The Jagged Ambush Bug – Secret Killer

The Jagged Ambush Bug – Secret Killer


Hey you guys doing? Chris Egnoto here, and you are watching Nature
Now! So, I know it’s the winter months, but I still
have some warmer weather topics to share with you guys. So without farther ado, here’s a cool little
creature I am sure will impress you. Let’s get started. Picture this: You are taking a slow and quiet
stroll through your local park. It’s a warm September afternoon accompanied
by a soft breeze, carrying with it the songs of some bird who’s name you do not know,
but his song is lovely. You happen upon a nice goldenrod meadow. This meadow is filled with all sorts of vibrant
colors. The greens of summer grasses, the fuchsia
of knapweed and numerous arching stems filled with pink and magenta from various flowers
ready to make their seeds. The meadow is dominated by the warm rich yellow
of the goldenrods. You see a honeybee going about it’s duties
and peak a little closer to appreciate all her hard work. Just as you get ready to snap a photo with
your phone POOF! something has happened. The bee is now on its side and moving rather….un
bee like. The flower has grabbed onto it. No This is no flower. It is some strange alien composed of greens
and yellows and maybe even a little pink. You are witnessing non other than the stealthy
and formidable ambush bug. The silent assassin of the summer meadow. These insects are members of a group of insects
known as Assassin bugs (family Reduviidae),and are among the few who can officially claim
the name “bug”. Such a lovely fright these creatures are! Not very large, having short, stout bodies
which makes them unique among the assassin bug group. To humans they can often be a beneficial insect
at times, but a nuisance at other times. While they feed on insects such as hoppers,
thrips and other insects that can harm garden plants and vegetables, they sometimes feed
on beneficial insects such as bees and even other assassin bugs. Although to humans, ambush bugs are not much
of a threat and are in fact, a welcome visiter to our gardens. Both the juveniles sporting their little wing
buds and THE adults are insect predators. I have never been bitten or pinched by one,
and I don’t fear that I ever will be. And they’re not actually that big reaching
about half an inch at most. Lets talk about their “tools of the trade”. Obviously, you may gather that their adornment
is their first weapon, and rightly so. They wear such impressive camouflage that
I have had trouble getting other people to see them while pointing directly at them. Like many assassin bugs they blend in so well
with the environment they inhabit that there is no need to improve this design. Along with their color, they have little projections
on their body, perhaps resembling the ends of maybe flower petals or leaf buds. There is even a species in the family that
wears the carcasses of its defeated prey on its back like some shroud or trophy of the
macabre, some day, I hope to have footage of THAT species. Once in a while, a little head bobbing might
catch your eye, but thats it. They will sit so still that a prey item might
even walk on their face or back and even then, the ambush bug will sit patiently still. Not until something tasty comes and entices
it, and everything lines up just right, do you see movement. This can occur in two ways. It might slowly approach its victim to within
striking distance, or more often than not, it might wait until its food source is directly
in front of its face. Then….with a flash! it snatches it up. With the speed of a kung fu guru, it lunges
out with its modified front legs and grasps its prey. The insect never saw it coming. These forelegs are wonderful hunting tools. The fore tibia (front half of the legs) are
thin, curved hooks, complete with tiny teeth or spines for gripping. The fore femora (the half of the leg closer
to the insects body) is swollen with muscles used to snatch and restrain their prey mercilessly. These legs resemble the forelegs of a more
popular insect known as the praying mantis or even the mantidfly and clearly show that
through necessity, evolution can often take on similar solutions to best suit the situation. That’s not all though. Now comes the true assassins weapon – a deadly
elixir. Ambush bugs (and most assassin bugs) harbor
a powerful venom for subduing their prey. After it has caught its food it will extend
its pointy “beak”, which when at rest, will be tucked into a groove under its face
and between the forelegs. It will pierce its victim with this beak and
inject a paralyzing concoction that often begins the digestive process before the bug
even starts to feed. The beak is, in essence, a straw. This “straw” will be used to suck the
insides out of the insect it has just hunted. When all is done, it just discards the hollow
husk a lot like a kid might do with an empty sandwich wrapper after lunch. The ambush bug, together with its combination
of stealth and cunning, powerfully adapted hooked front legs, and its immobilizing saliva
is an amazing addition to the hunters out there in the invertebrate world. I am so glad that ambush bugs are not something
us humans will ever have to look over our shoulders for. So, I really hope you guys like this video
and in the future I will probably have a more in depth video with more detail and stuff
but we will have to wait for that one. I hope you guys enjoyed this video and next
time you are in a meadow, keep your eyes open and maybe you will see an ambush bug for yourselves. Thanks a lot for watching, once again I am
Chris Egnoto; singing out. Thanks a lot for watching and remember if
you like this video, be sure to check out this video over here that YouTube has selected
specifically for YOU based on your watch time. And don’t forget to hit that SUBSCRIBE button
but you gotta click the bell icon, because if you don’t, YouTube will never let you know
when a new video of mine comes out. Remember passion inspires spirit!

You’re Not Hallucinating. That’s Just Squid Skin. | Deep Look

You’re Not Hallucinating. That’s Just Squid Skin. | Deep Look


Cuttlefish… octopuses… and squid have
an almost otherworldly ability to control their appearance. What makes it possible are these spots. They’re called chromatophores. They’re
like tiny water balloons, filled with colored pigment. When the balloons expand, you see more pigment,
more color… When they contract, the color shrinks to a
tiny dot. The overall effect can be really dramatic. And for good reason. These animals don’t have protective external
shells. They’re unarmored. Naked. And they aren’t great swimmers, either. Camouflage is their best defense. They have
to be good at it. Octopuses can change their body position and
the pattern on their skin to match rock or coral. Octopuses and cuttlefish can even change the
texture of their skin to throw off predators. Become bumpier and more rock-like. But squid often live in the open ocean. How
do you blend in when there’s nothing — except water — to blend into? They do it by changing the way light bounces
off their their skin — actually adjust how iridescent their skin is using light reflecting
cells called iridophores. They can mimic the way sunlight filters down
from the surface. Hide in plain sight. So how do they control all this color change? Is it voluntary or some kind of built in reflex? That’s what researchers at Stanford University
wanted to know. So…they anesthetized the squid and then
snipped the nerve from the the brain that controls the chromatophores, but only on one
side of the animal. The brain essentially couldn’t send messages
to the tiny muscles that control those chromatophores anymore. … almost like turning off a light switch. But after a few days, then they noticed something
strange. The chromatophores began blinking again…
even though they were no longer getting signals from the brain. So what does this mean? Well, what it suggests is that color change
might be a bit like breathing is for humans. Something we can either choose to do… or
do automatically. Only… even cooler — because unlike breathing,
color change requires an awareness of your surroundings. And in these animals, that awareness is spread
throughout the skin… as if the skin itself could see. It would be as if your skin knew what color
the walls were, even with your eyes closed. For a soft and squishy creature trying to
stay alive in a very big ocean — it’s a pretty spectacular defense.

Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look

Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look


Once upon a time, the Argentine ant seemed invincible. Why? Well normally, ants in different colonies
of the same species fight each other to the death for territory and food. But take an Argentine ant from a colony in
Japan, or Spain, or from your kitchen, put ‘em together and… Nothing happens. They recognize each other by smell. Just like
these nest mates. Worldwide, Argentine ants act like a huge,
international super colony. Countless nests, each home to hundreds of
queens, producing millions of highly disposable workers. Massive Argentine ant super-colonies are spreading
all over the globe, overwhelming local ant populations. They can take down much bigger ants. Like
this harvester. The tiny Argentines throw themselves at their
enemy. Exhaust her. Then slowly pull her apart. They seemed unstoppable. But there’s more to this story. The Argentine ant has an Achilles heel. At Jasper Ridge, near Stanford University,
Nicole Heller has been tracking ant populations since the late 1990s. She wanted to know, how long would it take
for Argentines to completely overwhelm the native species here? One year? Five? But it didn’t happen. To her surprise, one native species was actually
thriving behind enemy lines. The winter ant. Winter ants aren’t much bigger than Argentine
ants. They aren’t much stronger. But they have a secret weapon. Put Argentine and winter ants together near
something they both want, like this cotton ball soaked in honey. See how the winter ant aims its abdomen at
the Argentine? And that little white dot appears right at the tip? And how the Argentine scurries away? No one had ever seen this before. In fact,
as far as we know, this is the first time anyone’s caught it on camera. No one knows yet what exactly it is, but this secretion can repel, even kill, those Argentine workers. At Jasper Ridge, this little drop has been enough to halt an implacable invader’s march toward world domination. Hi, it’s Amy. See how these ants all tap
each other when they go by? Well when ants touch antenna, they’re not
just exchanging information…they ARE the information. They switch jobs based on how
many other ants they run into doing the same thing. Join our ant army. Subscribe. Tap that button and we’ll let
you know about our next episode. Thanks for watching!

Help Me! There’s Something Stuck In My Ear! – Bizarre ER – BBC Three

Help Me! There’s Something Stuck In My Ear! – Bizarre ER – BBC Three


First, we’re heading to Northampton. Where budding builder, Lewis King, has come
to A&E not like most brickies, with a pencil tucked neatly behind the ear. Bizarrely, he’s stuffed his little scribbler
inside his shell, like. My grandson has put a pencil down his ear,
and it has broken in the ear, but it was a week before he told us he did that. Staff need to get to the point fast, as the
pencil lurking in Lewis’ ‘lug’ole is potentially more serious than you’d think. The worst case scenario is if he gets a deep
rooted infection, and then that can affect his hearing, balance co-ordination and if
left long enough, could even go deaf with it. How big was the pencil? That big? That big? Smaller? So just a tiny bit then. Ok. Dr. Philip’s confident that retrieving the
piece of pencil will be a piece of cake. So, nice and still for me. But, drawing it out proves more difficult
than he’d hoped. You’ve done a good job of it, I’ll tell you
that. After a fair bit of prodding and poking, the
pencil- or is it? Is that all of it, or just part of it? That’s all of it I think. Yeah, that’s all of it. Let’s have another look in your ear. That looks more like a watch battery to me. Are you sure it was a pencil? Don’t think it actually was now. Where he would have got that from and how
it’s got in there I do not know. Dr. Philip has a quick look to see there’s
nothing else in the ear. A compass, protractor, the odd AA battery. You’re doing really well Lewis. Lewis’ ear hole might be unblocked, but it’s
not all good news for our battery operated boy. Right, I can’t see your ear drum. Which means it’s gone. Which mean’s you’ve made a hole in it. Now, that can happen with things like this,
so it’s important- we don’t do anything to repair it or anything. It will repair itself. Luckily for Lewis, the ear drum is much like
skin and should grow back naturally over the next 6 weeks. I’ll get rid of that for you. You can give it a wash when you get home. He might have lost an ear drum, but Lewis
has gained a nice souvenir of his time in A&E and learned a valuable lesson. It’s been a bit of an eye opener for Dr. Philip
too. The fact that he said it was a pencil and
it turned out to be a watch battery, I’ll tell you that’s pretty bizarre. Gran takes little Lewis back to mum, let’s
hope she doesn’t give him an ear full when he gets home.

