Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Immunity Explained

Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Immunity Explained


Our body has a powerful army that protects it from various types of threats. These threats can come in the form of mechanical injuries, the entry of germs, or the entry of other foreign particles like dust. This personal army is called the immune system. Every day, we encounter a huge number of bacteria, viruses and other disease-causing organisms. However, we don’t fall ill every other day. which is due to our immune system – an army of cells that is always roaming our body, ready to ward off any attack. The immune system can be broadly divided into
two parts – innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity or non-specific immunity is
the body’s first natural defense to any intruder. This system doesn’t care what it’s killing. Its primary goal is to prevent any intruder
from entering the body, and if it does enter, then the immune system kills this intruder. It doesn’t differentiate between one pathogen
and another. The first component of this defensive system
is your skin. Any organism trying to get into the body is
stopped by the skin, our largest organ, which covers us. Secondly, there is the mucous lining of all
our organs. The sticky, viscous fluid of this lining traps
any pathogens trying to get past it. These are the physical barriers. However, we also have chemical barriers, such
as the lysozyme in the eyes, or the acid in the stomach, which kill pathogens trying to
gain entry. The genitourinary tract and other places have
their own normal flora, or microbial community. These compete with pathogens for space and
food, and therefore also act as a barrier. The next line of defense is inflammation,
which is done by mast cells. These cells are constantly searching for suspicious
objects in the body. When they find something, they release a signal
in the form of histamine molecules. These alert the body, and blood is rushed
to the problem area. This causes inflammation and also brings leukocytes,
or white blood cells, which are soldiers in our body’s cellular army. Once they come, all hell breaks loose! Sometimes however, the intruder may not be
germ, but rather a harmless thing like a dust particle. The body still causes a full immune reaction to this intruder, which is how allergic reactions occur. In the fortress of our body, the leukocytes
are VIPs. They have an all-access pass to the body,
except, of course, to the brain and spinal cord. Our leukocytes come in many types. Those that belong to the innate system are the phagocytes. These cells can either patrol your body, like the neutrophils, or they can stay in certain places and wait for their cue. Neutrophils are the most abundant cells. They patrol the body and can therefore get
to a breach site very quickly. These cellular soldiers kill the infectious
cell and then die, which leads to pus formation. There are also the big bad wolves, or the
macrophages. These cells are like hungry, ravenous monsters
who simply engulf unwanted pathogens. Instead of roaming freely in our blood, they
are collected in certain places. These cells can consume about 100 pathogens
before they die, but they can also detect our own cells that have gone rogue, such as
cancer cells, and kill them too. Beyond that, we also have the Natural Killer
Cells. These cells can efficiently detect when our
own cells have gone rogue, or are infected with, say, a virus. NKCs detect a protein produced by normal cells,
called the Major Histocompatibility Complex or MHC. Basically, whenever a cell isn’t normal, it
stops producing this protein. The NKCs move around constantly, checking
our cells for this type of deficiency, and when they find an abnormal cell, they simply
bind to it and release chemicals that will destroy it. The last cells of our innate immune system
are the dendritic cells. These are found in places that come in contact
with the outside environment, such as the nose, lungs, etc. They are the link between our innate and adaptive immune systems. They eat a pathogen, and then carry information about it to our adaptive immune system cells. This information is produced and shared in
the form of antigens. Antigens are the traces that pathogens leave
around. They are molecules found on the surface on
pathogens that can be detected by our adaptive immune system for recognition. The dendritic cells pass on this information
to our T cells. However, macrophages can also perform this
function. Now, there is also the adaptive or acquired
immune system. This system is more efficient, as it can differentiate
between different types of pathogens. It has 2 main components – T lymphocytes and
B lymphocytes. T-cells come into play when an infection has
already occurred, thus bringing about the cell-mediated immune response. B-cells join the fight when the pathogens
have entered, but haven’t yet caused any disease. This is called the humoral immune response. Some T-cells take signals from the dendritic
cells or macrophages, and are thus called helper T-cells. They perform two key tasks: forming effector
T-cells, which are basically cells that cycle through the body and call in the cavalry,
namely other white blood cells. Helper T-cells also form memory T-cells, which
keep a record of this antigen for future reference. Sometimes, the some cells of our body know
that they have lost the battle. Essentially, the affected area or organ has
They have become heavily infected with pathogens, so there is no hope for them. At this point, the immune system brings out
the cytotoxic t cells. These cells rush over and perform a mercy
killing for the infected and dying cell. Furthermore, we have the B-cells. They produce chemicals called antibodies,
which fit on the antigens of pathogens, much like how a lock and key fit together. These antibodies crowd around a pathogen and
act like tags. They signal the macrophages to come and kill
the marked pathogen. B-cells also produce memory B-cells when they
encounter an antigen. The B- and T- memory cells jointly maintain
a record of all encountered infections, and thus strengthen and solidify the body’s
immune response to these infections. Our innate immune response is quicker, though
non-specific. It gets into action within hours and is pretty
strong. However, when things get out of hand, the
innate system calls for help from the acquired immune system. This system can take days to mount a response,
but the next time we encounter that pathogen, it won’t make us get sick. In short, every day that we spend being healthy is all thanks to our immune system. So, it definitely deserves our respect.

Invented Arizona, Episode #4: “Prevention & Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection”

Invented Arizona, Episode #4: “Prevention & Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection”


