Bacterial Meningitis: Symptoms in Children – Infectious Diseases | Lecturio

Bacterial Meningitis: Symptoms in Children – Infectious Diseases | Lecturio


So, let’s look at the clinical
features of bacterial meningitis. Newborns are a challenge for physicians because they do not have the classic findings that are talked about in meningitis. For example, newborns don’t have generally a stiff neck. They may have fever, but they may have no fever or they may have a low temperature, so they have temperature instability. Newborns with meningitis are generally listless. They are not responsive to their surrounding. They may have an unusual
kind of high-pitched cry, which suggests a process
going on in the brain. They, as expected, would be fretful, they’re lethargic, they may not feed well, they may not feed at all, and the mothers may notice that
they have a very weak suck. So, they’re generally irritable. And, of course, all newborns are jaundiced, but newborns with meningitis
may have unusually severe jaundice. They may vomit, they may have diarrhea and respiratory distress. So, a pediatrician evaluating a newborn has to worry about meningitis in a baby with these kind of findings, any of them. And there’s an indication to do a spinal tap and examine the cerebrospinal fluid if there’s any suggestion of meningitis. Children from age one to four are
a little easier to evaluate. More than 90% of them
are going to have fever. Eighty-plus percent will be vomiting. And stiff neck starts to present
itself after about the year of one. So, those are the main findings
in children one to four. Older children and adults are easier to diagnose. Virtually 100% will have fever. Most of them have headache. Almost all of them will have meningismus, which is the syndrome of having a stiff neck. And this is an important point. Patients with viral meningitis, they may complain of headache, they may have fever, they may even have a stiff neck, but they’re not out of it. Most patients with bacterial meningitis on the other hand have cerebral dysfunction. When they are brought to a physician, and they are usually brought to the physician, they have confusion, their head doesn’t work. And the classic findings are the
findings of Kernig’s and Brudzinski sign. Now, Kernig’s sign, it’s often hard to remember. It was for me when I was a student. But the way I remember it now is K for kerning, K for doing something with the knee. So, the patient is supine and you take the patient’s leg and flex the leg like that and then extend the knee. Now, in a patient who’s awake, extending the knee puts traction on the meninges and that causes pain
going up and down the spine. That would be a positive Kernig’s sign. Now, in a comatose patient, they can’t tell you
whether they have pain, but doing this maneuver
and feeling resistance when you try to extend the knee is a positive Kernig’s sign
in a comatose patient. Brudzinski’s sign is where you
have the patient lying supine and you flex the patient’s neck. And if the patient’s hips involuntarily flex, they have a positive Brudzinski sign. Cranial nerve palsies are not as frequent. They occur in a minority of
patients with bacterial meningitis, but they are an ominous sign because it usually means that there is involvement of the brainstem. In every patient with meningitis, they need to be searched carefully, their extremities, legs, arms for a petechial rash because a petechial rash occurs primarily
in meningococcal meningitis, the meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis. But it can occur also in
other forms of meningitis, particularly pneumococcal meningitis in the presence of a splenectomy. Seizures are, obviously, a bad sign and indicate that the meningitis
is pretty far advanced as is hemiparesis.

A Childhood Epidemic

A Childhood Epidemic


Since 1995, childhood obesity rates in
North America have TRIPLED. More than 20% of North American
children are overweight or obese. That’s over 20 MILLION children. The results of this epidemic? Diabetes, hypertension, coronary
artery disease, high cholesterol. It’s time to turn this crisis around! Ideal Protein’s Weight Loss Protocol can help! Medically designed, Effective,
Safe, Predictable, Measurable. It has also changed MILLIONS of lives! What are you waiting for? Talk to your Healthcare Professional about the Ideal
Protein Protocol or visit: www.idealprotein.com

