever. The threshold of force though
that will trigger a response from a spider is unbelievably small. A spider’s tactile hairs
will respond to a force less than half a micronewton. This is only five times more force than a hydrogen atom’s
nucleus puts on it’s electron. It’s hard to even conceptualize
how gentle that is. So if Peter Parker’s hairs somehow mutated along with the rest of his body to become as numerous as a spider’s hairs and acquired this kind
of extreme sensitivity, it would be the first part of
an impressive spider-sense. Sorry. From our perspective it
would be like he’s able to feel touches before they even happen. Sorry. Spider-like tactile hairs
would make Spiderman intensely attentive to touch, which would be a good place to
start for a real spider-sense especially considering that in the movies, we’ve seen Peter Parker
grow spider-like hairs. But spiders other senses
are even more impressive. They can feel things that
aren’t even touching them. The second spider sensing
system is trichobothria or hairs that feel for
fluid flow, like moving air. These hairs look like
the spiders tactile hairs and they’re even located
in the same place, but these are evolved to feel for even the slightest breeze and I do mean slightest. For example, trichobothria
are so sensitive, they can pick up the minute
atmospheric disturbances that a flies wings produce from up to a few body lengths away from a spider. This would be like you being
able to feel your friend wave at you from across the room. Oh he is friendly, that’s nice. This air-hair isn’t just really
responsive spider stubble, it is, as one review by
Freidrich G. Barth put it, one of the most finely
tuned biological sensors in all of nature. Modeling trichobothria as simple levers, scientists have estimated that the amount of energy
it would take to elicit a response from these
hairs is on the order of 10 zeptojoules. I’ve never even said that
prefix out loud before. This is in theory so little energy that a spider’s
trichobothria would respond to a laser pointer. It would respond to the pressure of light. Less friendly, ahh! One day, all the way back
in 1827, Scottish botanist and smart boy Robert
Brown, was looking through a microscope at pollen
particles suspended in water. What he saw was something like this. The pollen particles were
moving around randomly when he assumed they should be still. Cut to 78 years later and the
smart boy, Albert Einstein, publishing a paper that
described this motion. Einstein argued that the
pollen particles were being batted around randomly by
physical atoms and molecules in the water, moving around randomly. At that time, in 1905,
the physical existence of atoms and molecules
had not yet been proven. Einstein’s findings were
eventually confirmed and accepted and this
was one of Einstein’s first great contributions to science. Today the random motion
of atoms and molecules in a fluid is called Brownian Motion, in honor of Robert Brown. And I told you that
story to tell you this, spider trichobothria are, in theory, sensitive enough to feel Brownian Motion. To feel, against their
hairs, the individual impacts of atoms and molecules. This represents a spider-sense
that is an almost perfectly evolved material interaction
at the very edge of physics. Real trichobothria could
plausibly play a huge part of a real spider-sense. Being able to feel your enemies
move through the atmosphere at a distance would be a huge advantage but the last arachnoid sense
would take all of this biology from spider to super. The final component of a
spider’s sensory system are the slit sensilla, which are mechanoreceptory organs in the spider’s exoskeleton
that are unlike anything that we humans feel with. These organs sound fancy but
they actually are rather simple In the spiders legs, near the joints, there are rows of parallel channels where the exoskeleton
has been thinned out. If the spider’s leg moves or bends in response to some vibration or force in the substrate or ground
that the spider is standing on or touching, these slit sensilla will deform like accordions. By now, it should not surprise you that the amount of vibration
it takes to alert a spider is astonishingly small. Scientists have found that
these sensilla can alert spiders to forces near them that are as small as point zero one micronewtons. This is less than half a
percent the body weight of a single cockroach. That means, that if I were
to just take a single step I would…oh, I guess I’m…ahhhhh! Basically if a nearby force or vibration moves a spider’s legs at
all, it’s going to feel it. If I was moving around next to it, a spider about that size
would be able to feel if I caused it’s legs to bend
just a billionth of a meter but that’s so small it’s hard to visualize so let’s increase the spider size. Bigger. Bigger. Bigger. Bigger. Keep going! If that spider got big enough that it was over 100 kilometers across, that it could reach up
with one of it’s legs and touch space, it would still be able to
feel if any one of it’s legs deformed, literally that much. Just a single millimeter or a millimeter Parker. Argh. If whatever mutations Peter Parker got from that radioactive spider indeed enabled him to do whatever
a spider could do, then I think that using an
array of arachnid sense systems web-head could absolutely
approximate a sixth sense, at least as sensitive as
human eyesight or hearing. Slit sensilla scaled up to human size might be able to pick up
an approaching bad guy or at least a rampaging rhino. Trichobothria on Spiderman
might be able to pick up the minute atmospheric disturbances from an incoming projectile or even the pressure from the light of a gunman’s laser site,
which is ridiculous. Real spider senses operate at the limits of the physically possible and if that doesn’t
sound like super powers, I don’t know what does. So, how does spider-sense really work? Well I don’t think you
have to look any further than the arachnids themselves. Spiders have some of
the most delicate senses in all of biology and if Peter Parker had them, I think he could approximate
something like we see in the comic books and the movies. Of course, he would have to find a way to make those tiny hairs
work underneath his suit and sure, slit sensilla
are only in exoskeltons and not endoskeletons like we have, but being the science wiz that he is, I bet that Parker could
find a work around, because if he was truly a spider man, he would feel so good, Mr. Stark. Because science. Everyone gets one right, yeah! Oh, oh why is it hot? Oh it’s like al dente spaghetti. (techno music) So let’s say that you were