Hi welcome to Invented Arizona!
I’m Paul Tumarkin and I’m Taylor Hudson. We are with Tech Launch Arizona, the
office of the University of Arizona that commercializes inventions stemming from research. In this edition of our podcast we’re talking with Gayatri Vedantam. She’s a professor in the School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences in the
UA College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. She and her co-inventor, ‘Vish’ Viswanathan have developed a new technology for preventing and treating the Clostridium difficile or C.diff bacterial infection in the gut. So Gayatri, let’s start with what the C.diff bacteria is for those who don’t know. So Clostridium difficile is an enteric pathogen. That means it’s an organism that causes disease in the gastrointestinal tract and it is a gram
positive bacteria and an organism that forms spores. And so when Clostridium difficile is exposed to any sort of harsh condition it changes into this
very hearty inert structure that can survive for a very very long time on
surfaces. And it’s a real problem because it’s ubiquitously present everywhere in
the environment including in our hospitals and our communities. All right so it takes a certain kind of condition for someone to get an infection like this. What things do we do that create these kinds of conditions where the bacteria can grow? Okay that’s a great question. So Clostridium difficile infection, or CDI, is caused when the normal microbiota, or the good bacteria,
the good microflora in our intestinal tract is depleted or suppressed. And most commonly this happens upon antibiotic treatment. So many many humans and animals will get antibiotics either prophylactically or preventively or therapeutically or for treatment. And one inadvertent byproduct of that antibiotic treatment is that all of our good flora are suppressed. And when good bacteria are suppressed in the GI tract that means that niches become available for
pathogens like Clostridium difficile to now enter and colonize. And like I said previously, this is a pathogen that’s present ubiquitously in the environment
so contact with surfaces which contain the spores or even any kind of object in
the hospital or in the community that has those spores result in Clostridium
difficile entering the GI tract and essentially colonizing the vacant
landscape that’s now available because of antibiotic suppression. It effects about up to a million people in the United States and if it’s not diagnosed
quickly enough, and not treated properly enough, it is also associated with about 30,000 fatalities. What type of symptoms will someone with a C.diff infection experience? So once the organism gets into the
intestine and establishes a foothold, it might produce up to three different
toxins or molecules that cause diarrhea and so the disease is actually a
diarrheal disease and it’s very difficult to treat because the treatment is more
antibiotics and obviously continued use of antibiotics further suppresses the
microbiota so it’s an ironic offshoot of modern medicine. Wait so this sounds like kind of a vicious cycle! You’re treating something that antibiotics caused with antibiotics. So for your technology are we talking about prevention or a treatment? Well we hope it will do both. So the goal of the research in our
laboratory is to try to ultimately look for interventions to prevent or treat C.difficile infection without the use of antibiotics and this technology that we
have right now is based on something that I said earlier, which is all this
vacant landscape that opens up after antibiotic treatment and our
technology is based on the premise that if we can colonize that landscape with
good bacteria that occupy the same niches that C.diff would occupy, we can
prevent the establishment of any C.difficile spores that get into the GI
tract and then settle in or find a home. So our technology actually uses genetic
engineering to manipulate good and safe bacteria to express proteins that C.difficile would normally express on its surface and use to colonize the GI tract.
So we are pre colonizing the GI tract with our agent and that essentially is
designed to prevent further occupancy by Clostridium difficile. That would be a
preventive and there’s the scientific basis of this project is that if we can
prevent colonization of Clostridium difficile then we don’t have to worry
about the downstream impacts of the disease. The organism is only going to produce toxin very late in its growth and cause all of the problems that it
does if it’s allowed to linger and if we prevent the establishment in the first
place we won’t have to worry about lingering organisms. The hope is that we can also use this technology to knock any existing C.difficile organisms “off
their perch”, so to speak. That would be a therapeutic option and we’re developing that right now. So we know there are different strains
of C.difficile – will your technology be applicable to variations in the bacteria? So I’m really glad you’re asking that question, that’s actually an outstanding
question. One of the big worries or the concerns in the C.difficile research area is that this organism exhibits incredible genetic diversity. So we use
something called a molecular typing method to classify C.difficile into all
the different flavors of which strains are some of those flavors. And right now there’s over 500 and ribotypes, or molecular types, of Clostridium difficile, many many many of which, if not all of which, are circulating in North America. And our surveillance in Tucson says we have many different flavors in our Tucson area hospitals, so our technology was specifically engineered to be widely applicable and prevent infection caused
by multiple different C.difficile strains So when we did our preliminary
studies we actually tested it on all the circulating strains of Clostridium
difficile in the Southern Arizona area, and those studies are obviously
continuing, but you’re right, our technology really is not going to be
very useful if it doesn’t prevent disease caused by all the different
flavors of C.difficile so it is engineered to do exactly that. Once it’s available to the public how will we be able to take it? The dosing of the technology is actually going to be based on safety so right now the way that
we’ve designed it is that our technology will not actually stay in the GI tract
very long and further disrupt any of the microbiota that are trying to come back. So we actually see this technology as a “use it when you need it” or “use it just
before you need it” type of technology. It will require once daily dosing at this point but in our laboratory studies as few as one single dose of the technology
is enough to actually prevent the disease of the organism. But the recommendation is going to be that we take it once a day. It will be less than half a teaspoonful of a yogurt-like formulation. Well that sounds easy enough!
Thanks Gayatri so much for coming on the podcast and sharing your technology with
us today. I would like to say a huge gigantic shout out to the people that
work in our laboratory. None of this happens without the incredible effort that the whole team puts together and I don’t think we could ask for a
better more dedicated team. We also have veterans in our laboratory that for whom this disease is a huge problem and so we have students that actually served in
Iraq and Afghanistan, finished their tour of duty and came back and are working in the laboratory to solve this problem that many of their members of their
community are facing or have faced. And I think it’s it’s an incredible testimony
to their hard work and effort that our technology is getting off the ground. So I would like to acknowledge them and all of our collaborators here at the U of A. And our hospitals here in Tucson. Wow Taylor, that was a great conversation! Thanks for getting us some time to talk with Gayatri. And thanks to all of you for listening to Invented Arizona! For more information about this invention and all the other great inventors and inventions from the University of Arizona, visit Tech Launch
Arizona on the web at techlaunch.arizona.edu We are @TechLaunchAZ on
Twitter and you can also find us on Facebook and LinkedIn. And as always please subscribe to our monthly newsletter for stories, updates and events from around the University of Arizona ecosystem. You can find that at bit.ly/TLASubscribe. Thanks for listening!

Invented Arizona, Episode #4: “Prevention & Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection”