How Can We Prevent Fungal Infections? | Professor Neil A.R. Gow

How Can We Prevent Fungal Infections? | Professor Neil A.R. Gow


One very surprising thing about fungal
infections is there isn’t a single vaccine against any fungus so far. That
doesn’t mean to say that it shouldn’t be possible, but so far we
have not yet generated a single infection. So we’re all vulnerable to
that extent and our vulnerability is increased when we get ill. A lot of
fungal infections, serious fungal infections, are diseases of the diseased.
It costs a lot of money to keep and protect cancer patients from fungal
infections and that can often undo a lot of very elaborate, expensive, delicate
work to keep a cancer patient alive. Those people who have had organ
transplantation or any form of immune suppression are vulnerable to fungal
infections. So again, we have to be able to monitor the presence of fungi, deal
with them quickly and be aware of the context of fungal disease. Again, all of
these attributes are discussed in depth in this new book. Well, one thing in the whole field of
medical mycology which really changed the backdrop, was the advent of HIV/AIDS,
which of course developed initially in the 1980s. This created a whole new group of people who were particularly prone to a variety of fungal infections including
Pneumocystis, Candida, Cryptococcus and other infections. And that’s a particular
group of patients which we need to keep an eye on. Mercifully now, in many parts
of the world, we’ve been able to get on top of HIV/AIDS. There’s very effective
therapy and that keeps those sort of fungal infections at bay. But one of the
difficulties in medical mycology is zones of the world,
areas where there is very large endemic burdens, are often the same areas which
are very impoverished poor parts of the world and medical resources are limited.
Sometimes effective drugs are not available in those parts of the of the
world and so there’s a lot to be done politically, as well as medically, to get
on top of this on a global scale.

Arrow Exterminators Share Tips on How to Combat Termites 2

Arrow Exterminators Share Tips on How to Combat Termites 2


” AND TODAY WE’RE TALKING TERMITES AND WHAT HOME OWNERS SHOULD LOOK OUT FOR. 1. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN SWARMS AND THE THE SMALL, WHITE TERMITES. 2. WHY ARE THEY SO BAD IN THE SOUTHEAST? 3.WHAT SHOULD PEOPLE LOOK FOR? 4. IS THERE A WAY TO PREVENT THEM? 5. ARE THEY HARMFUL TO PEOPLE, PETS, OR PLANTS? TLANTA – TERMITES ARE AMONG THE MOST DEVASTATING INTRUDERS A SHAWN: YOUR LIVE VIPER 6 FORECAST IS NEXT.

Is Termite Fumigation Safe?

Is Termite Fumigation Safe?


Hey everyone, Isaac from Accurate Termite and
Pest Control here. Are fumigations safe? In order to avoid any confusion
let’s first clarify; ‘fumigation’ refers to covering a house under a tarp or a tent. So,
coming inside to do a spray for roaches, ants, spiders whatever it might be that
is not a fumigation. In california the two most commonly used fumigants are
Vikane and Masterfume. The first thing you should know is that both of these are
indeed toxic pesticides. So if you are I were to come in contact with either of
these fumigants it would likely result in adverse health effects. HOWEVER, in
California there are several agencies that regulate the process of fumigation.
There are many rules and regulations in place. As long as the fumigator and
also the customer follow all of these rules and regulations properly ,there is
no risk that you, the customer, or the fumigator will actually be exposed to
the product. When the rules are followed, no one is exposed to a harmful fumigant.
If you’re concerned with safety, be sure that your vendor knows and
understands all of the rules in California that are in place in order to
fumigate. Thanks for watching please feel free to send us any more questions on
our Facebook page. You can find more videos like this on Facebook or YouTube
channel. Thanks again. 1(844)GOT.ANTS