a more realistic version of Spiderman and let’s say
you were, I don’t know, in New York and a giant
spaceship appeared over New York, which would feasibly cause a
giant atmospheric disturbance, perhaps if your hairs
were like spider hairs they’d stand up on end like trichobothria. Oh wait, does that happen? Confirmed. Thank you again to Destiny 2: Forsaken for sponsoring this
episode of Because Science. Destiny 2: Forsaken introduces
new mechanics, weapons, gear and powers for all
the new Destiny players to rise up against the Cabal and take back what is theirs. Forsaken pumps up the chaos and mayhem to a whole new level
including nine, yes nine, new super abilities to choose from. Bring the pain down with
a new devastating hammer or throw flame daggers to
eviscerate your enemies or teleport around them and
release a monstrous blast and so much more. Another addition Forsaken
is bringing to Destiny 2 is the bow and arrow for precise
annihilation of your foes. Boost your character with new exotic gear to get that edge in the arena. All of this with new areas to explore, new raids and a brand new Gambit game mode makes this a must-have for all
hardcore Destiny 2 guardians. Pick up Destiny 2: Forsaken, right now. Thank you so much for watching, Celia. Thank you so much to Phil Torres for his help on this episode. He discovers new species
of spiders in the Amazon and I’m totally jealous. If you want more of me, check out nerdist.com or Alpha at projectalpha.com where if you go now you can sign up for a free trial, get this show two days
earlier than anyone else. If you are on Facebook, like this video. If you are on YouTube, like and subscribe and hit that notification bell because we get up to a lot
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also vlogs and live streams and if you want more social content, follow me and Because Science, here. Thanks! Whaaaaa!

What if a Radioactive Spider Bites You?


– We all know what
happened to Peter Parker but what would really happen to you if you were bitten by
a radioactive spider. Let’s get technical. (suspenseful instrumental music) The origin of Spider-Man starts all the way back in 1962 in the
panels of Amazing Fantasy 15 and in those panels
scientists are demonstrating to Peter Parker and his
class their amazing control over so called radioactive rays. The scientists throw the
switch on their machine but at the exact same
time, an unfortunate spider dangles down from the ceiling and absorbs a fantastic
amount of radiation. The spider then totally stressed out and in its death throes,
then Peter who then more or less immediately
gains superpowers. The origin story of spider
man has changed over the years but what would happen to you if you were in this same original situation? First, those 50 year old panels
got something exactly right. Spiders do not want to bite us. Whether it’s our evolution or our culture, we have a habit of blaming spiders, we think that they bite us all the time. Any unexplained bump or rash
has to be a spider’s fault. We just assume. But from spider statistics and behavior, we can say definitively, it’s
almost never a spider bite no matter what you think it is. For example, it’s always fun to joke that everything including
spiders in Australia want to kill you right? Oh g’day, got bit by a spider. But just guess how many people
have died from spider bites like that from the very
venomous funnel web spider in the last, let’s make
it interesting, 40 years, just guess for a second, I can tell you. It’s one. Contrast this tiny number with the number of people in the US alone each
year that are bitten by dogs, and suddenly spiders
don’t seem quite as nasty. Come here, come here you little spider. Come here, eh, get over here. Come here little spider. This isn’t to say that
spiders don’t bite people, they definitely do. It’s just that we seem to think
because of our spider bias that spider bites are much more common and much more dangerous
than they actually are. For example, most people are afraid of the brown recluse and Black Widow. No the more alive Black Widow. There we go. However, mostly thanks to
the development of antivenom, there have been almost
zero deaths combined between these two spiders
in the last few decades. In the United States,
there hasn’t been a death by Black Widow since 1983 if
you don’t include endgame. Not only are potentially
dangerous spiders rarely deadly, we are terrible and
identifying spider bites in the first place. For example, in a resent
study in Southern California which does have black widow spiders, out of 200 people who came in saying they definitely got bit by a spider, less than 4% of them
actually got bit by a spider. And this is consistent
across the literature. The vast majority of the time
we mistakenly blame spiders, it’s hard to even get statistics like this because of misreporting
and misremembering. Our inherent spider bias, it’s fine. It’s really fine. They’re they’re mostly fine. There you go. Adding to all of this, yes,
most spiders are venomous, but almost none of them can
physically bite into us, even if they wanted to. We have identified around 40,000 species of spider worldwide. Out of all these species how many of them do you think can both bite us, and have venom that is dangerous to us? Well, maybe you can sense a theme here, but it’s literally like 12. 12! Spider biters. The fact is most spiders on Earth do not have venom that is dangerous to us. And most spiders on Earth
do not have the chelicerae or pointing fangy mouth bits that are capable to deliver
that venom into our bodies. The Daddy Long Legs is
probably the biggest victim of this kind of misconception. They aren’t venomous in
the way they would harm us. They do not have fangs that
are big enough to make it into our skin and
they’re not even spiders, and yet we treat them like
they’re secretly super deadly. We need to get over our spider bias. Now go! Go hang on the bedroom
ceilings and wait to jump on their faces when they’re sleeping. It’s fine, they’re not even spiders. Spider-Man’s comic origins got it right. Spiders really do only bite
us in extreme situations. So let’s just say that against all odds a radioactive spider does bite you. What happens next? In the original comic
panels the infamous spider becomes radioactive when it accidentally finds itself in the firing
line of radioactive rays. Studies do show that