Hi welcome to Invented Arizona!
I’m Paul Tumarkin and I’m Taylor Hudson. We are with Tech Launch Arizona, the
office of the University of Arizona that commercializes inventions stemming from research. In this edition of our podcast we’re talking with Gayatri Vedantam. She’s a professor in the School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences in the
UA College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. She and her co-inventor, ‘Vish’ Viswanathan have developed a new technology for preventing and treating the Clostridium difficile or C.diff bacterial infection in the gut. So Gayatri, let’s start with what the C.diff bacteria is for those who don’t know. So Clostridium difficile is an enteric pathogen. That means it’s an organism that causes disease in the gastrointestinal tract and it is a gram
positive bacteria and an organism that forms spores. And so when Clostridium difficile is exposed to any sort of harsh condition it changes into this
very hearty inert structure that can survive for a very very long time on
surfaces. And it’s a real problem because it’s ubiquitously present everywhere in
the environment including in our hospitals and our communities. All right so it takes a certain kind of condition for someone to get an infection like this. What things do we do that create these kinds of conditions where the bacteria can grow? Okay that’s a great question. So Clostridium difficile infection, or CDI, is caused when the normal microbiota, or the good bacteria,
the good microflora in our intestinal tract is depleted or suppressed. And most commonly this happens upon antibiotic treatment. So many many humans and animals will get antibiotics either prophylactically or preventively or therapeutically or for treatment. And one inadvertent byproduct of that antibiotic treatment is that all of our good flora are suppressed. And when good bacteria are suppressed in the GI tract that means that niches become available for
pathogens like Clostridium difficile to now enter and colonize. And like I said previously, this is a pathogen that’s present ubiquitously in the environment
so contact with surfaces which contain the spores or even any kind of object in
the hospital or in the community that has those spores result in Clostridium
difficile entering the GI tract and essentially colonizing the vacant
landscape that’s now available because of antibiotic suppression. It effects about up to a million people in the United States and if it’s not diagnosed
quickly enough, and not treated properly enough, it is also associated with about 30,000 fatalities. What type of symptoms will someone with a C.diff infection experience? So once the organism gets into the
intestine and establishes a foothold, it might produce up to three different
toxins or molecules that cause diarrhea and so the disease is actually a
diarrheal disease and it’s very difficult to treat because the treatment is more
antibiotics and obviously continued use of antibiotics further suppresses the
microbiota so it’s an ironic offshoot of modern medicine. Wait so this sounds like kind of a vicious cycle! You’re treating something that antibiotics caused with antibiotics. So for your technology are we talking about prevention or a treatment? Well we hope it will do both. So the goal of the research in our
laboratory is to try to ultimately look for interventions to prevent or treat C.difficile infection without the use of antibiotics and this technology that we
have right now is based on something that I said earlier, which is all this
vacant landscape that opens up after antibiotic treatment and our
technology is based on the premise that if we can colonize that landscape with
good bacteria that occupy the same niches that C.diff would occupy, we can
prevent the establishment of any C.difficile spores that get into the GI
tract and then settle in or find a home. So our technology actually uses genetic
engineering to manipulate good and safe bacteria to express proteins that C.difficile would normally express on its surface and use to colonize the GI tract.
So we are pre colonizing the GI tract with our agent and that essentially is
designed to prevent further occupancy by Clostridium difficile. That would be a
preventive and there’s the scientific basis of this project is that if we can
prevent colonization of Clostridium difficile then we don’t have to worry
about the downstream impacts of the disease. The organism is only going to produce toxin very late in its growth and cause all of the problems that it
does if it’s allowed to linger and if we prevent the establishment in the first
place we won’t have to worry about lingering organisms. The hope is that we can also use this technology to knock any existing C.difficile organisms “off
their perch”, so to speak. That would be a therapeutic option and we’re developing that right now. So we know there are different strains
of C.difficile – will your technology be applicable to variations in the bacteria? So I’m really glad you’re asking that question, that’s actually an outstanding
question. One of the big worries or the concerns in the C.difficile research area is that this organism exhibits incredible genetic diversity. So we use
something called a molecular typing method to classify C.difficile into all
the different flavors of which strains are some of those flavors. And right now there’s over 500 and ribotypes, or molecular types, of Clostridium difficile, many many many of which, if not all of which, are circulating in North America. And our surveillance in Tucson says we have many different flavors in our Tucson area hospitals, so our technology was specifically engineered to be widely applicable and prevent infection caused
by multiple different C.difficile strains So when we did our preliminary
studies we actually tested it on all the circulating strains of Clostridium
difficile in the Southern Arizona area, and those studies are obviously
continuing, but you’re right, our technology really is not going to be
very useful if it doesn’t prevent disease caused by all the different
flavors of C.difficile so it is engineered to do exactly that. Once it’s available to the public how will we be able to take it? The dosing of the technology is actually going to be based on safety so right now the way that
we’ve designed it is that our technology will not actually stay in the GI tract
very long and further disrupt any of the microbiota that are trying to come back. So we actually see this technology as a “use it when you need it” or “use it just
before you need it” type of technology. It will require once daily dosing at this point but in our laboratory studies as few as one single dose of the technology
is enough to actually prevent the disease of the organism. But the recommendation is going to be that we take it once a day. It will be less than half a teaspoonful of a yogurt-like formulation. Well that sounds easy enough!
Thanks Gayatri so much for coming on the podcast and sharing your technology with
us today. I would like to say a huge gigantic shout out to the people that
work in our laboratory. None of this happens without the incredible effort that the whole team puts together and I don’t think we could ask for a
better more dedicated team. We also have veterans in our laboratory that for whom this disease is a huge problem and so we have students that actually served in
Iraq and Afghanistan, finished their tour of duty and came back and are working in the laboratory to solve this problem that many of their members of their
community are facing or have faced. And I think it’s it’s an incredible testimony
to their hard work and effort that our technology is getting off the ground. So I would like to acknowledge them and all of our collaborators here at the U of A. And our hospitals here in Tucson. Wow Taylor, that was a great conversation! Thanks for getting us some time to talk with Gayatri. And thanks to all of you for listening to Invented Arizona! For more information about this invention and all the other great inventors and inventions from the University of Arizona, visit Tech Launch
Arizona on the web at techlaunch.arizona.edu We are @TechLaunchAZ on
Twitter and you can also find us on Facebook and LinkedIn. And as always please subscribe to our monthly newsletter for stories, updates and events from around the University of Arizona ecosystem. You can find that at bit.ly/TLASubscribe. Thanks for listening!

Preventing TB transmission | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Preventing TB transmission | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