Empire of the Ants – BBC Documentary HD

Empire of the Ants – BBC Documentary HD


The Jura mountains on the French Swiss border are in the grip of winter The ground has been frozen solid for months. This is a tough place in which to live I’m told that Clearings like these could be the home of a real giant At this time of the year. It’ll be in hiding But evidence of its existence these strange mounds is everywhere Inside here deep down and protected from the cold. The giant is asleep Beneath the thatch of spruce needles lies a maze of tunnels and chambers the home of hibernating wood amps Individually, they’re tiny but they’re members of a giant super colony When temperatures rise over half a billion of them will emerge and populate this landscape Scientists, I only just working out how ants managed to survive up here But in fact, there’s a much greater a more profound mystery that has brought me up this mountain Among ants cooperation between colonies is very rare warfare is common Yet these nests open a great area live at peace with one another This may sound like an epic tale of war and peace but does it also contain an echo of human nature These ants in some extraordinary way have exchanged war for peace it’s now recognized as one of the largest of all insects super societies and It’s very existence Conflicts with some of the laws of evolution as we presently understand them It’s been a long cold winter here in the Swiss Jura mountains It’s hard to believe that any insect could survive in this frozen landscape But now change is in the air Soon and nests all over this mountain will come to life Some of these mounds are independent colonies but others are part of one a huge super colony Over the coming months I will be looking at the differences between these two wood ant societies One that wages war with all its neighbors and the other which welcomes them and lives at peace As the grip of winter eases centuries emerge from the mounds to check on conditions They detect the sign that they’ve been waiting for the temperatures are rising Spring is on the way The ants survived the winter Thanks to their own central heating system warmth given off by the slow decomposition of the dead vegetation in the nests fabric and That prevents them all from freezing Now by swarming all over the surface of the nest they are Recharging their batteries absorbing heat directly from the sun’s rays This behavior Only happens over one or two days in the early spring the worker ants have emerged into the sunshine and are now clumping together and they’re not just Sunbathing it could well be that the ultraviolet rays of the Sun cure them of any Infections from viruses or fungi that may have happened during their long sleep underground You can almost feel the enthusiasm with which these little creatures are enjoying their sunbathe This is unusual enough, but now here is something truly extraordinary there is a queen She’s almost twice the size of her subjects She’s also the most important member of her family and What’s more there’s another To see a queen exposed and vulnerable outside. The nest is very rare indeed there’s um And there’s another Chutney wonderfully in sunshine A normal would at best Usually has just a single queen who lays all the eggs, but clearly this is not so here As another there’s another several Amazing After a few moments in the sunshine the only time they see daylight and the whole year the Queens Disappear and make their way back to the brood chambers deep in the nest Those unwilling to go are dragged back We may call them Queens, but there’s no sovereign rule here The workers governed by consensus and they decide when and where the Queens will go There may be hundreds of queens in this single nest and they’re over a thousand such mounds as this all interconnected So across the super colony there may be as many as a million queens It’s now early April The Queen has returned below to prepare for the egg-laying Sergeant a race against the clock They must complete their most important work below in the next two months Using infrared light which is invisible to the ants we can watch them inside their nest without disturbing them Most of the first eggs to be laid will produce the next generation of breeding individuals The Queens and the males both of whom will have wings Inside the thousand nests of the super colony over half a billion mostly unrelated work ants Cooperate to ensure that the Queens and the males will be ready for their mating flights in mid-june With all these developments on the way, it’s imperative that the workers collect more food as soon as possible But many of the mounds are still surrounded by snow So the workers can’t reach their feeding grounds But there’s something they can collect heat The nest needs more heat than that which comes from the rotting vegetation If the eggs are to hatch in time for their June appointment Now however the ants have another source of warmth Using their bodies of solar panels the ants harvest the sunlight We have a heat-sensitive camera that detects differences in temperature The nest appears black because it’s hotter than the surrounding environment It shows a similar difference in the ants Those going down into the nest of black because they’ve been heated by the Sun Whereas those coming out are white because they’re cold Having transferred their body heat to their charges in the brood chambers below It’s this kind of selfless collaboration that is the key it’s a success of any and colony In normal and colonist all the workers are related to one another and to the Queen and the theory is that That is why they all cooperate But that is not the case here There are hundreds of Queens here over a thousand have been counted in a single nest so all the workers can’t have the same parents and genetics have confirmed that this is so It’s this cooperation between unrelated ants in a single colony that appears to be rewriting the rules of insect evolution But we still don’t really know how this has come about Spring is now well on the way The snow has disappeared and color comes to the meadows By late April there are piles of eggs in the nest and the first are they are hatching The workers labor Unceasingly to ensure that the growing brood will be ready to emerge in six weeks time at the peak of the short Jura summer But not every ant nest on this mountain can be so focused some will soon have to deal with threats to their very survival Just a short distance away on the borders of the super colonies woodland territory, there are other wood ants The mounds here on this side of the mountain look exactly the same as those of the super colony and So too the ants themselves The inhabitants of each nest here are all the offspring of its single queen and the colonies compete aggressively with one another After the winter hibernation The territories between that nest over there and this one here have become blurred and the frontier Has to be re-established and in order to do that Workers from both nests are now scouring the ground and that brings Neighboring ants into contact for the first time this season When foragers from the different nests meet they immediately recognize that they’re from rival families They then dash back to their nests and within minutes both colonies know the territory on their frontier is being disputed Armies assemble This is war and the weapons being used the chemical formic acid I Can smell it in the air? They’re squirting it from the ends of their abdomen man and if they can bite their opponents so that the Formic acid gets beneath the outer shell of an ant it will dissolve its internal organs As they grapple each tries to restrain its opponent by clamping its jaws around a leg or an antenna Soldiers from both sides tug at their opponent’s limbs It could take seven amps to subdue a single enemy One holds each leg and the seventh uses its mandibles to cut open sections of their opponents exoskeleton exposing the insides An attacker brings forward its abdomen under its body and squirts acid onto its victim Battles are going on everywhere Each colony carries its own chemical badge invisible to our our is for clear to the ants sensitive ant any Fighters touch each other to confirm whose side they’re on Here and there individuals camber up the vegetation Are they having arrests or are they surveying progress to see where help is needed? The smell of formic acid reaches the colony and more ants from both sides run to join the battle These wars can continue for over a week at their beak many thousands of fighting and thousands are killed The victors will certainly have enlarged their territory But some say they have also gained other rewards They’re taking off the bodies of their victims and carrying them back to the nest over there to feast upon them Both sides have suffered heavy losses For the amps in the meadow, it has been a costly start to the year Higher up the mountain in the territory of the super colony the inhabitants of different nests are also meeting But here things are very different These ants come from a mound about half a mile away If that mound was a separate independent colony, then these When they run there will be savagely attacked But I’ll see what happens At first the resident ant makes an aggressive gesture But then the other strokes the first Santini that gesture is a request for food and the other Obligingly feeds her This behavior known as trophallaxis is in itself not unusual most ants do it at times What is unique is that these ants are almost certainly unrelated yet. They treat each other as if they were from the same nest They do this because they share the super columnist sent a Chemical signature that is transferred together with the food In one experiment scientists fed a distinctive chemical to a nest on one side of the super colony and Eight weeks later that same chemical appeared far away on the other side It’s this sharing of food between over half a billion Individuals that makes this super society so truly remarkable Because of this super colony ants can move freely between mounds and they have as a result Created over a hundred kilometers of trails that link over a thousand nests These trails not only allow the ants to make new nests deep in the forest They also give all the members of the super colony access to resources of great value to them It comes from the spruce trees The ants don’t feed directly on the spruce trees they become farmers and these Are their flocks? aphids The presence of the ants keeps in sight predators at bay, so the aphids can feed unmolested they drink of the trees SAP and excrete what they don’t need as sugary liquid called honeydew and The ants love it Just as human farmers milk their cows So the ants stroked the aphids with their antennae to persuade them to release their honeydew Once the aphids are milked and the ants have drunk as much honeydew as they could carry They head down the tree abdomens bulging and returned to the nest The honeydew is not only through with which to sustain themselves Some use it to raise the heat of their bodies well above normal and so warm the atmosphere Within the nest the valuable ability in the fickle climate of the juror Thus first trees themselves also produce a substance that the ants can use directly The ants have collected little flakes of resin That’s a sort of gum that oozes from the broken twig of a coniferous tree The tree uses it to seal off an injury But what are the ants using it for? Inside the nest the extra warmth produced by honeydew Helps the Queens to keep laying and the larvae to keep growing However constant warmth can create problems despite regular cleaning diseases can thrive The ants have a remarkable solution to that problem They cover the surface of the mounds with tiny nuggets of resin and also take it into the chambers below one nest contained over four kilos of it it is in fact ant medicine The ants combined acid from their bodies with the resin and so produce a very effective antibiotic This is one of the most sophisticated animal pharmacologist known to science It’s been shown that wood ants living in nests that contain resin are better able to survive diseases Than those that don’t and the eggs are far less likely to be infected by fungi This immense peaceful super colony has few enemies But now at the end of May a new threat has arrived The juror is famous for producing some of Europe’s finest cheese For generations farmers have made small clearings in the woods to create meadows where cattle can graze Only now is it warm enough for cows to be brought up to these high pastures Somehow the ants need to make sure that they left alone And that nothing damages their nests and that’s a considerable challenge even for a super colony But these ants are very determined when one squirts its acid others follow suit The results is a coordinated barrage The cows are not harmed but they do get a dose of acid in the nose Which they don’t like and they tend thereafter to avoid these mounds By now in June the larvae have become big and greedy They must be given a special care because they will produce the next generation of royalty So the workers labor hard to meet their demands In summer Hundreds of thousands of eggs are hatching every day and honeydew is not enough The ants go in search of something else a supplement fresh meat The lush green hills and mountains of the Jura are now teeming with all sorts of life and nearly all of it is potential food The ants spread out from the nest scouring every square inch of the ground in search of prey As a hunters approach those that can take flight The ants vision is not very acute they can only see a target if it moves a Wolf spider however can see the ants clearly? But as long as she doesn’t move They won’t know that she’s here She’s carrying a little sack full of eggs She decides to run for it and her sudden movement alerts the hunters That first fleeting touched by an ant left a faint scent mark and now Fellow hunters can home in on their target The spider has a venomous bite but that is no use now eight powerful legs are