insects and arachnids can handle a lot more radiation than you or I could before dying. Somewhere between 30 and 1500 grays which is an increase of 10 to 500 times over what we can handle. So maybe a spider could absorb a fantastic amount of radiation. The question no one ever asked
of this scenario, though, is how does this spider
actually become radioactive? Now I know the scientist
in the original comic said radioactive rays. But what if I was just
fancy 60s comic speak for a beam of neutrons and I suggest this because neutron bombardment is the only common way
for otherwise normal stuff to become radioactive stuff. It’s called neutron activation. Very basically, neutron activation is the act of shoving neutrons into an otherwise stable atomic nucleus. This makes the nucleus
bigger and unstable. It wants to return to stability. So in order to do so
it throws off particles and radiation to get back
down to its unexcited state. It’s kind of like the
guy that you drive behind on the highway who tried
to stuff too much stuff in his trunk didn’t
secure all of it properly instead of just taking like two
seconds to secure all of it. Now he’s putting your
life in danger cause parts of it are falling down onto the highway and maybe breaking your windshield, and you don’t wanna stop
and pull over and call AAA, and you’re late to the dentist already. Sorry, all normal material can be neutron activated,
even spider material. You can in theory make
a spider radioactive through neutron activation. However, it’s not exposure
to the spider itself that changes Peter’s nerd bod. It is exposure to the spiders venom. And so the maximum dose of
radiation you could receive, or Peter, depends on
exactly how much venom a spider can inject into you. Take the Black Widow again,
it has dangerous venom, but not very much. The average bite from a Black Widow only imparts two hundreds
of a single milligram worth venom into its victim. Just a few sand grains worth of mass. So now let’s get technical. Let’s say our spider has a
black widow’s amount of venom and after it is irradiated,
that venom is somehow through maybe neutron activation, as radioactive is
something like plutonium, this is ridiculous as an assumption, but let’s say it happens anyway because this amount is so small, it has to be really radioactive or else nothing’s going to happen. Now the spider bites you
and you have 20 micrograms of radioactive venom coursing
through your bloodstream emitting alpha particles that is smashing into cellular structures
inside of your cells and punching holes in your DNA. If the venom stayed in your
bloodstream after a week you would have absorbed
the same full body dose that you’d want to absorb over
20 years in just one week. And after a month, you
start to notice some changes in your blood cell count
because now you have non-fatal but still totally really bad radiation sickness, yay. The reality is if a truly
radioactive spider bit you it either wouldn’t be radioactive enough to do anything to your body or it would be so radioactive
that just a tiny amount of its venom would start
taking a bone saw to your DNA. Oh yeah. And broken DNA doesn’t
give you superpowers. It gives you cancer. This is why later
interpretations of Spider-Man’s origin story leaned into a
genetically engineered spider with genetically engineering venom. And I know I may have just
not your hopes and dreams of being Spider-Man off of a tall bridge and you tried to save it
with a web but you couldn’t so maybe let’s take this question
in a different direction. What if you were bitten by the most radioactive spider in the world. If a radioactive spider had
the most radioactive venom it would become literally the
most toxic animal on Earth. When we say something is radioactive, like this ominous hunk of metal here, what do we actually mean? Well, you’ve probably
heard of half life, right? It’s the amount of time
it takes for half of a radioactive material to decay away. And if we know this amount of time and how many atoms are
in this hunk of metal, we can calculate how many
of those nuclear decay events happen every second, and the more that happened per second the more radioactive
something is, makes sense. For example, let’s say
that this hunk of metal is actually radium-226, an isotope radium. It would make this metal one of the most radioactive substances on Earth. If we had a kilogram of
radium-226 right here it would be throwing out
36 trillion particles every single second, and because these particles
carry ionizing energy, it is very dangerous to
stand right next to it. but it’s not the most dangerous. This is just a few
milligrams of polonium-210. It was discovered in
named after Poland in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by its extreme radioactivity alone. Here I have just a few milligrams of it, just a snowflake’s worth of mass and it still literally glows blue in air because the particles it’s
throwing off as a decays are ionizing the air around it. Polonium-210 isn’t the
most radioactive substance that we know of, but it
might be one of the scariest because the particles it’s throwing off carry very high energies. Those particles don’t travel
very far in air though, so you can stand about
this far away from it and you’d be fine. But if this got into your body, you’d now be in contact
with one of the most toxic substances on Earth. So let’s put it in our spider’s venom. The most radioactive spider on Earth is about to bite us during our field trip and inject us with a Black Widow’s worth of polonium-210 in liquid form. Wait for, math first, you know that. Spider-Man. We know the radioactivity of polonium-210. We know how much mass is going
to be in your bloodstream from the bite, and we know how much energy each one of those decaying particles will have and impart to your body. We are going to consider
what this does to you over the course of a day if
you have spider man’s mass. If you were bit by the
most radioactive spider after just a day you would absorb an entire body dose of three grays. You would feel nauseous, confused, you would start throwing up and, and then you, you lose all your hair. God. A week after being bitten by the spider you would have absorbed
a total of 23 grays, you’re going into shock, you’re
in and out of consciousness, your organs are failing. For context, the 100% lethal dose even with medical treatment
starts at eight grays. You are not waking up
with nerd abs after this. If our spider’s venom was as