Narrator: Let’s say you’ve got two people and one person has Tuberculosis,
that’s this person over here, I’ll call him person A and another person
does not, this is person B over here. What are the things that are going
to make person A more infectious? What are the things we
need to think about, in terms of how likely it is that
person B will actually get sick with TB. There are a few things. We know that this person has to actually
cough out some TB particles, right? They’re going to cough them out and that
means that the strength of the cough, let’s say they have a real good cough
like that, versus a really weak, kind of puny cough, something
like that is going to matter. It turns out that the folks that have
the strongest cough are the adults. So, any adults, in general,
adults are going to have a much
stronger cough than children. So, that means that adults are
more infectious than children. Let me actually write that
as my first key point. It turns out that’s exactly right, that
we see that in terms of spreading TB, it’s the adults that spread
it much more than kids and
definitely much more than infants. A second point, is that
you need live bacteria. This seems obvious that of course
you’re not going to get anyone sick if you don’t have live bacteria. The way to know that
someone has live bacteria, you can actually just take
some of there sputum or some
of their mucus from their lungs and look under a microscope
and you would actually see
what we call a positive smear. That literally means you smear
out the mucus under a microscope and you look with a microscope and
you can literally see the TB bacteria. You can also do a culture and see if
you can actually grow the bacteria. If you can see the bacteria
or grow the bacteria, that’s a good indication that
there’s live TB bacteria there and that’s obviously going to make
the person more infectious as well. A third point, is if you look in their
lungs and you see large cavities, some times you call that cavitary disease,
but let me just write cavity here. If you see a cavity there, in
that cavity we know is going to
be full of little TB bacteria. Those cavities are classic for that and so
whenever you see or think about cavities, I want you to remember that the
folks that get cavities are the
secondary progressive disease folks. Remember there’s primary
and there’s secondary, and it’s the secondary progressive
disease that causes these cavities. These are the folks that are
going to be more infectious because they’re loaded
with live TB bacteria. What are the things we can do to
actually prevent the spread of TB? The first one is actually kind
of obvious, it’s medication. We have medications that are really
good for treating Tuberculosis. One classic thing that we’ve done is
what we call directly observe therapy, DOT, directly observe therapy. All that means is sometimes a physician or a nurse will actually watch
a patient take their medications so that they don’t forget or
sometimes people don’t like
to take their medications. This is an easy way to make
sure that someone’s actually
taking their medications. We call it DOT. That’s obviously going to be helpful
for killing off the bacteria, so we don’t have to worry
about live bacteria anymore. Usually that happens in about two
weeks, after two weeks of medications, that usually kills off the bacteria
so you no longer have those positive
smears and positive cultures. It also helps with symptoms,
so if you’re not sick with TB you may not be coughing as much. That’s another important
thing to keep in mind. What else would be important? You could imagine, isolation, making
sure the person is actually isolated. So, isolation is key. And specifically you want to make sure
they’re not around any young people, so definitely don’t want them around
anyone under the age of four years because, of course, children
are really, really susceptible
to getting very sick with TB, so you want to make sure
they’re away from young children and you want to keep
them isolated at night. So, at night when they’re sleeping
– I put a little @ symbol, but at night when they’re sleeping you
want to make sure that they’re isolated and maybe sleeping in their own room. Of course it’s ideal if the
person is completely isolated, but of course that’s not always
practical because they might be
with their family or their children, but you want to make sure that they’re
at least away from children under four and at night that they are sleeping alone. Another thing is a surgical mask. A surgical mask is really good
because it helps prevent too much of the stuff that’s coming out
of your mouth to enter the air. Actually, literally, let
me just draw it for you. It literally catches a lot of
this stuff and prevents it from
entering the space around you. This is a mask, let’s say a
surgical mask, it might hook
up like this, maybe like that, and what it does is it literally catches
the stuff that’s coming out of the mouth and makes it ricochet back in. You can still breath with a surgical mask
on, but it just keeps the large particles, maybe large droplets
from leaving your mouth. Now, what if you’re person B, what’s one
thing you could do if you’re person B? One obvious trick is just
standing further away, you don’t have to stand so close to person
A, you can stand all the way back here. That’s going to make it less likely
that you’re going to get sick with TB. Let me write that here, is
create space, create space. Another key idea is, think about
what happens when someone passes gas, or there’s a horrible smell in a
room, what are you going to do? Usually people are going to find
the door, maybe they’ll open
the door and let some air in. This arrow indicates more air coming in. Maybe there’s a window here,
they’re going to open the window
and let the breeze come in. Basically do whatever you can to
dilute out that horrible smell. If there’s a fan, maybe you’ll try to
turn on the fan and get that spinning. If you can get the fan going that’s
also going to move around the air. You’re just trying to move around the air
to get a dilution of that horrible smell. Let me right it out, dilute. The idea here is that you can
just literally do simple things. You can open up doors and windows,
we call that natural ventilation. You can also turn on a fan to
kind of move the air around and
you’re just trying to dilute out that horrible bacteria so that less
of it is likely to enter your lungs. Another thing you can do is actually
put on an air purifying respirator. An air purifying respirator is
actually a little bit different
then the surgical mask. This one is actually going to keep
out very tiny, tiny particles. Unlike the surgical mask whick gets the
large things, spit and large particles, this one is actually going to
capture very tiny particles and it’s actually not going to allow them
into your breathing area, your airway. It’s actually going to make
things bounce off, essentially, or get caught inside the filter itself. It wont allow TB particles
into your nose or mouth. A common one here, you might have
heard of or seen, is called the N95. There are many other types as
well, but that’s one example
of an air purifying respirator. There are a couple more things
that you might see that are
slightly more expensive, but you might come across them
or at least hear about them. One is called ultraviolet, (writing) ultraviolet germicidal. Let’s see if you can kind of guess
how this works or what it does. (writing) Germicidal, cidal
means killing something. Germicidal irradiation, irradiation. A lot of times people will just
shorten this whole thing to UVGI. They’ll say a UVGI was
installed and what UVGI does, it literally takes ultraviolet
light and shines it out, and actually if there area
couple of TB particles, let’s
say one here and one here, that UVGI, that irradiation kills
that TB particle and X’s it out. So, it’s no longer alive and
the folks in that room are safe. The final thing I want to talk
about is called a HEPA filter. It’s a filter and if I was to draw the
ceiling it would look something like this. Maybe it has some spot on the
ceiling where air is flowing in and some spot where air is flowing out. Just erase these parts right
here and I’ll show you. Let’s say that air is coming in
this way, let’s say three arrows, and you’ve got air coming out
this way, you’ve got three arrows. So in the middle, somewhere in
this area you’ve got a filter. This filter is going to catch TB
particles, so we call it a High
Efficiency Particulate Air Filter. (writing) Particulate Air Filter. No one wants to say all of this because
it’s too long, so just for short, again they say HEPA filter. A HEPA filter is going to then catch some
TB particles that are going to flow in and they’re going to get
stuck in these filters, so coming out on the other
side you have nice clean air because the TB particle will
not get through that filter. You could even take this a step further. You could say well, how about
if we did this and actually, instead of having all of the air returned,
let’s say we return just part of it and actually allow some of the
air to escape outside of our room. Now you have a negative pressure in
this room because you have more air leaving the room then is re-entering
the room, you have negative pressure, almost like a vacuum because all
this air is going up into the filter and not as much is coming back out, so
this room becomes negative pressure. There’s kind of a vacuum in this room
and especially if you do it right. If you close off all these doors
and you close these windows, then you definitely create
a negative pressure. What that means is that now you
can really protect the area around because you close off the
door, you close off the window and now there’s no way that a TB particle
can leave and go into the hallway because if there’s a little bit
of a gap underneath this door, if
that’s the only crack in this room, then the negative pressure is going
to make air flow through that crack into the room instead of air
flowing out into the hallway. That’s actually another key trick that
they use to prevent TB from spreading, is they’ll create a negative
pressure where they pump air out, which is what we showed here, and
then they’ll seal off the whole room, and then the air from the
hallway starts entering the room and you can make sure that no TB particles
are going to get out into the hallway and get people in the hallway sick.