her only hope But her speed is the very thing that enables the ants to follow her Slow motion reveals the basic ant hunting technique lunge with jaws open and hope for the best At last an aunt manages to grab her Like a pride of lions taking down the Buffalo the ants surround her To restrain their catch while another delivers the flesh dissolving acid The wolf spider is just one of many victims The loan an ant can take only the smallest prey but by working as a team They can capture creatures many times their size A super colony can make hundreds of millions of kills every year Beetles caterpillars worms flies they will tackle almost any living thing Whatever the prey its first cut up and eaten by the workers who then regurgitate it to feed to the larvae Once they have grown to full size the larvae spin silk cocoons for themselves Inside each a featureless lava is changing into an adult Their time in the Sun is approaching Would ants live in one of the most highly organized and complex of insect societies They fight wars over territory. They hunt in packs and farm other species They build complex homes with central heating they produce their own medicine and One group of them. We now know has made another advance The super colony has extended this collaboration Beyond the frontiers of the family to form a super Society of such dimensions That we can perhaps begin to compare it with that other great social creature on this planet ourselves people studying the origins of human culture Suggest that shared myths were one of the factors that bound early human societies together But what about ants? Well in many species it is certainly the case that all the individuals are very closely related to one another but that is not so in the super colony and in some days in June Such colonies continue to break the rules As midsummer approaches the juror briefly becomes a paradise of wildflowers And something new appears inside each of the nests wings The Royal Generation male and female has finally hatched and both will be able to fly When the individuals are the only ones that are capable of breeding The males are little more than animated Insemination devices and they will soon achieve their purpose and die, but the females which are emerging just now This is the beginning of a long life of servitude When the weather is just right sunny and not too windy the nests suddenly become covered with winged ants There’s an excitement in the air The male’s which have matte black bodies are incapable of feeding themselves So once they leave the nest they only have a short time to live. There’s no time to waste The Virgin Queens who are also black but splendidly shiny have a rather clumsy beginning to their lives They’re heavy with fat reserves and swollen ovaries So that getting airborne is not easy for them This is the most important flight of their lives, but it’s also their first Many tests their wings before takeoff They may need several attempts before they achieve complete flight control Over a few days half a million winged ants of both sexes take to the air and head off for new territory They then all assemble here in the heart of the super company It’s not clear how they find this meadow But year after year Virgin males and females from across the super colony are drawn here for their nuptial flight The Queen’s congregate in small patches of taller plants and begin to release sex pheromones airborne chemicals that attract males Detecting this scent on the wind the male’s homed in on the females The Virgin Queens may only get the chance to mate once and they need to obtain enough sperm to fertilize The eggs they will be producing for years to come But with plenty of males in the meadow they can afford to be choosy The males are so driven they even try to mate with females who are already doing so Those males fortunate enough to couple quickly make the most of their few remaining hours of life Once they’ve mated their service to the colony is over and they die of exhaustion The Queen’s now have no further use for their wings and they try to get rid of them But they are necessarily rather firmly fix Trying to remove a back patch with your feet even if you how six of them is clearly a frustrating process Eventually the meadow is marked with little drifts of discarded wings Such breeding swarms are fairly typical events, generally But now the Queen’s of the super colony do something much less commonly To understand why they behave so differently we must first return to the spring battlefields of the ordinary wood ants outside the Empire of the super colony The warring colonists on the side of the mountain have now accepted their frontiers and summer brings a brief pause in their battles the making system they use May seem at first sight to be the same as that of the super colony. But in fact, it’s fundamentally different Every decision taken by a mated female is fraught with danger The colony this queen comes from is at war with all its neighbors, so If she meets any of them, they will try to kill her she needs a home, but she can’t build it without help Her solution to the problem is extraordinary and radical Under this rock a different species filled ants have built a nest These small ants less than a third of her size are common and live in meadows on the edge of the forest The only way this one ant queen can get her own nest is by taking over one of theirs She will become a parasitic Queen She looks near the nest Trying to pick up the scent of the feel damage She avoids groups of them because they could overpower her Instead she tackles individuals there’s a brief duel and then she retreats But each time she’s left for the trace of their scent so that she slowly begins to build up a chemical disguise These contests go on for several days Gradually her disguise becomes more and more convincing The entrance to the field ants nest is unguarded cautiously she enters Inside she is vastly outnumbered Would and behavior inside the field and nest has never been observed in detail before let alone filmed So what happens next must be interpreted with caution? There are fights and most would amp queens are in fact killed at this stage But after she has endured repeated attacks some of the field amps become less aggressive towards her Eventually a confused field ant worker feeds the wood amp queen and when it does that The fate of the nest is sealed The wooden Queen has now acquired the colony’s scent She uses queenly pheromones and the field ants seem entranced by their new foreign Queen The Gamble has paid off and she has a fully functioning nest ready to receive her first batch of eggs Taking over a nest of field ants is the way typical wood ants start a new family but How about the Queens from a super colony with their multi-family communal nests have they found a more peaceful strategy Each mated female has to set out on her own journey If she’s to become a true queen She has to find a nest that will accept her and that is where the tolerance of the members of the super colony Is tested once again? Being already in the heart of a super colony These newly mated Queens don’t have to walk far before encountering their own kind But even for a super colony Queen walking straight up to a busy trail is risky If the workers she meets are not in a welcoming mood they will tear her to pieces Slowly one by one workers come to investigate her Summer seemed uncertain whether to attack or not, but others lick and clean her After a few tense moments a worker starts to drag her towards the nest This is a sign that she will be adopted And now Scientists have made a further discovery many nests in the super colony shortcut the whole process The wing males and the Queen ants don’t even bother to leave the nest Many different families live here. So there’s no need to fly away to avoid inbreeding The winged Queens can simply mate with one of the male’s that hatched here Perhaps this unusual behavior is the next stage in the evolution of the super colony With these innovative making systems the super colony Queens don’t take the same risks as normal would and Queens They don’t need to infiltrate the nest of field ants to start a family The workers just build new nests were needed enabling the super colony to extend deep into the forest where there are no field ants It’s changes in behavior like this that most likely gave rise to the super colony in the first place and Colonize its new habitat with all its riches It’s possible that this kind of cooperation between different nests is becoming more common among ants New super colonies are still being discovered in different species across the world Are we perhaps witnessing the next stage of the social conquest of the earth? The super colony consists of literally thousands of different families all working in cooperation it’s a development that Mankind achieved a very long time ago and could be seen as one of the reasons why we have come to dominate so many parts of the planet Could it be that peace is the winning strategy on this ant Mountain too? Much about the super colony remains unknown and for good reason These ends move incredibly quickly So you can see why is that so difficult to study and even more difficult to film As around 8 millimeters in length, these are bigger than many amps but to us They’re still tiny and rarely say still for more than an instant To keep track of their frantic movements while also getting down to eye level with their world needed a very special camera The brainchild a filmmaker Martin dawn This is Franken cam. It’s a device for positioning tiny cameras and small whining lenses in to walk with corners with extreme precision It’s called Franken can because it’s got so many different bits in it It has been said that it is an unholy alliance between other bits of equipment. That should never have been put together Now known by all of us as Frank Everything to me it enables us to follow tiny creatures as they go about their lives without disturbing them. I First met Frank back in 2005 when filming for the BBC series life in the undergrowth Back, then he wasn’t quite as sophisticated as he is now, but he still allowed us to see ants in a new way 12 yet on the equipment has grown into this and this Enables us to enter the world of the ants in the way that has never been achieved before Martha there’s a lot a lot of things going on over here and Long cabling allows operators to take the control box away from the camera So that biting insects are less of a problem what’s going on? But of course, he doesn’t stop the ants coming to us And with Frank’s fluid movements keeping the action in focus is far simpler than it would be using a conventional close-up camera It’s incredibly easy to find focus To go right in for the close-up so we can pull out for the wide shots and we can see the detail we can see the distance we can put the whole scene in this meadow so we can see it’s this meadow and It makes it easier to feel as if you’re there and now for the first time the answer and focus no matter where they’re moving And even I am too However while Frank’s body parts cost many thousands and its construction needed the help of a mathematician and an engineer Ironically the lens use for many of the most spectacular images cost just eight pounds on the Internet This wasn’t a cost-cutting measure. This lens has amazing abilities and it’s perfect for the job But it’s only so cheap because the lenses like it are made in their many millions for the cameras on your mobile phone One of the clever ways Frank’s the lenses takes us into the ants world is by changing the way we see Distances to an ant five feet might as well be half a mile This Behind-the-scenes image recorded on a normal camera shows. Just how close I’m sitting to the nest But if we view the same scene using Frank and cam, it appears as they are much farther away It’s this magnifying of distances that allows the operator to steer so precisely between every blade of grass And enables us to appreciate the world on an scale But even with Frank there’s one factor which affected every aspect of the ants behavior that we couldn’t control The weather up here is extraordinarily Unpredictable, you never know. What’s gonna happen This morning. It was lovely sunshine Look at now difficult to believe but Yesterday these Meadows what under three inches of snow. So you have to be prepared for anything whether you’re an ant one of these naturalist The ants have worked out how to survive here we are novices It was meant to be spring now. And this was meant to be the shoot. We did six weeks ago Would the weather so variable predicting the ants behaviour was difficult We’ve just arrived and found the nests covered in wings ants which we weren’t expecting at all we kind of Expecting them to come out in about a week or two weeks time, even the scientists of priests price Matters are helped by Frank being just as fickle as the weather is Unfortunately, Frank is temperamental and sometimes he’s brilliant and then as soon as you admit that he’s brilliant he decides to stop working which is exactly what happened this morning the focus box has Received a knocker it’s been that way KITT failure is always a concern but when there’s only one of your camera in the world You just need to find a way to carry on and doing so enables us to record behavior scientists Can’t normally observe in such detail Like the intricacies of antennae movements when ants interact Or following a parasitic queen through the undergrowth as she slowly builds her chemical disguise To obtain new observations leading to a new understanding of the ants the team filmed for over 100 days spread over a year and the ants love it II am a PK lovely pink guy with the help of Franklin cam they took us into the world of the super colony and Remarkably using a tiny lens just like the one on the phone in your pocket Searching another true story of jumbo the first animal superstar at abre and the giant elephant available now on BBC iPlayer Would be a Ranga Nathan where dad tells all Romesh Ranganathan irrational live next here on BBC two