radioactive as polonium-210, the amount of venom he would
need to inject into you to do something to your body in the form of definitely killing you would
be just a single microgram, less than a third the mass
of a single grain of sand. Polonium-210 is so
radioactive that it doesn’t really have any uses outside
of just being radioactive as a source of radiation
for heating up space probes in space with radioactivity
and being used as a, as a very potent poison. I guess though, it wouldn’t
put the venom in venom. So what would really happen to you if you were bitten by
a radioactive spider? Well, the comics got a lot right. You can in theory making
spider radioactive. Spiders only bite people
in extreme situations. And if a radioactive spider bit you, it could in theory do
something to your body, however, that something could
either be almost nothing, or so much that instead
of wall climbing powers and shooting webs out and stuff, you have the powers of
nausea and organ failure. Honestly, the most unbelievable part of Spider-Man’s origin story isn’t that radioactivity did
something to Peter Parker, it’s that a spider jumped to his hand and bit him in the first place. Because Science. To me, my spiders, all of you, yes. To their basements we go to
lie and wait in the dark. (upbeat electronic music) Neutron activation can
be a serious concern, especially if you’re working around things that emit radiation and emit neutrons, it can make things like
your workspace radioactive, I actually got this sticker which says caution radioactive material
potentially activated. I got this at a national laser lab, because what they do
there can actually emit neutrons into the surrounding environment and activate material so
they build most of the lab out of concrete and not steel, because steel can become
activated by these neutrons and then it can become radioactive and therefore workplace hazard and I have it on this mug because it’s probably not radioactive. Thank you so much for watching Dakota. If you want more of me
and Because Science, you can follow us on the
social media handles here and hey, you can suggest
ideas for future episodes. Sometimes I use them but often I do not and if you wanna check out
any of our other series that we’re doing, like the
Science of Mortal Combat, or Because Space, please go back to the
Because Science channel and check those out too. (upbeat jingle)

What’s in SPIDER-MAN’S Web-Shooters? (Because Science w/ Kyle Hill)

What’s in SPIDER-MAN’S Web-Shooters? (Because Science w/ Kyle Hill)


Alright you can stop with all the tweets and
the YouTube comments okay? Let’s look at the science of Peter Parker’s web shooters. Let’s stay out of the whole organic versus
mechanical web-shooter debate for now and focus on the silk itself first. Either way,
Parker is going to have to make this stuff. In the most recent reboot of the Spider-Man
films that totally won’t get rebooted again, Peter Parker creates his web-shooters by installing
readily available materials from Oscorp that mimic spider silk. Mechanically created or not, the secret to
spider silk’s strength comes in its structure. Spider silk is one of nature’s very finest
composite materials. Silk spinning spiders produce their silk by
extruding proteins out of spinnerets located near their backside. These spinnerets are like cones covered in
hundreds of smaller and even tinier cones. And out of these is what comes the protein
slurry or what’s called the dope, because it is. Now here’s the part we don’t fully understand.
As the protein dope comes out of the spider’s’ spinnerets, it’s produced in such a way
so that the silk produced has an outer sheathe that is a hard, crystalline structure and
the inner part of the silk is more gooey kind of like the dope itself. This combination of compositions is what makes
spider silk so strong. If Peter Parker, who was apparently some kind
of science whiz, could harness Oscorp’s mixture or make his own, then he might be
able to shoot out silk from his mechanical web-shooters in the same way that a spider
does with dozens and hundreds and thousands of miniature spinnerets. And, it could even
take his weight if it came out at a thickness of maybe 1 millimeter or so. That covers mechanical web shooters, but what
about the organic kind like those in the original Spider-Man film? As in all the comics and movies, the source
of Peter Parker’s power comes from a bite of a radioactive spider, which changes his
body in a few key ways. It gives him “spider sense” and super human strength and agility. The bite also gave Peter new organs on his
wrists that were able to produce silk in the same way that spider spinnerets do. How likely
is this? Well, considering that we can genetically engineer goats to produce spider silk proteins,
it’s not that crazy to think that a genome-warping spider bite might be able to give Parker the
same ability. Now let’s make this silk worthy of a superhero. A few months ago, scientists tried spraying
down spiders with our own super materials to see if their silk would get stronger. The scientists took a few groups of spiders
and then sprayed them down with a water-based mixture of either graphene or carbon nanotubes. Some of the spiders died and some of the spiders
produced silk that was actually weaker than normal, but SOME of the spiders sprayed down
with the carbon nanotubes somehow incorporated it into their own silk and produced strands
that were up to three times stronger. This is what Peter Parker could do if he still
had access to something like Oscorp Labs — he could incorporate carbon nanotubes into his
own special web-shooter mix or he could take a bunch of them and dilute them in water and
drink gallons of the stuff, try not to die, that sounds like a plan. Oh, and one more thing. There’s nothing
about Spider-Man that is unique to spiders! Something like geckos have hairs on their
feet that let them stick to stuff and there’s no such thing as a spider sense unless you’re
actually on a web and spiders aren’t particularly strong for their size why Because Science
and another thing you know what doesn’t— Want more science? Check out my last video
on how Quicksilver can listen to music. Subscribe to Nerdist for more videos. If you want Because
Science two days earlier than anyone else, head to Vessel at vessel.com/nerdist and as
always if you have any comments or questions hit me up in the comments section below. Thanks!

Can a Magnifying Glass Destroy Ant-Man?

Can a Magnifying Glass Destroy Ant-Man?