Antibiotics, Antivirals, and Vaccines

Antibiotics, Antivirals, and Vaccines


Captions are on! Click CC at bottom right to turn off. Antibiotics. Antivirals. Vaccines. Have you ever wondered what they do or how
they work? One thing to understand is that they can greatly
help the work of your immune system. Your immune system is fascinating. We’re being very general here because this
is not a video about the immune system specifically, but it’s important to understand a few basics
of the immune system to comprehend the amazing work of antibiotics, antivirals, and vaccines. Your immune system is designed to protect
you against pathogens. Pathogens can be all kinds of things. Certain kinds of bacteria. Viruses. Infectious protists, yes, unfortunately there
are some dangerous types of protists. Certain types of fungi. Parasitic worms. These can all be pathogens. Your skin is actually part of your first line
of defense in protecting invasion of pathogens. Not just as a barrier, but also, there are
helpful microbes that colonize your skin and can keep bad microbe numbers down. Mucous membranes are also part of the first
line of defense. But pathogens do get in, and when they do,
you have more lines of defense to protect you. For example, your second line of defense includes
non-specific white blood cells such as macrophages. These cells are incredible; they actually
engulf pathogens. These are involved in a fascinating response
called the inflammatory response which we could have an entire video on. Then, you have a third line of defense. Unlike the first two lines of defense, the
third line of defense is considered more of a specific defense as it can target specific
pathogens. Examples of immune cells involved in this
specific response include white blood cells known as lymphocytes. T lymphocytes, or T cells, and B lymphocytes,
or B cells. B and T cells are very specific for reacting
to antigens. Antigens are molecules that can be found on
the pathogens. Although we should point out that antigens
can be anything foreign in your body —for example, someone who has an allergy to pollen
may react to pollen antigens. An antigen can activate a response from a
T cell and/or a B cell. And, while again, this video doesn’t get
into the fascinating types of immune responses with these cells which we encourage you to
explore, we do want to mention one very important fact before we move on. There are memory B and T cells. This is very significant because these cells
can “remember” a pathogen. These memory B and T cells remain in the body. If the pathogen returns, these cells can multiply
and combat the pathogen quickly and effectively. We’ll explain why that’s especially important
when we get to vaccines. So back to antibiotics, antivirals, and vaccines. How are they involved with all of this…what
do they do…how do they work? Let’s start with antibiotics. Antibiotics target one type of pathogen: bacteria. Now while not all bacteria are bad—in fact,
many bacteria play many helpful roles in both our bodies and the environment—the infectious
types of bacteria can be a problem. It is bacteria that cause strep throat, staph
infections, some types of pneumonia, UTIs. And while your immune system will go after
these bacteria, sometimes it could use a little help. That’s where antibiotics come in. Antibiotics can destroy bacteria in many ways…they
can damage bacterial cell walls or block the production of critical proteins the bacteria
may need. Antibiotics can be prescribed by a doctor
in a pill form, but they can also be injected or delivered in an IV. Now the word antibiotic can be taken apart
where you see “anti” which can mean against and “bio” which can mean life. And that’s really helpful because you don’t
want to get it mixed up with two other words that, unfortunately, sound quite similar. One of those words is antigen, as we had mentioned
earlier, which is a molecule that can be found on a pathogen. Antibodies are proteins made by some of your
immune cells, such as B cells, that can be used to help fight pathogens. They often have this fascinating Y like shape. Some antibodies bind to a pathogen making
the pathogen unable to function correctly. But antibodies also can be used to mark pathogens
so they can get “eaten” by a macrophage. Now, we had mentioned that immune cells can
contain a type of memory when they encounter a pathogen. This can include the ability to produce antibodies
against pathogens that your immune cells have already encountered. And this is where vaccines come in. Vaccines are a way of exposing your body to
an inactive form of a pathogen or a weakened form of a pathogen—since it’s inactive
or weakened, it prevents you from actually developing the disease from the vaccination
itself. However, your body still launches an immune
response. By launching an immune response, which includes
the production of antibodies against the pathogen, the immune system will retain “memory”
against the pathogen. That way if your body ever encounters the
real, active pathogen—your body will be familiar with it already and therefore we
say that your body already has immunity against the pathogen. This can result in allowing your body to launch
an attack against the real thing more quickly and efficiently. Vaccines can be effective against many different
types of bacteria and viruses. We take for granted the amazing work of vaccines
in keeping people from developing devastating bacterial and viral diseases. But thanks to vaccines, some horrible bacterial
and viral diseases are considered eradicated in some areas, but it is important for them
to be continued to prevent some of these diseases from re-emerging. There’s also another really important thing
you should know about vaccines. Some people may not be able to receive certain
vaccinations—from someone whose immune system is severely compromised because they perhaps
have an illness of some type—to a newborn baby not yet old enough to receive many vaccines—to
a pregnant mother. These vulnerable populations rely on something
known as “herd immunity” – that is, if others around them are vaccinated against
a certain pathogen, that may offer them a degree of protection against that pathogen
because it cannot easily spread to them. So vaccinations not only offer protection
for the person receiving them, but also, they can offer protection for others around them. For an example of this, let’s consider the
contagious viral disease Rubella. A vaccine for Rubella is given typically in
early childhood. Rubella generally results in a rash with some
mild symptoms such as a low grade fever or sore throat. But, if a pregnant woman contracts this virus,
her unborn child can suffer severe birth defects. But women who are pregnant are advised not
to get the Rubella vaccine while they’re pregnant so they can be considered a vulnerable population
during that timeframe if they do not already have immunity from this virus. Herd immunity can be protective in an example
such as this. Learn more about “herd immunity” in some
of our further reading suggestions. And, because there is a lot of misinformation
about vaccines out there especially as of recent years, we have also included some further
reading suggestions about vaccines in general that you may want to check out. So as we discussed, vaccines can help our
immune system be ready for all kinds of pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. Recall that antibiotics are specific against
bacteria only. But antivirals are designed to help target
viruses. Antivirals can come in many forms such as
a pill, liquid, or given as an IV form. They can make a virus infection less severe,
although many of them have to be given in a specific time frame after contracting the
virus in order to be effective. Many antivirals work by affecting virus replication,
which is difficult, because if you recall from our virus video, viruses reproduce by
using your own cell’s machinery. So an antiviral needs to be able to stop the
virus without negatively affecting your own cells. For example, if the virus has a critical protein
that it uses the host cell to make—an antiviral can be designed to stop that protein from
being made—but it would be important to verify that the protein is not one that is
used by your own cells. One last thing. Pathogens can change. Mutate. Evolve. In our natural selection video, we talk about
how antibiotics may not be as effective against certain types of bacteria due to antibiotic
resistance that can occur. In our virus video, we mention how viruses
can mutate. An example is the virus that causes influenza,
aka the flu. That virus changes frequently so a flu shot
vaccine that works this year likely won’t be as effective against the influenza virus
that is the most common next year. There are actually scientists that work hard
to predict which influenza virus type will be the most common each year, and the flu
vaccine is designed to launch an immune response against that specific type so that, if you
encounter it, you can have protection. That’s why there is a different flu shot
each year and sometimes the effectiveness can vary each year. With mutations occurring, this is also a challenge
in developing antivirals. An antiviral that was designed to target a
specific virus may not work on a mutated form. Scientists continue to look for solutions
to counter the ever-changing pathogen world. Well that’s it for the Amoeba Sisters, and
we remind you to stay curious.