For These Tiny Spiders, It’s Sing or Get Served | Deep Look


Behold a very small and rather cute spider. This is clypeatus. A jumping spider. He doesn’t spin webs. Instead he uses silk as a lifeline, reeling
it out as he hops from place to place. But right now, he’s looking for a mate. The thread of a female spider that he can
trace back to its source. Problem is, she may have other priorities. While he’ll jump on pretty much anything
that moves…She only mates once. She’s picky. So he’s going to make his case… on the
dancefloor. Male jumping spiders perform courtship displays
that would make Bob Fosse proud. Jazz hands, leg-lifts…they even shimmy their
pedipalps. But he needs a soundtrack. So, by beating together the front and back
halves of his body, he creates vibrations that travel through the ground. This is what her ears look like. Tiny membranes stretched across slits in her
legs. To study these jumping spider pulses, researchers
at the University of California Berkeley use a sophisticated laser vibrometer developed
for quality-testing cars and airplanes. It turns those vibrations into something we
can hear. And guess what? It’s a song. The first verse sounds like this. A fast heartbeat. Thump thump thump thump thump thump thump. Then, more thumping. Followed by something new. A “BOOM.” This is verse two. That pattern, over and over again. For verse three he adds a third element. Almost like he’s casting a spell, right? From species to species, and there are thousands
of different jumping spiders, the songs vary. But one thing never changes: Male jumping
spiders sing like their lives depend on it. Because they do. She may mate with him. She might refuse. But she might just eat him instead. When the Berkeley scientists prevented the
males from singing while they danced, the females were three times as likely to hunt
them as prey. So he needs to go big. The closer he gets to her, the more danger
he’s in. The dance and the song get more and more urgent. But even with all that… She’s still calling the shots. Hi, it’s Amy. If female spiders are picky, with males, the
bar is so, so low. He’ll do this courting song and dance with
pretty much anything. In the lab, scientists use frozen specimens
this one. A dead female spider! And he still tries to mate with her. While you’re here, subscribe to Deep Look,
and thanks for watching.

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل


Spilostethus pandurus
Lygaeidae – Spilostethus pandurus Scientific classification
Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Arthropoda
Class : Insecta Order : Hemiptera
Suborder : Heteroptera Infraorder : Pentatomomorpha
Superfamily : Lygaeoidea Family : Lygaeidae
Subfamily : Lygaeinae Genus : Spilostethus
Species : S. pandurus Binomial name
Spilostethus pandurus Pine processionary larvae marching
in characteristic fashion Scientific classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Lepidoptera Family: Thaumetopoeidae Genus: Thaumetopoea Species: T. pityocampa Binomial name
Thaumetopoea pityocampa Directed by ELBAR MOHAMED ELAMIN