– Would Ant-Man’s worst enemy actually be this simple magnifying glass. Let’s get technical. (intense orchestral music) Ant-Man was one of the founders of the Avengers in the comics, and now as part of the MCU, has been a part of some of the largest skirmishes
across the universe, but as far as I can tell, he has never had to face off against one of these. Aside from helping Grandma
Reed and Sherlock find clues, you probably know that a magnifying glass can concentrate the sun’s
power to burn stuff. And if you too were once a
child filled with regret, you know that it can burn ants, but would the same
thing happen to Ant-Man? (upbeat electronic music) (blows on flames) (chuckles) Woozy. First of all, how do magnifying
glasses magnify stuff? The magnifying glasses that
you are most familiar with are just convex lenses, lenses
with this shape, on a stick, and what those lenses do
is bend, or refract light, as the light passes through it, and the light interacts with the glass. For example, these parallel
rays of light get bent and then focus into the
focal point of this lens. This bending, this
refraction, is what allows for magnifying glass magnification. For example, here is
a diagram of some rays of light coming form a
small object in front of our magnifying glass and
in front of the focal point on the other side of the magnifying glass. You can see here we still
have parallel lines of light that get bent through the lens and down through our
focal point on our side, and you have a line of
light coming through here through the center of the lens, and it gets bent one way, but then equally back the other way, so nothing really happens to it. Now, if I was an observer looking through this magnifying
glass at this object, what would I really see? When we see light, our
brains have evolved to assume that that light is traveling
to us in straight lines even if that’s not really what happened if there were some weird physics going on. And so, when we look
through a magnifying glass, what we see is not the
actual image of the object, but rather, a virtual image
that our brain creates, assuming that the light coming to us is from straight lines of
light and nothing bent. We assume that the light
that we are seeing must be coming from a bigger object, and so we see a bigger object. Now, you are never gonna get this close to something like the sun
with a magnifying glass here or else, you know, (flame
whooshes) you’d be on fire, but distance is why a magnifying
glass can create fire. (flames roar) If you could somehow travel
right up to the surface of the sun and then chart all the paths that all the photons of light shooting out of the sun were taking,
you would see photons of light shooting out every
which way in every direction, but when they get to earth, these rays of light appear
more or less parallel. Why? If the earth was right next to the sun, yes, it would be on
fire, but also the rays of light hitting the earth from the sun could differ by very large angles. But we’re not right next to the sun. We’re a full eight light minutes away. A 150 million kilometers. So even if those lines of light originate across the surface of the sun, because of this immense distance, because we are such a tiny
target relative to the sun, when those lines of light get to us, they start to look more and more parallel. This cosmic happenstance
is why on earth we are able to nicely focus sunlight down to a tiny point with
our magnifying glasses. If we were closer to the
sun with less parallel light that doesn’t nicely go through our focus, then it wouldn’t work as well, and (fire roars) we’d be on fire again. When basically parallel rays
of light come down from the sun and pass through our magnifying glass, they are focused down, not
to a small, single point, but to a tiny image of the sun, so now we are getting technical. How hot can this image of the sun get? Well, let’s go inside and find out. (groans) If you somehow found
yourself in the focal point of a magnifying glass,
that tiny image of the sun would now appear as a
huge sun in your sky, as if the sun was now closer
to you and to the earth because more sunlight is now hitting you than otherwise would. The intensity therefore,
the power per unit area inside of the focal point of a magnifying glass increases
dramatic, dramatically. The hottest it could get in here then is if we had a perfectly built lens that somehow focused
light, such that no matter what direction I look, not just up, I would see a giant image of the sun. All directions pointed back to the sun. And think about that for a second. The only other place I
can get that kind of view is if I was in the surface of the sun. The hottest the focus
of a magnifying glass can get, therefore, is the temperature of the source of the light. In our case, the sun and
its surface, which is hotter than the melting point
of any known material. This property of magnifying
glass focal points is also why, for example, you
can not focus moonlight down to a point hot enough to burn stuff. The moon just isn’t hot enough. (buzzing) Even if your magnifying
glass can’t create surface of the sun temperatures, it
can still certainly get hot enough to burn stuff in its focus. So now, what about Ant-Man? Let’s set up our question. If Ant-Man literally
shrunk down to the size of an actual ant, could
you vaporize him completely with your run of the mill magnifying glass like you may have done when you were a kid with actual ants, but now
you’re filled with regret, and you wish that your
moral reasoning skills were as developed as your
curiosity at the time. (gasps for breath) Well, grab a ruler, and your magnifying glass. We’re headed to earth. What is the power of your
average magnifying glass? Well, I have an average
magnifying glass right here. It is small, cheap, you can
buy it just about anywhere. Sunlight, which this magnifying
glass has to concentrate, after it travels from the
sun, through our atmosphere, down to the surface of our planet, has a power of about a 1,000
watts for every square meter. So to know how strong this is gonna be in terms of burning, we
need to know how much this lens is going to
concentrate those 1,000 watts. So now, we need to measure
the area of this lens, the area of the tiny image
of the sun that it creates, and also, the focal length. I measure the focal length
of the magnifying glass and use this equation to
get an area for the image of the sun that it makes,
and the circle symbol there is just the angular diameter
of the sun from earth. I then measure the area
of the magnifying glass to be about 54 square centimeters. When you divide these two areas, you get our concentration factor, which for this specific
magnifying glass, is 1,560. Over 1,500 times the