Primary and Secondary TB | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Primary and Secondary TB | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


Let’s say that these are your lungs. This is your right lung. This is your left lung. We’re just going to label them upper and this will be lower. This will be the middle lobe. You’re minding your own business and somebody coughs, and they get TB in your lungs. That TB gets inhaled, you breathe it in, and the location that
the TB likes to go to, it’s actually a pretty interesting thing, is it likes to go along these fissures that I’m drawing out here. These are the fissures; They separate the lobes of the lungs. They are kind of like the boundaries. The TB bacteria like to
go near those fissures. They also actually like to go sub-pleural. Pleural indicates the
outside layer of the lung. So, if it’s sub, it’s right underneath that outside layer. They like to go somewhere
along the fissure and somewhere in the sub-pleural space; right on the edge. They’re going to jump into some alveoli. Let me just draw it out for you here. You know, you’ve got
millions of these guys; I’m going to draw a few more, just to make it really
clear that these things are in packs. What’s going to happen is, of course, you’re going to have an immune response right away to this bacterium that’s in there. You might have a macrophage coming along like that. This macrophage is going to pick up the bacteria that’s now landed inside of that air sac, and it’s going to take a journey through the tissue of the lung. It’s going to go and drain down to a local lymph node. This is a local lymph node; a neighborhood lymph node. Let me label it right here; lymph node. That’s the journey that the macrophage is going to take; not every single one, but some of them are going to go to the lymph node. What they do by doing that is, they actually carry with them the micro bacterium. This little bacterium is now carried along, going for the ride, and now the bacteria is in two spots. It’s in the original spot where it landed in the lungs, but it’s also in the lymph node because it got carried there by the macrophage. I should’ve mentioned this earlier, but let’s assume that this is your primary infection. In other words, this is the first time that this person, or I guess it could be you or me, is breathing in the TB bacteria. What’s going to happen is, there’s going to be a reaction. The micro bacterium and the macrophages are going to start warring. They’re going to fight. You’re going to get this entire area turned into literally a battlefield, with dead micro bacterium and some dead macrophages. Some of your own cells are going to be part of this, but a lot of it is just going to be the bacteria. You’re going to get some of this battlefield going on over here as well, in this lymph node. That’s what it’s going to turn into; a giant battlefield. If you look under a microscope, it actually looks like, well we call it a granuloma. That’s the description that a pathologist might use
for what we are actually describing here. The same thing is true for the lymph node. There’s a little granuloma
in there as well. If you were to peek inside of this granuloma, let’s just actually erase the center out, if you were to peek inside, let’s say I was to cut it open, what you would see is, inside of this granuloma is literally this mess; this goo that somebody at some point, thought looked like cheese. I’m not sure how they came up with that conclusion, but it kind of stuck. So, we call this caseous necrosis. Caseous literally refers to cheese. This is the same kind of cheese that might go on your crackers. Cheese, and you can think of it almost like cheesy death I guess; cheesy death for the necrosis part. I think I added an extra
“e” there by accident. Let me fix that with a little hyphen. So, cheesy death. Because I’m naming things, let me go ahead and give you a couple more names. Ghon Focus; what the heck does that mean? Ghon Focus, actually named after Dr. Ghon. Ghon Focus is what we call this thing. It’s termed a granuloma, and specifically here because it’s a granuloma, which is more a broad term, is in the sub-pleural space, we said, and it’s close to a fissure, and we suspect it’s from TB. We would call it a Ghon Focus; it’s the other name for it. Both of these, if you’re trying to name both of these together, the lymph node that has a granuloma and the Ghon Focus, together make up what we call the Ghon Complex; Ghon complex. That just refers to both of the areas of disease. This is how disease starts, but what happens after time passes? Let me just slide this over a little bit. If we then take a little bit of passage of time. Let’s say there are three options. Time has passed. What are the different possibilities? Well, let me actually go through and talk about micro bacterium; micro bacterium tuberculosis from the standpoint of what is going on. Actually, I just noticed, I have in the past made the mistake of using a capital T, but it should be a lower case t. Micro bacterium
tuberculosis; three options. One option is that the bacterium may be dead. You may have killed it with your macrophages. Another option is that the bacterium is dormant; it’s just lying in wait. The third option is that it’s multiplying like crazy; it’s actually going and dividing and dividing and dividing. The last one, actually, is going to look – if you looked on a chest x-ray, like this, you see lots of disease; this red indicates diseased tissue, not normal tissue. You might even see some large diseased lymph nodes. That’s what it’d look
like on a chest x-ray. These other two, on a chest x-ray, basically would look normal. If you were to look at a chest x-ray, this is what the three options would look like. The first two would look normal, and the third one would look like something is wrong. Actually, this is helpful, because remember, these two together, we call these, both situations we call them latent TB infection. Remember, we can’t really easily distinguish the two because in both situations, you’ve had prior exposure to TB, and in both situations the x-ray looks normal. If you had some super ability to actually zoom in; let’s say you looked under a microscope, you would notice one key difference between these two. This is not something you can see on a chest x-ray, you can see only if you had amazing vision and could look down at the microscopic level at somebody’s lungs. You’d see macrophages, and in the top case where there are dead bacteria, the macrophages would look healthy and happy. In the case where you
have dormant bacteria, you would actually see
some bacteria there; some red, live bacteria. That’s the key difference between these two situations. Again, both of them we call latent TB infection. In this scenario, the bottom one, is going to be called progressive because things are slowly but surely getting worse; you can see more disease
on the chest x-ray. Primary, with a 1 and a
degree sign, infection; this is the name for this, progressive primary infection. It sounds a lot like what we had named that here, with primary infection, but the word progressive tells us that things are actually getting worse. The disease is getting more nasty. Now, let’s actually play
out the rest of this. Let’s think about what will happen with the dormant situation. I wrote out, or drew this out, earlier. Let’s say more time is passing, of course. Maybe years have gone by. This person has had live bacteria in their lungs for years and years; nothing has happened. Now, they have what we call reactivation; maybe it’s because their immune system is
not working properly, or maybe they have another disease. Who knows why, but all of a sudden, now the bacteria, the TB bacteria, are going to come out with a vengeance. There’s going to be a cavity that forms; usually in the upper lobes. A cavity that forms up here. It’s going to be packed full of TB bacteria. This person, you could imagine, if they coughed, they’re
going to be coughing out lots and lots of these little bacteria that i’m drawing. Around that area there’s a lot of disease; a lot of disease in this area and it’s very, very distinct. If you see cavities, and you see lots and lots of disease, you’re really going to be worried that this person might have what we call progressive
secondary infection. The reason I’m saying
secondary is because, again, this is happening separate from that primary infection; this is happening sometimes years later. Another way you can
actually have this happen is through what we call
a secondary infection. Maybe you actually literally get more TB. Maybe you’re on a bus or a boat, and a second person decides to cough and TB gets into your lungs through breathing it in. That’s another way to actually get progressive secondary infection. You can also think that
this is re-infection, because you basically got re-infected with the same bug. The thing that ties
reactivation together with re-infection is that in both situations your immune system has at some point in the past been exposed to TB. We think that’s the main reason why you see these cavities, and you see so much disease. That’s a really horrible infection to get. So, thinking about this a little bit more broadly then, both the progressive primary infection, and the progressive secondary infection, who are the folks that
you’d be most worried getting these diseases? I always worry about HIV patients before any other group because we know that HIV and TB is a really,
really bad combination. They’re at high risk for getting progressive disease; both primary, which is at the time that they got the first infection with TB, or secondary which could be years later.