Fentanyl In Hull: Deadlier Than Heroin | Drugs Map Of Britain

Fentanyl In Hull: Deadlier Than Heroin | Drugs Map Of Britain


It is just like,
just like heroin, yeah. But ten times stronger.
Yeah, it’s really strong. In the last six months, I must have lost a good
12-14 friends on fentanyl. It’s too dangerous. Everybody
seems to be going over on it. I overdosed. I said, “Look,
I’m never doing that again”. The next day, I was,
I was bang right back at it, do you know what I mean? Fentanyl is taking the opioid
epidemic to a new level of urgency. America is in the midst of declaring
a state of national emergency in response to their
current opioid crisis. One of the key drivers of this
is a powerful synthetic painkiller called fentanyl. The substance has now been linked to a recent spike
in overdoses on UK soil. The majority of these cases
have been found in Yorkshire and the Humber. We travelled to Hull to meet those
affected by this lethal drug. Say on a scale of one to ten, heroin’s a 2
and fentanyl’s like an 11. It’s like… It’s like going
from being slapped with a pillow to hit by a train,
do you know what I mean? I reckon… I reckon we’re just a small… ..percentage of what… what it actually is. It will be here, there
and everywhere. It won’t just be a small amount
here and now, and then it’s gone. My dad passed away.
My mam passed away. My nan and grandad, like,
they left me. They moved to Scarborough, so… I’ve been on my own since. Why do you think they left? I don’t know, to be honest.
I was only a kid. They didn’t really do much wrong. When you’re a kid and you’ve
got no rules, a lot of things what you shouldn’t
do or shouldn’t have done, you start doing,
do you know what I mean? And… I don’t know.
It just gets worse from there. The National Crime Agency says that
60 people have died in the UK in the past eight months after taking the
painkilling drug fentanyl. It’s 50 times more potent
than heroin and is the drug that was linked to
the death of the rock star Prince. About six months ago, right,
I actually come across it, not looking for it and not
realising, but I tried it, and it-it blew my
head off, to be fair. Like I said, it’s just
so strong, honestly. It’s really, really strong. Quite recently, a lot of people
think it’s gone for good and think they
can’t find it but it’s, like… I know where it’s coming from.
I know where it is. I know how to get it.
Not everyone does any more. But, yeah, yeah, it’s still there. Is it still out on the street? Yeah, definitely.
It’s still on the street. It’s definitely out there, yeah.
Definitely still out there. Yeah, definitely. 100%. I’ve lost a lot of good mates
to it this year. Yeah, it’s not, it’s not good.
It’s dangerous. Seven or eight of my friends
are dead already. It’s dangerous. And so were people
worried when it first came in? And what were you excited about? Do you think the dealers worry
about killing people? Back in February, I became aware
of what I felt were an increased numbers of
potential drug-related deaths. It was probably the end of March, we started getting some of the
toxicology results coming back in, where these drugs,
which were new to me, were getting named
in the toxicology reports. Now, we’re probably looking at
about a third, very crudely, about a third from those reported have come back with fentanyl,
carfentanyl. Yeah. Yeah. It’s only Luke. Can I meet you for one of each? Does it look the same as heroin? Yeah, but slightly… Like, a different colour brown and it’s got a slight red tint
to it when you cook it up. That’s fentanyl on this foil. I used to smoke it, like him. Once you try it the other way,
then it don’t compare. It’s not the same. Smoking, it’s more… It creeps up on you more, I suppose. Like, it takes time to get your,
your buzz, whereas injecting, it’s instant, straightaway, so… It’s not that I’ve stopped caring,
but… I’ve given up…given up a bit. And I think to myself,
at the end of the day, like… if I weren’t here, if I did die,
then, I don’t know, just… I wouldn’t have to worry
about anything any more. Like, I am ashamed of what I do,
but, at the same time, I feel like I can’t stop. I won’t need any more for… ..say, 6-12 hours. So I won’t rattle, I’ll feel fine. Like, the main buzz,
I’d say, lasts about… 20 minutes, if you’re proper smashed
and you’re on, like, a big hit, to a couple of hours. Feeling…itchy, though. Just really itchy. Fentanyl is a CNS depressant. Essentially what happens is that you
get the respiratory depression, you get the sedation,
you get the drowsiness… and the next thing you know,
their colour will begin to change. They turn blue. The blood pressure
will begin to drop. The pulse will begin to drop. And they have difficulty
breathing on their own and managing their own
cardiovascular system. You get the people who, because
of their length of use, they’ve been using drugs
for so long, and have developed high tolerance
to whatever it is that they’re using regularly, they want that additional buzz
of something else. I still feel it, don’t get me wrong. But if that was heroin,
I would have got, like, a tiny amount of that feeling
and then, like, that would have been it,
do you know what I mean? So… I was an heroin addict and I went
to score a bag off somebody. They never told us
that fentanyl was in it. We took it. I walked round the corner
and I collapsed and my face hit the pavement. I nearly died. There is a cohort of vulnerable drug
users out there who, on a daily basis,
will find funds from somewhere, go and buy drugs, take drugs. And as we found recently,
people are literally dying, taking what they’ve been taking. Excuse me? Couldn’t ask you
a favour, could I? Erm, like, I’m homeless
on the street, yeah? I’m literally just trying to get
some change together for some food. I don’t suppose you could help me,
could you, please? Thank you. It’s been a bit rough this year. Erm, I’ve been staying
in a few doorways, but I’ve got myself
a sleeping bag now, so… I’m laughing. I just need to get
a couple of quid together so I can go get some fenny and that. Couldn’t ask you a favour, could I? I don’t… I’m homeless
on the street, yeah? I’m literally just trying to get
some change for something to eat. I don’t suppose…?
I ain’t got any money on me. Now we’re aware of what’s out there,
we are asking more questions and we are trying to work
with our intelligence team or to ask who’s bringing
these drugs in. When you look at routes
into any system now, when you look at, say,
the World Wide Web, when you look at where Hull is
placed, on the end of the A63, M62, it’s easy to come to. People have been going to areas of
Hull where they felt they will get, in their view,
the better quality drugs, referred to as “the strong stuff”
or “the better gear”. After a swift response
from the National Crime Agency that resulted in a number
of operations across the UK, the availability of fentanyl in Hull seemed to have dropped off
considerably. Yo! Yes, Stan.
Yes, Mac. In spite of this, Luke was still able to find a dealer
that could sell him the drug. You all right? I don’t know the original source,
no, but like we’ve said, there’s three main people, three
main people in Hull who are… who are doing it,
who are getting it. It’s like there’s a, it’s like
there’s a secret underworld going on, do you know what I mean?
People don’t, people don’t see it. Who I’m going to ring, they didn’t have it,
whereas they’ve got it now. Yo, easy, Johnny, Ryan,
can I meet you for one of each? Yeah, man, same place, yeah? Yeah, all right, I’ll be there
in two minutes. Cheers, my man. Boom! Sorted. Let’s have a look, then. How far along are you now?
Three months. Yeah? So you don’t know if
it’s a boy or a girl yet, do you? No. No. What do you want? Girl. Girl. I had a little girl. Did you? Yeah, yeah.
She’s cute, innit? Yeah? Yeah, man. Do you know what,
honestly, though, I’m proud of you and that. So next time you have the next scan
photo and it’s a boy, you’ll have to show me, won’t you?
Yeah, I will. Yeah, man. Here, give us a squeeze.
Anyway, I’m going to chip you. All right, see you later.
Look after yourself. My little girl ain’t
going to want to… want to have a dad who’s on gear and fentanyl and crack. It’s fucking, it’s not-not a life
for her, do you know what I mean? How can I set an example? How can I set a standard? How can I…
How can I be right for her? I can’t, you know what I mean?
I just… I just can’t be. What you saying, darling,
you all right? Yeah, you all right? Not too bad.
How are you? I’m not bad. I’ve just won the lottery, you know. Have you? Yeah.
Get some nice gear then? Get some nice gear.
You know it, girl. I’m at the track now. MAN ON PHONE: All right.
All right, safe, brother. Nice one. Get my shit now. Give me two minutes.
I’ll pop around this corner. I know quite a few addicts, yeah,
what inject and that, and really, every time
they’re injecting, really, they’re just wanting to die,
hoping that they go over. But don’t. So they’re out for
the next day, doing the same again. It just comatoses you,
throws you to the floor. And it could be six to eight hours,
if you are all right, to come back round. It’s ridiculous. £20. £20 for that. How long is that going to last? Well, it’s going to fuck me up
instantly, but… What are you doing there? Putting it under my tongue,
because obviously class As, if coppers stop me
and it’s under my tongue, I can swallow it straight away. So it’s gone. It’s a regular occurrence these
days, yeah. They seem to be bashing
the heroin with it, selling that a lot better
than what it has been selling. So, yeah, dangerous stuff. Some people don’t like it, like. Since it disappeared,
everyone was, like, “Oh, fucking… I don’t want it,
I don’t want it”, because they seen what it
was doing to people, but, like, I can’t lie. I love the shit. And I mean love it. This is one of
my good friends, Terry. We’d been aware of fentanyl, largely
because of what was happening in parts of Europe
and in North America. We first probably became
aware of that in this country in around late March. Towards the end of April this year, we issued our alert to make
the health care system aware of the situation,
and also drug treatment services. Yeah, I am fucking young, like. Do you know what I mean? I’m fucking, because there’s
not many people fucking… Well, people call me a bairn. There’s not many bairns who do it. Why do you think there aren’t many
bairns that do it? It’s one of them,
through fear I suppose. How long have you known Luke for,
then, Terry? And have you seen him change much? Yeah. Fucking hell. Bad sleep last night. Thank you for that, Terry. You’re all right mate,
get on with it. Do you feel better?
Yeah, much better, mate, thank you. Sit and have a smoke now. I’ll see you later on. Another day living the dream. Just off to the hostel, going to see
if I can get my room sorted. It’s like, running a bit late
and that, but… That’s what I mean, my priority
should be one thing, but your priorities go
out the window, do you know what I mean? I know there’s a lot of people
that are addicted to it now, where they would only buy
that with fentanyl in. And I look at them and I say,
“Well, I wouldn’t”. So basically they’ve got actually
addicted to the fentanyl. They’re not addicted to the heroin.
They are addicted to the fentanyl. There’s a good 10-12 people I know
that just want the fentanyl now. I don’t think I’ve heard about it
for over six weeks now. It seems to have dried up. That’s my experience. I don’t know whether they are
using and not telling us, or is it just that it’s longer
available for now. How come you’re late for the hostel? Because my habit’s got in the way. Are you worried about
it coming back? Obviously. That would be the trend. You get periods
when the batch comes in, people use them
and then it dries up. And then it comes back again. Don’t say it again. You needed to have been here earlier
to do the paperwork and everything. It’s only my…
I have to be here, though, because it’s like my thingy address,
my bail address. I have to be here. My name’s Luke, my name’s Luke. After six o’clock,
we don’t move people in. One of the concerns is also, like, how long your offending
history actually is. Because from what I can gather, your probation, like, is included
in on a fair amount of it. You need to come back tomorrow
any time after ten, speak to the manager, and then
we can go from there, all right? All right. What’s the verdict, Luke? Not so good. I’m banned from most of the hostels
because I have rent arrears, a lot of fighting, etc. It feels like I’m always
waiting for something. It’s like a full-time job,
having a habit. Because, like, you’ve got to get
the money for it, or you feel shit. Then you spend half your time
running around, trying to ring up. Then you spend half your time
running around to get it. Then the rest of your time you spend
trying to find somewhere to do it, especially when you’re homeless. After spending two weeks in Hull, it became clear that the current
batch of fentanyl had run out… ..but there were still fears
from the authorities and the people we talked to
on the street that the problem could
resurface at any time. I think we always need
to remain vigilant, and if it’s not fentanyl,
it could be something else. So we need to make sure
that treatment services, that the harm reduction
messages are right, and that we are ready to respond
if it comes back on a larger scale. Does it ever get easier doing this,
Luke? No. It doesn’t, ever. It’s just fucking… It’s just the same shit, different
day, you know what I mean?