intensity of normal sunlight. So, inside our focus, the
intensity of sunlight goes from a kilowatt per unit area to over a megawatt in the same space. If the conditions out here were perfect, we could theoretically get the focus of this magnifying glass up
to hot enough to boil lead. We do not have perfect conditions, but we can still burn stuff. And remember, there isn’t
actually any power increase here with the magnifying glass. What we were doing is
just taking more sunlight and focusing it down into a small space. It’s kinda like the
difference between stepping on a bed of nails and just a single nail. One is a lot more intense
even though the force from your foot is the same. We can still, though, burn
paper and other material with this magnifying glass, which means we’re reaching temperatures of at least 500 kelvin,
or 440 degrees Fahrenheit. The question now is would
Ant-Man suffer the same fate? That depends on exactly
how Scott Lang’s suit works and a whole bunch of ant math. For our hypothetical,
we are going to assume that Scott Lang shrinks down to the size of your average ant, and then we bring the focus
of our magnifying glass down on top of him. What happens next? Well, there are actually heat equations that can give us some idea. We want a complete defeat
and vaporization of Lang, so here we can start to rearrange
this heat energy equation to get the time it would take to do so. If it’s a few seconds, then it’s probably an effective weapon. If it takes longer than
that, probably not. The total heat energy Q needed to raise Scott Lang’s temperature
enough to vaporize him can also be thought of power times time. So we can rearrange this
equation to solve for time. So now all we have to
do is assume some masses for Scott Lang when he’s ant size, get the intensity that we measured from our magnifying glass, and then figure out how much power is actually hitting Ant-Man’s
scaled down surface area. Do all of this math,
and you get the time it would take to vaporize Ant-Man using our actual magnifying glass that we just measured and evaluated, and I get 3.3 seconds. In just seconds, Ant-Man
would vaporize and be no more. And this time value is even
confirmed by experiment if, you know, you were ever
a kid and you spent a lot of time, you know, burning ants and they were (mumbles)
– Why Kyle? Why did you do this to us? How could you do this to me and my family? – I was just a boy I didn’t know (overlapping voices) – Whoa. I almost didn’t make it out of that one. I know that we just said
that you could defeat Ant-Man in just a few seconds
with a magnifying glass, but that cannot be our full conclusion because Ant-Man’s powers are weird. It flip flops in the movies,
but it is often implied that when tiny, Scott Lang keeps his mass. In other words, he wouldn’t go down to a few milligrams at ant size. He would keep his many
dozens of kilograms instead and be literally millions
of times more massive. If we keep everything else the same, but now assume that somehow, when small, Ant-Man keeps his man mass, the time it would take to
vaporize him goes to 4.1. Years. With any kind of heat loss from the suit, which he would need if
he was always shrinking and enlarging, this
immense time values means that basically, this won’t happen. There could be some damage
from a magnifying glass, but certainly, no defeat. Even if Ant-Man had just
a few milligrams of mass when tiny, there is
still a fairly simple way around (overlapping voices)
death by magnifying glass. Leave me alone!
– How could you do this to us? – The focal point of a magnifying glass is very focused, duh, and so Ant-Man, just outside of the focus, would be fine. Even if he couldn’t move,
all he would have to do is shrink or enlarge himself a little bit and it would be outside of the focal point and seriously minimize
the intensity of it. For example, the focus of this definitely scary
two square meter lens is at over half the temperature
of the surface of the sun, and yet you can get very close to it with nothing bad happening to you. Inside of the focus, sure, instant fire, but out side of the focus, you’re fine. Ant-Man could avoid defeat in
this way with a simple shrink. So, could the humble magnifying
glass defeat Ant-Man. Well, it depends on exactly
how his powers are working from moment to moment, but there is a plausible interpretation where if he keeps his man mass at small sizes, no, you could not vaporize him like an ant underneath the focus. Of course, you could come up
with some elaborate set up and trap him and put a
huge lens over top of him and put a gigajoules worth of energy into his body in a few seconds, but at this point, this
is extremely complicated, and you’re like a super villain now, and there are simpler ways to go about it. The magnifying glass was
supposed to be simple. At the very least, we did
get to shine some light on a pretty fun question. (In a higher pitch)
Because science (screams). You did it. (upbeat electronic music) Keep in mind we’re
evaluating this scenario in a very straight foreword,
brute force kind of way. We’re assuming Ant-Man
to be like a barrel. Like a 70 kilogram barrel of water. Just water. So, if you think about it, if you held our smallish magnifying glass at that barrel of water,
you have an intuitive idea that it would never fully
vaporize the full barrel of water. It would lose heat. It just wouldn’t get
hot enough, fast enough, but if you had just a tiny
tiny, a single drop of water, like would be in an ant, for example, you can imagine that it would burn it up a lot faster, so that’s what we’re getting at. We assumed everything was water, and what would it do to a water person. And, if it had even a larger capacity, being flesh and bone and everything, it would take even longer, so either way, if Ant-Man’s powers work
in this kinda weird way, I don’t think you could magnify him. But, don’t count him out cause his effect on the MCU is magnif– (sighs). Thank you so much for watching, Alexandra, and thank you to Dan Casey
for suggesting this episode. If you want more of me, or
us, you can suggest ideas and follow all of our
nerdy whatever we’re doing (chuckles) at these
social media handles here, and the first few
episodes of Because Space are live on the Because
Science channel with Dr. Moo. You’re gonna want to check them out. We got celebrity guests. Oh we got fun topics. We got it all. Please go and share your comments there. You thought I was gonna
say bye, didn’t you? I didn’t. (electronic music)

Ant-Man VS. Thanos’ Butt: The Science

Ant-Man VS. Thanos’ Butt: The Science


– [Kyle] Could Ant-Man defeat Thanos by… Uh, flying into his butt? Dread it. Run from it. The memes still arrive all the same. And now, they are here. Or should I say, “Science is here.” The Avengers have proven