Reducing the risk of wound infection

Reducing the risk of wound infection


Reducing the risk of wound infection. This section explains what you can do to help reduce the risk of infection and prepare for surgery. In the month before surgery let your GP know if you think you have any infection that may need treating and clearing up before coming into hospital. This includes urinary tract infection or chest infections it also includes conditions like cellulitis or other issues which may be near to or over the expected surgical site. Such for example a fungal infection between the skin folds on the stomach. If not treated the pathogens involved in these infections may spread and cause a problem after surgery with your wound. In the week before coming into hospital, don’t shave the hair from your chest, arms, legs, groin or any area of your body which may be involved in surgery. This is because studies showed that shaving may increase the risk of infection in certain types of operations. If needed the nurse will help you remove hair for surgery using electric clippers while you are in hospital. It’s recommended that you shower methodically the day before and as well as on the day of surgery. This will help reduce the number of bacteria on your skin. Have a shower and wash your hair using liquid soap and shampoo, clean flannels and clean towels. You may be given a special antimicrobial liquid soap to use before your surgery. Use this according to the product’s instructions or as advised by hospital staff. In hospital the nurse can assist you if you need help showering. After surgery it is very important to have a full daily wash even if you feel tired. After your surgery, and most importantly for staff and patients, keeping hands clean is an effective way of preventing the spread of infection. During your recovery period we recommend that you aim to wash your hands at least 10 times a day which is in line with other health care advice to stop infections. Please don’t touch your wound or any cannula or tubes placed by doctors as this could increase the risk of infection. Once you go home we recommend that you continue to wash your hands as you would do normally plus double again for the first few weeks after surgery. Continue to avoid touching the wound until the skin is sealed over with a flat scar and keep movement gentle so as not to stretch or stress the area. You’ll have a follow-up appointment to check on the wound and healing progress either in hospital or with a community carer. This preparation is a general guide, your hospital staff will give you all the help and specific advice you’ll need for your surgery and recovery period

Viruses and Bacteria: What’s the difference and who cares anyway? – Plain and Simple

Viruses and Bacteria: What’s the difference and who cares anyway? – Plain and Simple


The anthrax virus can attack the lungs– The white powder may have contained anthrax virus and the authorities — The virus responsible for the d– NOT virus. Bacterium. For everyday folks, the term virus usually means an invisibly small… whatever, that’s responsible for the zombie apocalypse but can at least make you sick. As such, it’s synonymous with bacteria but easier to pronounce, thus making word repetition avoidable in the evening news. In reality, however, they are very different. Yes, both of them could ruin your Sunday with coughing, explosive diarrhea, and profuse blood-vomiting but they substantially differ from each other in size, structure and biology. Bacteria are cellular creatures of microscopic size: most of their bodies consists of the cytoplasm, a gooey organic substance, in which a bunch of biochemical processes take place. These processes together form the actual life of the bacterium and they’re regulated by the genetic material sloshing about in the cytoplasm known as DNA or de***cid. Argh! F***g curse filter! Khm… To keep the cytoplasm from flowing everywhere, it is surrounded by a membrane and here we have a functioning bacterium which feeds from its surroundings and as it becomes fat enough, it divides. Viruses are way more simple. They are dwarves compared to bacteria with their tiny shells only surrounding their genetic material which can either be DNA or r****cid. Oh, g***it! Without cytoplasm, viruses are like Anton Chekhov tragedies: nothing happens in them. There are no biochemical reactions, no life processes, the virus doesn’t do anything, it just… is. Like people on reality-shows. But if it doesn’t do anything, how does it reproduce? A virus can be regarded as a message in a bottle. Whenever it comes across a susceptive cell of a higher organism, it gets picked up, and the cell will read its genetic material. CELL: May the Devil’s ass f**k you in the ears! Pass it on! Based on the information in the virus’s genetic material, the biochemical processes of the cell will start replicating the virus, which usually does not result in a happy ending for the cell. The main difference between the two pathogens is that bacteria are alive, they have their own metabolism, they feed, they reproduce – it’s a miracle they don’t have to pay taxes – while viruses don’t strictly speaking live: they’re just packaged codes waiting for a host cell to replicate them. Viruses, therefore, rely upon invading other organisms to survive: some attack people, others prey on animals or plants, even bacteria aren’t safe from them. In the meantime bacteria can peacefully exist in the soil, in natural waters, in the drain or in leftover hot dogs without causing any trouble. You even carry them on your skin and in your guts and no harm is done to you. On the contrary: Every fart that ever cracked you up was a product of bacteria! Of course, plenty of them cause diseases but we can’t lump them together with viruses because their biological differences affect our means of combating them. As long as they are outside the body, rules of general hygiene apply the intensity of which is dependent on the specific pathogen: sometimes it’s enough to wash hands, other times we hysterically splatter bleach all over the place. Pathogens that have already entered the body have to be treated differently because you can’t just pour acid over them or tickle them with flames. Unless you want to kill the patient as well, you have to target the pathogens specifically. In the case of bacteria, this can be achieved with antibiotics. Antibiotics wreck the special biochemical processes of bacteria making them die miserably while apologizing. The biochemical processes of the cells of the patient are different enough from those of the bacteria for antibiotics not to affect them… much. We can’t pull the same trick on viruses because, if you recall, there are no biochemical processes in viruses. If you’ve ever tried parachuting with an anvil, you have an idea of just how effective antibiotics against viruses are. The biochemical processes of viruses are performed by the host cells during their everyday activity, so we cannot block them without seriously damaging the host and triggering malpractice lawsuits. However, there ARE antiviral drugs which can block special elements of the host-virus interaction, elements that don’t exist during normal cellular functioning, and therefore will not be missed, such as the act of viral entry into the cell. Antiviral drugs are not good against all viruses and even in cases when they are, they’re not as effective as antibiotics against bacteria. But do not despair, there is another weapon against viruses, namely the unstoppable power of love… I mean, vaccines. They are not for curing viral diseases, though, but for preventing them. Of course, many bacterial infections can be fought with vaccines as well but generally speaking, vaccines are used more often against viruses because, as a rule of thumb, the more simple a pathogen’s structure is, the better vaccines work against it. And viruses are simple. On the particle accelerator – Hodor complexity scale used by scientists, viruses are pretty close to the latter. Way closer than bacteria. There are, of course, plenty of exceptions to this rule, so the golden age of viruslessness has not yet begun but is this really our biggest problem when socks with flip-flops is still a thing? Summing it up: Viruses and bacteria, although both potential pathogens, differ greatly in their structure and their biology calling for different methods of combating them. Antibiotics left over from treating grandpa’s pus-oozing tooth are not going to work on your flu. WOMAN: Couldn’t we try it anyway just a little– NO!!! Mixing them up in a conversation is not a deadly sin but it is ill-advised if you work in the media as it could lead to television sets getting damaged. Health. It makes you live longer. WITNESS: I don’t know… Number three maybe? POLICE: Are you sure? WITNESS: No, wait! He was wearing glasses, so… number four. The technical information in this video was fact-checked by Tamás Bakonyi, veterinarian, virologist, demon hunter. I thank him very much! If you’ve made it this far, why not like, comment or subscribe? Or check out my other videos! I know it would make at least one of us happy.