A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look

A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look


Aah, Southern California. Y’know, the whole “surf’s up, Tinseltown,
sun-soaked glamour” thing? Too bad this idyllic landscape is mostly make-believe. Take the palm trees. They’re not even real trees. They’re more closely related to grass. And they’re imported. Like this Canary Island date palm. It came halfway around the world to be one
of the more dazzling stars in the landscape. But this Hollywood success story is turning
into a horror movie. This little monster is the South American
palm weevil. Scientists first found it in San Diego in
2011. Weevils are just beetles… with snouts. This female uses hers as a drill, to get at
the palm’s apical meristem. It’s a bowl of juicy goodness at the top,
where the leaves sprout. She lays her eggs down in those tunnels. And her spawn eat the palm from the inside
out… starting with its heart. That’s right; it’s the same stuff you
can get at the supermarket. They’ll turn this palm’s healthy flesh
into a rotting mess that smells like a dumpster in the sun. Once they’re big enough, the larvae will
spin cigar-shaped cocoons from the leftover fibers they can’t eat. As the trees’ fronds starve and die, the
larvae hang out and gestate, morphing into pupae, and… Ew, that’s just, oh man… That’s gross. As adults, they burst out, take flight and
seek out a new host… leaving behind the dying, hollow shell of a once majestic palm. Mark Hoddle, at UC Riverside, is tracking
the weevil infestation. He puts them on a kind of aerial treadmill
in his lab to test their stamina. He’s trying to figure out how they got here,
whether they hitched a ride on imported palms, or made the trip themselves. Turns out they can fly up to 15 miles a day,
enough to hopscotch from palm to palm on their own. The only way to stop them: treat every palm
tree in their path with pesticides before the weevils get there. That’ll be tough to do. So these particular botanical icons could
be on the fast track to being just another Hollywood has-been. These weevils are pretty gnarly. So we asked Anna Rothschild from Gross Science
to do those animations for us. Thanks, Anna! ANNA: You’re welcome! It’s my pleasure. I love gross stuff. LAUREN: So there is one other way to manage
these larvae, sort of a biological control, which people do in some places, like Thailand,
Peru and Ghana. ANNA: Entomophagy! LAUREN: Eating bugs. Mmm. Tasty. ANNA: So hop over to my channel for a whole
episode about it. LAUREN: And thanks for watching this Deep
Look.

How Did Freshwater Fish and Insects Survive Noah’s Flood?

How Did Freshwater Fish and Insects Survive Noah’s Flood?


It’s an event recorded in the Bible, and echoed in virtually every culture on the face of the Earth A memory of a time when the hand of God was stretched out all but wiping out mankind, and the beasts that had been made along with him, from the face of the Earth. In my last video I addressed the question of how Noah was able to fit all of the animals onto the Ark. As part of that explanation, I pointed out that Noah was only required to bring the land vertebrates, which only would have numbered a few thousand or a few tens of thousands of animals at the very most. This meant that these animals would have fit nicely onto the Ark as described in the Bible. But what about the animals that Noah didn’t take on board the Ark, namely the marine life and invertebrates? After all, the world of Noah’s time was coming to an end. The massive super-continent was breaking apart into the smaller continents that we see today, massive volumes of subterranean water spewed from beneath the earth and into the sky, volcanoes erupted, and the skies grew dark. It was the most terrifying event this planet has ever witnessed The wrath of God was literally being poured out. The oceans would have rushed in consuming the land, and within weeks all of the streams, rivers and lakes would have been taken in by the rising Flood waters. But we know that many fish species are very sensitive to slight changes in their environment. Shockwaves likely killed fish millions at a time; we also know that freshwater fish usually cannot survive in saltwater, and vice-versa. So how could they have survived this epic deluge?
And what of the insects and other invertebrates that Noah didn’t bring on board? During the course of this video, my focus will obviously be on how freshwater fish could have survived the Global Flood. But as common sense will tell you, much of what I say here can apply to marine life in general this includes seaweed, microbes that live in the water, and even the various reptiles and mammals that primarily live in the seas. I’ll also touch on how land invertebrates and plants were able to survive the Global Flood, but those answers will be surprisingly simple. Also, keep in mind that this is a short video, not a full encyclopedia on apologetics Sometimes I see posts in my comments section and I really wonder if people understand the concept of a short video. A lot of people will want to split hairs, and often people will even want debate me on points that are not even controversial! What I can do for those who have further questions about topics and points of contention not covered in this video, is give you resources where you can learn more about these questions, and find answers from scientists on the Creation side of the Creation/Evolution debate. Those will be provided in the description box and at the end of this video. The Pre-Flood World The first point to keep in mind is that the world of Noah’s time was not the same as the world of today. According to the Bible, the Great Flood occurred about 1,600 years after God created the Earth. At this time, all of the land was gathered to one place. The main body of land on the Earth was a single massive supercontinent that we call Rodinia. During the Flood, this continent broke apart into the smaller continents that we see today. In fact, it was originally a Creationist who proposed the idea that the continents were once a single giant landmass. Also keep in mind that the sea of the Pre-Flood world would have been a very different place. A lot of animals lived in these waters that are no longer alive today. It’s entirely possible that these waters were also shallower and less salty than what we see in the oceans of our time. Mountains were likewise probably not as high as the mountains of today: which helps to answer the question of how the whole Earth could have been covered in water. In the past, many Creationists have traditionally proposed the the Pre-Flood world was also surrounded by a water canopy, but for both scientific and Biblical reasons, this model has been set aside by most Creation Scientists. But the takeaway lesson, is that the Pre-Flood World would have been very different from the world of today. The Pre-Flood Animals Besides the map and the environment of the Pre-Flood World being different, it’s also important to note that the plants and animals of the Pre-Flood World were very different, including the fish. The fish of this era would have been genetically superior to their counterparts of today. Since the time of the Fall, the DNA of all living things on Earth has been breaking down. Fish in their more genetically pristine state would have had a lot of advantages over the fish of today. These fish would have been genetically hardier, meaning that they would have had the ability to adapt to changes in their environments to a greater degree than the fish of today. This means that changes that would kill today’s fish might be shrugged off by the fish of Noah’s time. Please don’t misunderstand me on this one. These fish were still fish. They weren’t about to jump out of the water and go fight crime, they weren’t about to grant wishes, and they weren’t going to jump into a little ball to take on the Elite Four. These fish were still ordinary animals, but their DNA just had not broken down to the extent that we see today. This still does not yet explain how freshwater fish could have survived a Global Flood but it sets the backdrop, and brings me to my next point. Colonizing Freshwater Lakes and Streams My personal view is that a lot of what we see in freshwater ecosystems today originated in the ocean. If we have a freshwater lake somewhat near the ocean without any fish or vegetation, it would not be surprising to see living things from the ocean migrate upstream and colonize the lake. It’s not unreasonable to postulate that in the time since the flood, fish from the ocean would have colonized today’s freshwater lakes and streams. It’s entirely possible that when fish were first created, many groups of fish had the genes to survive in both freshwater and saltwater environments. We can easily picture a group of fish that had the potential to survive in both environments, but over time lost the ability to survive in one or the other. Imagine a population of fish that lives in the ocean. At some point, a group of these fish colonize a freshwater lake. Over time, they become more specialized to their freshwater environment, while their counterparts in the ocean might have lost their ability to adapt to a freshwater environment. in other words, saltwater fish that already had the ability to survive in freshwater, may have colonized freshwater lakes and streams. They may have then adapted to specialize in a freshwater environment, and possibly even lost their ability to survive in the saltwater environments that their ancestors originally came from. Their saltwater counterparts may have also experienced the opposite effect, losing their ability to adapt to a freshwater environment. As living things adapt to an environment, they can sometimes become over-specialized and lose their ability to adapt to other environments. A fish that could previously live in both freshwater and saltwater might lose the ability to survive in saltwater if it’s been trapped in a lake for too many generations, or vice versa. This might occur in the form of losing the ability to regulate salt concentrations within the body, but that need not be the only possibility.