they are willing to do whatever it takes to save the universe. So, could Ant-Man defeat
Thanos by flying into his butt? Yeah, we’re doin’ it. (exhales) You did this to me. Alright, so it’s time to
ask the cheeky questions. There’s been a meme going
around for months now that the easiest way to defeat
Thanos in Avengers: Endgame is for Ant-Man to fly
up into Thanos’ butt, expand to Giant-Man
size, and then I guess, explode him from the inside out. The idea is gaining so much traction that people are actually
asking Paul Rudd about it, and surely he has more
promotional things to do. So in the grand tradition of this program, let’s take this ridiculous
situation absolutely seriously and try to figure out
what would really happen in a battle between Scott
Lang and intes-Titan. (laughs)
C’mon, that was pretty good. First, obviously, having
someone or something enter your body and then
expand to human size or greater and explode you would be an absolutely horrible way to die. But Thanos does not have to explode for this Ant-Man move to kill him. If Ant-Man really entered Thanos’ colon, I told you we were gonna take
this absolutely seriously, then all he would have to do is perforate the bowel tissue, or tear through it. Bowel perforation is an
extremely serious injury, and that’s because many
different species of bacteria live inside your guts alongside of you, doing beneficial, sometimes harmful, and sometimes neutral things. But if they get out into your
surrounding body tissues, they can cause deadly infections. The mortality rate from
this kind of injury is somewhere between, according to the literature, 11 and 81%. So, if Ant-Man just
perforated the colon tissue, that might be enough to defeat Thanos. Our next question is, then, can Ant-Man get into angry Grimace’s butt? This is an easy one. If Ant-Man can access with
his suit the so-called quantum realm, which is the universe on the very smallest scales, he should be able to easily
move between the spaces of, say, clothing fibers
on the millimeter scale, and even skin cells of organisms
on the micrometer scale. The Ant-Man suit has
allowed the user to pass in between the metal atoms
of a missile’s casing, so I think Ant-Man could
surely get into that boo– Alright, so now Ant-Man
is inside Thanos’ butt. Now what? If we think about this
question more deeply because I guess we have
to now because internet, it can’t be as simple as
Ant-Man just expanding and that’s it for Thanos. And that’s because when
Ant-Man is usually expanding he’s only pressing outwardly
on the air around him, and we can do that right now, air isn’t very heavy,
and so it doesn’t provide much resistance to outward motion. This though, this is Titan colon. Surely, Titan colon from
an alien, superstrong, supervillain, ultimate-being
person must provide more resistive force to
the expansion of Ant-Man than air would. How strong, though, is purple butt? These, these are the
questions we must answer. Now, we have to
approximate just how strong Thanos’ colon is and how
hard Ant-Man can push on it to complete this anal-ysis. What a quantum-mechanically-powered thief can do to a reality-wielding alien’s butt is an extremely complicated question, but I think that we can still roughly approximate what’s going on. Imagine that we have a section of the colon in question here that Ant-Man will be expanding in. What we really wanna know is what will the forces and the stresses be as Ant-Man expands in this colon tissue, and will that stress
overcome the so-called ultimate tensile strength of this tissue? We are doing very important
butt science here, so of course, as you
know, we will be using the Young-Laplace equation for estimating the hoop stress created by the pressure in a cylindrical pressure
vessel with thin walls, with the colon being the pressure vessel and Ant-Man supplying the pressure. (laughs) Duh. If you look at the equation, the tensile forces involve
what we’re looking for on the colon tissue will be
dependent on the pressure that we have to find for Ant-Man, what he’s pressing on with, the radius of the colon and the thickness of the colon’s walls. We will get back to this equation once we have all the numbers that we need to compare to the
ultimate tensile strength of colon tissue. One interesting thing
to note while we’re here is that according to these equations, it is much easier to inflate
a section that is spherical than it is to inflate a
section that is cylindrical, which is why (blows) it’s much
harder to inflate a balloon at the beginning and it
gets easier as it gets, ya know, bigger.
(squeaks balloon) If the tension created in
the walls of Thanos’ colon by Ant-Man’s expansion exceed
the ultimate tensile strength of colon tissue, then obviously
the colon will rupture and this Ant-Man move
will work as per the meme. According to actual scientific studies on the strength of human colon tissue, yep, we found that study, human colon tissue and it’s
ultimate tensile strength sits somewhere between the
ultimate tensile strengths of human muscle and human
skin, at .9 megapascals, or .9 million newtons per square meter, to rupture this colon material. Now what’s important for
us is that .9 megapascals isn’t all that much in the scheme of ultimate tensile strengths. For example, a balloon has mor– (balloon deflates) A balloon’s rubber has more. Okay, so now we have an equation to calculate the stress
in up past Thanos’… Th-anus, and we have the
ultimate tensile strength of human colon material,
which we can compare to Titan colon material. Now though, we butt up
against our biggest problem. How much pressure does Ant-Man push on the surrounding material
with when he enlarges? Is it so much that he forces
material out of the way, or is it not enough so he just conforms to the surrounding material? This is very important. We have to solve this, butts depend on it! This is where we have to start making some serious ass-umptions
because the movies aren’t very clear on exactly
how Scott Lang’s powers work. Does Ant-Man actually push
on stuff when he enlarges? That makes or breaks this meme, and the movies aren’t very clear on this. For example, sometimes
Ant-Man is enlarging through the dirt, forcing
that dirt out of the way, which is obviously some amount of force. Other times though, he
gets caught expanding inside of a room, like the room itself is keeping him from expanding further, like our Thanos colon might. Other times, whole buildings are expanding with Pym particles,
obviously pushing stuff out of the way with some force, but then other times Ant-Man is expanding into a punch like he’s providing no force of his own at all. Paul Rudd doesn’t even know
how to approach this question, and he’s Ant-Man. – I don’t know!