10 Weird Ways Your Pets Could Kill or Disable You

10 Weird Ways Your Pets Could Kill or Disable You


Pets of all kinds — some familiar, some
bizarre — are treasured companions and curiosities for animal aficionados. Yet living with other species poses risks. Pets can kill or maim in bizarre and unexpected
ways. We’re not talking dog bites; we are talking
lethal lizards, arthropod attacks, hamster hazards, freak fish tank infections, parasite
rampages, and chlamydia death by cockatiel. 10. Parrot Fever Cockatiels and other small parrot family members
are popular pets. But birds kept as pets can carry nasty diseases,
and in one notorious case a death alleged to have come from a pet store-purchased cockatiel
led to a lawsuit. The cause? A type of chlamydia (albeit an avian one)
transmissible to humans and, in rarer cases, from an infected human to a non-infected human. Transmission may take place by “kissing”
a bird, breathing dropping-derived particles, or from simply handling the bird. Parrot Fever is rare, with less than 10 cases
of the disease occurring in the United States annually from 2010 onward. The disease-causing organism is genetically
related to the common type of chlamydia notorious as a sexually transmitted disease passable
between humans, but is a different organism, known as Chlamydia psittaci. Symptoms of parrot fever in affected humans
include fever, coughing, chills, muscle weakness, diarrhea, nausea, and exhaustion. Bird symptoms include weight loss, discharges,
dropping color changes and lethargy. While parrots are famous as potential transmitters
of the disease, other types of birds may also carry the infection including ducks, chickens,
turkeys, pigeons and songbirds. Cases mostly occurring where large numbers
of birds are being reared for food, eggs or kept as pets. The disease is known from countries as far
apart as Australia and England, but is more common in the tropics. 9. Fish Tank Infections Doing some maintenance on an aquarium? Nicked yourself on the tank frame in the process? Might be up for losing a finger or worse,
in extreme cases. Fish tanks can contain a wide variety of pathogens,
and open cuts or scratches can be cause for a nasty infection. Mycobacterium marinum infections can cause
horrific symptoms, as one teen discovered after cutting her hand in a fish tank. Chronic infection, surgery, and spread of
infection into deep tissue resulted. Amputations may result in the worst cases. The bacteria can be best avoided by first
making sure there is no open wound or cut on your hand, and second, washing your hands
very well after any aquarium maintenance or contact with the fish. Furthermore, be sure as a fishkeeper to never
mix household utensils with aquarium maintenance gear, or to suck on a siphon when changing
the water. Another threat posed to the careless aquarist
is the chance of salmonella exposure from actual fish and also other popular aquatic
life, such as newts or aquatic reptiles. The disease can lead to severe gastrointestinal
symptoms and even death in severe cases. 8. Tarantula Hair Shooting Are you thinking a tarantula would look cool? Well, it’s not about just avoiding a bite. The enormous arachnids may constitute the
spider world’s answer to King Kong, but their venomous capabilities are often overrated
while a more insidious danger posed by the animals is frequently overlooked. You might even have trouble looking at the
tarantula after an attack of flying hair. No, porcupines do not “shoot” their quills,
but tarantulas can shoot their sharp hairs, potentially causing serious eye injuries. Tarantula bodies are covered in fine hairs,
with the hairs on their huge, bulbous abdomens known as setae being tipped with pain-inducing
barbs. Upon an encounter with an adversary, which
could simply be an insufficiently trained animal handler, the irate tarantula can use
its legs to flick the abdomen hairs into the “victim” in one of the most dextrous types
of combat used by any animals. Alternatively, tarantulas may simply rub their
belly up against the target, pushing the harpoon-like hairs into the flesh of the enemy. Handlers may suffer pain in the hands, but
the worst cases involve some nasty eye symptoms arising from the presence of multiple mini-harpoons
being jabbed into the eyeballs, having to be removed by doctors using tweezers. 7. Hamster Bites Hamsters are incredibly popular small pets,
resembling a small bear but related closely to mouse and gerbil species. Syrian Hamsters, a larger species, are the
most popular, while Russian Dwarf Hamsters and Chinese Hamsters are also sometimes kept. When disturbed, hamsters can inflict a nasty
bite with their incisor teeth, potentially leading to numerous medical complications. Hamster bites have been known to trigger fatal
allergic reactions in the form of anaphylaxis, a problem facing a small but still concerning
number of hamster owners. In one especially sad case, a former policewoman
and mother of three children from Singapore died when one of two fighting hamsters bit
her as she tried to break up the conflict. She quickly experienced pain and numbness,
then lapsed into a coma and later died despite six days of medical attention. Additionally, cases of the infectious disease
Tularemia, alternatively called rabbit fever or deer fly fever, have been reported from
exposure to hamsters carrying the infectious bacteria species Francisella tularensis. Symptoms include eye inflammation, lymph node
swelling, skin irritation, and lung problems. Clearly, the ability of hamsters to bite and
the risk of either allergy or infection warrants care, not complacency when dealing with these
pets. 6. Pet Primate Horrors Granted, monkeys and apes are our closest
living relatives, given that us humans ourselves count as a primate species. One might therefore be forgiven for assuming
that other species of primates would make ideal companion animals. You know, instead of a dog, something even
more like us. However, not only are many species of primates
endangered, they pose catastrophic risks of infection and physically violent conflicts
with humans in home care, or rather, captivity. Macaques, a popular smaller monkey type, may
carry Herpes B, a terrifying cousin of the familiar cold sore virus that is able to kill
a human. Infection may set in after a macaque bite,
or even a mere scratch from a monkey. Scarier yet is you cannot know for sure if
your macaque is a carrier of the deadly Herpes B virus, as negative test results are sometimes
inaccurate. Zoos have to treat all macaques as potential
carriers. Due to the dangers posed by primates to humans,
the United States has banned primate imports for the pet trade since 1975. Still, that doesn’t mean people have stopped