Antibiotic Awareness: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Cystitis or Bladder Infection

Antibiotic Awareness: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Cystitis or Bladder Infection


(upbeat electronic music) – Did you know bacteria
can live in the bladder without causing an infection? Hi, I’m Dr. Amit
Desai in partnership with Washington State
Department of Health. I’m here to speak to you
about urinary tract infections also known as cystitis,
or bladder infections. The most important thing
for you to remember today is that you should
only take antibiotics for a bladder infection
when you have symptoms and a positive urine test. Bladder infections are very
common bacterial infections in the bladder that can cause
a feeling where you can’t wait to urinate or need to
urinate more often, and burning when urinating. Other possible symptoms
include lower abdominal or flank pain, chills, fever,
and blood in the urine. A bacteria called E. Coli
is the most common cause of bladder infection but
this bacteria can also live in the bladder without
causing an infection. For these reasons,
bacteria found in the urine without any symptoms
should only be treated in special cases like
women who are pregnant, and in people who are about
to have urologic surgery. So remember, one way we
can avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics is to avoid
treating a positive test for bacteria when
there are no symptoms. Also, it is important not
to pressure your provider to prescribe antibiotics. Thank you for taking
the time to listen. I’m Dr. Amit Desai with The Washington State
Department of Health.

Do Vegans Kill Bugs? | Gary Yourofsky Interview

Do Vegans Kill Bugs? | Gary Yourofsky Interview


Emily: Hi it’s Emily from Bite Size Vegan
and welcome to another vegan nugget. Today I’m honored to be joined by my friend and
mentor Gary Yourofsky who has graciously agreed to be here and answer questions that you,
the Bite Size Vegan audience, have sent to me. I’m going to be releasing this interview
in a series of videos so be sure to stay tuned to the channel. Gary I just wanted to thank
you so much for taking time out of your busy schedule to be here and answer some of these
questions. Gary: Anything for you Emily. Emily: Thank you. Emily: Where do you draw the line with harming
other beings? People will often bring up well what about bacteria or ants or other bugs?
Are all beings equal to each other in that sense? Gary: All the insects, not the bacteria. Let’s
not be ridiculous, we all wash our hands and single celled organisms are insentient beings
as far as my research shows. But listen, if you are being attacked, and that’s what bacteria
9 times out of 10 do, you have a right to defend yourself. As for insects, I dig most
insects. I don’t kill any, but I’m starting to appreciate more and more of them as the
years go by. In fact our backyard right now is filled with grasshoppers and crickets.
In fact this morning when I left Detroit, there was a grasshopper I swear this big,
on the garage and Erica and I were out there and we were just face-to-face in awe for about
15 minutes looking at this beautiful creature. Butterflies obviously all that stuff. In fact
the bees, the bees and I get along really well because I’ve now added, not that I’ve
ever excluded bee’s from my circle of compassion, but I’m now saying honey eaters in the current
speech, I’m pointing that out. Because I’m tired of the vegan community now allowing
honey in. So I think the bees know what I’m doing, and I get along. I actually had about
12 bees living out back. We had a little bird feeder with raisins and seeds in there, but
none of the birds would come. All of a sudden 12 bees would show up every day and we could
walk right by and look at them, and they just ignored us so I think insects are some of
the coolest creatures on the planet. Spiders and I, for those that know me well, they terrify
me more than anything. I think there’s only two things in hell, fire and spiders. But
that doesn’t mean that I kill them, I do not kill spiders. They get caught in my house
immediately, in a cup, and you’ve got to go outside. The other insects, I actually don’t
mind if they stay in the house sometimes. I rescued a stink bug once, never even knew
what a stink bug was until we took a picture of it and looked it up online. Instead of
putting him outside I put him in the flower pot. And then one night Erica said I’m being
dive bombed by some creature in here. And I’m like, it could be that stink bug I put
in the plant. She goes you left him in the house? I think they’re pretty cool. But include
insects in your circle of compassion, they’re animals too, they’re creatures. Check out
my animal intelligence essay by the way on my website. Some of the coolest creatures,
in fact I can tell you a quick story, and you can punch this up on YouTube anytime.
Ants, some of the most amazing beings on this planet. If there is a flood, ants will actually
get together and lock arms and legs and form a raft. And then a few of the higher up ants
in the community will go get the queen ant and bring her on top of the ant raft. And
then the raft will float down until the flood has ended, all this to save the queen ant.
That’s how altruistic ants and other insects and all animals can be if you just pay attention
and start to notice what’s going on. So include insects. Bacteria, spare me the nonsense.
Somebody asked me that in the Georgia Tech speech that’s online and I made a joke that
what are you, with people for the ethical treatment of bacteria? And the whole thing
is stupid. I love how people bring up issues or things that they are not even involved
in. It’s not like there’s a group out there fighting to save bacteria. So all people want
to do when they bring that up to a vegan is try to catch us in a contradiction. We are
doing just fine, there are no contradictions here. You guys are walking contradictions,
you guys are walking graveyards of murdered animals. You claim that you are holy and compassionate,
and then you commit atrocities and commit evil acts every single day. So everybody who
is not vegan needs to look in the mirror and start analyzing themselves instead of the
vegans in the world. Emily: Gary I just want to thank you so much
for giving us your time and I’ve been asked on behalf of so many of my viewers to just
thank you for everything that you do. So thank you so much. Gary: Thank you, keep on. Everybody pass her
stuff around, it’s tight stuff, honestly. Bitesizevegan.com, share it. Emily: Stay tuned to the Bitesizevegan channel
for more installations of Gary’s interview. I’ll also be posting bonus footage of questions
that don’t make it to the channel, into the VIP section of Bitesizevegan.com, which you
can access for free by signing up for the nugget newsletter. Give the video a thumbs
up if you enjoyed it, and be sure to subscribe so that you never miss a nugget. Now go live
vegan and I’ll see you soon.