I don’t know. – I surveyed every single
shrinking or enlarging of Ant-Man or The Wasp in
the entirety of the MCU and found that, more often
than not, it is implied that enlarging provides
some kind of force. Okay, but how much force? I think the best example
and most straightforward one might be this, when The Wasp uses her car and Pym particles to launch an SUV. In that scene, the SUV
looks like it’s launched at around a 45-degree angle and spends a full two seconds flying through the air. Now in that scene, the car specifically is a 2000 GMC Yukon XL. Yes, we must get this specific. If we assume that this car gets a rough parabolic trajectory
during this launch, which I think is a reasonable assumption, then we can use the equations
for parabolic trajectories to solve for the initial velocity needed to give this car this kind of motion. Then, we can plug that
initial velocity value into the work-energy equation to see just how much force
applied over what distance it will take to move the
car from zero velocity in the direction of launch
to the initial velocity we just calculated for the parabol– just a second. Do all of this and we get a force imparted to the SUV from The Wasp’s
car of a little over 100,000 newtons, almost done, butt math! The Wasp’s car in this scene, I checked, is a 2010 Mercedes-Benz Sprinter, the dimensions of which
you are seeing right now. I think it is a reasonable
assumption to think that this force is being applied over every square inch
of the roof of the car, because that is what
is pushing on the SUV, and if you do that, divide the force value by the dimensions of this 2010
Mercedes-Benz Sprinter roof, then you get a pressure value
of 2.5 pounds per square inch that Pym particles are
allowing that Sprinter to push on the SUV with. Because Ant-Man is using the same Pym particle pushing power, I think that this, this
is our pressure value. Whew, okay so now we have
everything we should need to take this meme way too seriously. So, Ant-Man shrinks. He moves past fabric, past skin cells, and into Thanos’ colon. He then enlarges with Pym particles with 2.5 pounds of force
acting across every square inch of his body, and therefore
against the colon walls. Using even more butt studies to get a range of dimensions for colon radii and colon thickness, and we get a tension in the walls of Thanos’ colon of… 0.2 megapascals, or… over four times less than the ultimate tensile strength
of human colon tissue. Now, before we conclude,
let’s just check our numbers with a different source. According to another butt
study from 2016, entitled Rupture of the Sigmoid Colon
Caused by Compressed Air, I quote, “The average
pressure needed to cause “full thickness tearing of
the human gastrointestinal “tract is 0.29 kilograms
per square centimeter.” Can you do the conversion in your head? That’s okay, I can. The average PSI needed to
rupture the human colon is 4.12, or a full 60%
more pounds per square inch than we calculated
Ant-Man would be pressing on Thanos’ colon with. And so, if our assumptions,
estimations, and calculations are reasonable, no,
Ant-Man would not be able to just fly into Thanos’
colon, expand, and defeat him from the inside out. Thanos’ colon would be
strong enough to resist the continued expansion of Ant-Man, and so this meme wouldn’t work. And this is especially
true if Thanos’ colon is much stronger than human butt, which surely, it must be. This meme now has to be done and dusted. So, could Ant-Man fly into
Thanos’ butt and expand as a way of finally
defeating the Mad Titan? Well, if our assumptions and calculations are close to correct, no,
he wouldn’t be able to. The movies don’t really
give any good indications that Pym particle expansion comes along with any real amount of force. The most straightforward
example that I could find in the films does throw a car, sure, but if you take that
force and distribute it across the surface area of Scott Lang’s relatively smaller
body, it doesn’t produce butt-bursting pressures. In reality, if Ant-Man tried this meme, he would be stuck inside Thanos’ colon, the size of Thanos’ colon, and this surely has to be worse than being
stranded in the Soul Stone. Let’s turn that into a
meme, butt-cause, science. Oh, I guess you could say that Ant-Man wouldn’t have rekt-um. You know, I have more butt puns, if you want them, here’s another one. (electronic music) I know on the face of it, it sounds maybe a little ridiculous that
a human wouldn’t be able to enlarge past and get out of something that has a rubbery tensile strength, like you wouldn’t be able
to get out of a balloon. However, look at people actually trying to get out of balloons after they do a dumb internet challenge. You can be easily constrained and trapped inside something that has
colon-like properties, so I don’t think it’s as
ridiculous as it seems on its face. Thank you so much for watching, Christina, if you want more of me
and you want to suggest ideas for future episodes, please follow us here at
these handles on social media. Also, the fourth episode of
The Science of Mortal Kombat is now live, we are nearing to a close, and whoa, that last one, hey, we really made that
guy get over here, huh? If you haven’t seen it, you’re
gonna wanna check it out. Thanks. (electronic music)