sourcing animals already imported or bred in captivity for other purposes at their own
risk. Physical attacks by monkeys may cause owners
to inhumanely remove the animal’s teeth, while aggression from non-human apes like
Chimpanzees, the larger relatives of monkeys, has led to horrendous incidents like the attack
on Charla Nash by her friend’s chimpanzee in 2002. 5. Stabbed, Sliced, and Diced Goldfish, guppies, and betta fish may all
be extremely safe pets, but did you know that quite a few of the little fish you see in
aquarium shops and home tanks could never come close to biting you but still leave you
running for the emergency room? That is because a number of the most beautiful
small tropical fish available are concealed-carry dagger masters. They hide their razor sharp bony knives in
the strangest places, while other fish surreptitiously swim around with a venom-bearing hypodermic
needle of sorts on their back, ready to sting like a wasp or scorpion. Clown Loaches are ever popular freshwater
aquarium fish but beneath their eyes lie folding, extremely sharp, knife-like bony blades. If provoked, the animals can slice into your
hand and cause a nasty injury. In the case of tangs — the colorful, roughly
disk-shaped tropical fish — they can inflict a nasty cut with sharp bony blades located
near their tail fins. If that wasn’t enough, a wide variety of
aquarium catfish possess venom-bearing spines in their fins that may inflict a nasty sting
should you be careless enough to pick them up without a fish net. 4. Cat Scratch Fever Cat scratches may be painful, but the resulting
infection could send you to the hospital. These popular tiny relatives of tigers and
lions are carriers of Bartonella henselae bacteria, which causes the illness popularly
termed “cat scratch fever.” The affliction presents as a cluster of symptoms
that may include blistering, exhaustion, headaches, lymphatic swelling, fever, weight loss, and
a sore throat. The disease is far from harmless and it is
surprisingly prevalent. The Centers for Disease Control states that
around 12,000 people are estimated to contract the condition yearly. Of those 12,000, about 500 sufferers end up
in the hospital. Antibiotics may be required in cases prone
to complications, while lymphatic swelling may take a year to go down. Severe complications, while less common, are
nonetheless horrendous. These scary problems include encephalopathy,
which can bring about permanent damage to the brain or death following a bacterial invasion
of the brain, neuroretinitis, which blurs vision, but subsides in most cases with time,
and osteomyelitis. This horrible complication consists of bacterial
bone infection, which may require amputation of affected parts. Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome may result
from Bartonella henselae bacteria entry into the eyes, requiring surgical removal of infected
eye tissue on occasion. 3. Pet Snail Perils Snails may be slow, but their popularity is
quickly rising. The slow snail is also a pet that may land
you in a sticky medical situation not-so-slowly. When choosing a pet snail, you have your choice
of marine, terrestrial, or freshwater gastropods, as snails are technically called. Snails can range from the minute to the enormous,
just like the diverse array of parasites they can carry. Eating freshwater snails can cause schistosomiasis,
an exceptionally dangerous disease also known as snail fever, caused when humans are parasitized
by flatworms, or flukes in the genus schistosoma. Large outbreaks worldwide are responsible
for hundreds of thousands of deaths, making it the second deadliest tropical disease after
malaria. Infection occurs when infectious larvae enter
human skin, then cause internal damage. Many cases have occurred in China following
Yangtze River flooding. Terrestrial snails like Giant African Land
Snails or Roman Snails may be viewed as good, easy starter pets for children or curious
hobbyists, but if a child ingests a small snail — an easy occurrence — rat lungworm
infection may result as the mollusks are hosts for these grotesque parasites. Perhaps most terrifying of all, the rat lungworms
can burrow into the spinal cord and brain, potentially causing paralysis or death. 2. Amphibian Bites OK. We get it. The unusual, the strange. In the search for something truly different,
you opt not for a reptile, but an amphibian as an exotic pet. What could be more harmless and cute than
a salamander or frog? Actually, while these creatures are indeed
soft and fragile to the touch, many of the most popular pet species grow to a substantial
size and are armed to the teeth, literally. Take the Pacman Frog, a popular and cartoonish
little terrarium pet easily picked up at a pet shop near you. Though it can go in a 20-gallon tank, this
creature is toothy, may bite your finger, and when it does, expect blood. Scientists have discovered that this mere
frog bites down with 30 Newtons, or 6.6 pounds of force when it clamps its target. Moving on to salamanders, the deceptively
eel-like Two-Toed Amphiuma — a huge, aquatic salamander sometimes mistakenly called a Congo
Eel — poses a threat to the careless aquarist. Actually of American origin, native to the
Southwestern States, the creature is the third largest salamander and capable of inflicting
some very painful gashes when provoked. You would think a snake had gotten you. The same goes for species like the beautiful
and renowned Tiger Salamander. The striped amphibian also packs quite a bite. If bitten, watch out for infections, and always
be aware of salmonella when near amphibians. 1. Oh Deer Deer are herbivores. So what could go wrong if you decided not
to have a friendly but potentially bite-inflicting dog on your property, opting instead for a
small member of the Cervidae? A lot, it turns out. Deer won’t eat meat, but are aggressive
for other reasons and may leave a naïve keeper as a ready meal for a scavenger. In a tragic Australian incident that happened
in Wangaratta, close to Melbourne, a 47-year-old man named Paul McDonald was fatally roughed
up by his pet deer, which he kept on the property he shared with his wife, who was also attacked
after she came with her son in response to her husband’s screams. Police officers responded and shot the deer,
which was described as a hybrid deer, the result of the mating of a Red Deer and a larger
deer species, an Elk, also known as a Wapiti. The main dangers from a deer attack do not
come from bites, instead being presented by the mass of the animal and concentrated force
delivered by blows from the hoofs and sharply-pointed antler racks. The territorial nature of deer and unpredictable
behavior of these animals makes them questionable choices as a pet.