Most fish orders actually contain species that live in freshwater and species that live in saltwater. Freshwater trout have actually been known to hybridize with salmon which migrate from saltwater to freshwater. What I’ve read of these particular cases is that the offspring are sterile, but the fact that they can hybridize is a strong indicator that these two species once shared a common ancestor. From a creationist perspective, this common ancestor probably gave rise to a number of species that we see today in both freshwater and saltwater environments. Sticklebacks In a previous video, I mentioned a group of small bony fish called sticklebacks. In a rather interesting turn of events, a species of saltwater sticklebacks colonized Loberg Lake in Alaska, and rapidly underwent major morphological changes. A new species of freshwater stickleback was observed to form in less than twenty years. Needless to say, this was beyond amazing! But I find it unfortunate that scientifically uneducated Atheists like Bill Nye mock Creationists for talking about rapid speciation. After all, rapid speciation is something that has been observed many times across several groups of animals. It’s no secret to biologists, and were Bill Nye to open up a biology textbook, he would have known this.
A lot of people hailed the example of sticklebacks as some kind of affirmation of Darwin’s theory. But they might be surprised to learn, that in the example of sticklebacks, the speciation event occurred as a result of a loss of genetic information, not a gain of anything new While a loss of genetic information can bring about an advantage, this is not the same thing as the gain of new Information, which Neo-Darwinism requires to happen at least on occasion, but which has never been observed. Haloclines Probably the most counter-intuitive possibility for how freshwater fish could have survived the Global Flood would be haloclines. Haloclines are layers that form in the ocean where you will see different layers of salt concentration. So the layer on the top might be freshwater, and then there might be a layer below that that is seawater, and a layer below that that is very highly concentrated saltwater. Haloclines can be found near certain types of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers empty into the ocean. They don’t always form, it depends on the estuary, but sometimes the freshwater will float on top of the saltwater, even for hundreds of miles out to sea. During the Flood, it’s been suggested that freshwater fish could have survived in a layer of freshwater towards the top of the ocean, while saltwater fish could have survived in the saltier layer below. This hypothesis is interesting, but still begs a lot of questions about the stability of a halocline environment along these lines, but it’s certainly a legitimate possibility. But we can say for certain that environments like this are found in nature, and the rainfall during Noah’s Flood would have served to reinforce such an environment. Interestingly, there are videos on YouTube of underwater rivers that are very high in salt concentration. Perhaps this answers the question of how Spongebob fills his bathtub. I once had a hostile commentator on my YouTube channel who wanted to debate me about this point. I explained to him that under the right conditions freshwater will float on top of saltwater. The commentator then responded that this wasn’t true, because in his words, freshwater and saltwater are “not immiscible”. Of course, no one ever said that they were, but he clearly did not understand that freshwater and saltwater have different densities, or that haloclines are no secret to scientists, regardless of your views on Creation VS Evolution. This is why I always try to encourage my hostile viewers to keep an open mind. Just because someone’s views are unorthodox, doesn’t mean that they are stupid or that they don’t know what they are talking about. I myself have a strong science background, but unfortunately most of my hostile viewers want to argue with me about points that are not even controversial. Floating Debris Islands While haloclines might be the most counter-intuitive explanation for how fish survived the Global Flood, floating islands of debris would clearly be the most exotic. During the Flood, entire forests would have been destroyed. Trees would have undoubtedly been uprooted by the billions. People and animals would have been killed, and the obvious result would have been huge islands of floating log mats filled with carrion, and debris from the Pre-Flood World. Similar phenomena still occur in the world today, though the picture isn’t necessarily quite so gruesome. It’s not hard to imagine seeds and insects surviving on these floating mats. Termite colonies would face a great deal of stress, but nothing that the colony couldn’t easily handle. Likewise hollow logs would become sanctuaries for small invertebrate refugees. Seeds, insects, and small ecosystems would have survived the Flood on these giant naturally-occurring rafts. It’s also important to note that seeds from animal carcasses have been shown to germinate even long after being in an animal’s gut. Darwin himself did experiments along these lines. So, as gross as it might sound, corpses from birds, beasts, and even people, that were entangled in the debris could very well have harbored seeds that later grew from the remains of the decay. Ironically, Darwin also did experiments floating snails on pieces of wood, and they did just fine. These floating islands would have also served another purpose. When waves hit the edge of these islands, some of the wave’s energy would have been dissipated by the debris. This would have helped to prevent the upper layer of fresh water just below the mat, including freshwater from rain, from mixing with the saltwater underneath. Basically, the islands would have reduced turbulence, helping to preserve a halocline underneath. Rain would provide a regular source of freshwater, helping to refill the supply of freshwater under the island of debris. If there were Pre-Flood fish that were less tolerant of salty conditions, then this could have helped to create a small sanctuary for them. This may have also provided a source of fresh water for land-dwelling invertebrates that lived on these floating islands. Obviously this creates a lot of questions. The ability of these floating debris islands to preserve a small freshwater ecosystem depends on a lot of things. How big were the islands? How violent were the waves? How much freshwater in the form of rain fell on these islands? What volume of freshwater contributed to the rising Flood from freshwater lakes and streams? Good science is about asking good questions and seeking answers. Even if someone doesn’t believe the Bible, and doesn’t believe that Noah’s Flood was a real event, asking whether these are viable scenarios is still a legitimate question. One last point:
With regards to the mixing of freshwater and saltwater during the Flood, I’ve seen a few cases where uneducated Evolutionists have claimed that if you mixed saltwater and freshwater all of the animals in both environments would die off. While I agree that the overall conditions of the Flood would have been devastating to aquatic life, the claim that nothing would have survived the mixing of salt and freshwater is definitely overstated After all, there are fish and other aquatic organisms that can live in both freshwater and saltwater. Areas where rivers meet the ocean, called estuaries, are often teeming with vibrant ecosystems, far from the sterile environment imagined by these Skeptics. There are Lots of possibilities for how fish could have survived It’s important to remember that there are a lot of possibilities for how fish and aquatic life in general could have survived the Great Flood. I discussed several possibilities here, including post-Flood speciation, the possibility of freshwater and saltwater layers, and the possibility that floating debris may have helped to stabilize these layers. It’s also important to realize that these possibilities are definitely not mutually exclusive. All of these possible explanations may have contributed. We should also consider the fact that many marine and aquatic organisms that we see in the fossil record are no longer around today. For example, the fossil record contains many different species of trilobites, and they were probably once common, but as far as anyone knows, all trilobite species are extinct today. It’s entirely possible that these animals were completely wiped out during the Flood, and it’s entirely possible that some of them survived, but were later unable to adapt to a changing world. We may never know for sure. It’s also very possible that some fish and aquatic organisms were able to adapt and survive, while others were not. What we see today may very well be only a small remnant of what once existed. I know that many of my viewers will have more questions than answers at the end of this video. I may not have covered some point that you really wanted covered, and that’s okay. All I ask is that viewers be open minded enough to hear views that they disagree with, and to seek out answers to their questions Please, feel free to leave your questions in the comments section. This gives me the opportunity to come up with ideas for more videos. Also, I will include links in the description box to help you find answers to your questions, including a link to my website, and a link to a Creation Search Engine that I’m developing. Thanks for watching! Be sure to subscribe, comment, rate, and share with your friends on social media, and be sure to stop by often to see my new videos!