Scouting for Tarnished Plant Bugs in Strawberries | Dépistage de la punaise terne dans les fraisiers

Scouting for Tarnished Plant Bugs in Strawberries | Dépistage de la punaise terne dans les fraisiers


[TITLE: Berry Integrated Pest Management – Scouting for Tarnished Plant Bug in Strawberries] Narrator: Being able to identify and evaluate tarnished
plant bug in strawberries can help you minimize crop loss from this pest. Tarnished plant bugs feed on developing flowers
and seeds of strawberries, causing mild to severely mishapen fruit. Seeds are generally the same size in the damaged
areas of the fruit. Severely mishapen fruit is sometimes described
as button berry or catfacing. Sometimes, similar damage can be caused by
poor pollination or frost injury. For example,this damage was NOT caused by
tarnished plant bug. Notice the seeds in the damaged area are very
small. Most damage to strawberries is caused by immature
tarnished plant bugs, or nymphs. To scout for tarnished plant bugs you need
a shallow dish or tray and a hand lens or magnifying glass. Scout for tarnished plant bugs during the
bloom and green fruit stage of strawberries, when the plants are dry. Keeping your back to the wind, shake a large
flower cluster or several small ones over the dish by rapping sharply. This counts as one tap. Look into the dish for insects. Tarnished plant bug will be moving quickly,
with antennae forward. There are several instars, or sizes, of tarnished
plant bug. Instars 1-to-3 are between 1 and 3 mm in length,
pale green in colour with a rounded posterior. Instars 4 and 5 are larger, with wing pads,
and dark dots on their backs. Other insects can fall into the dish and can
be distinguished from tarnished plant bug by their shape, characteristics and movements. Aphids are also green soft-bodied insects,
but unlike tarnished plant bug, have two protruding cornicles on their abdomen. They are usually slow moving. Leafhoppers are bright green and narrow, with
longer, pointed abdomens. Leafhoppers are highly mobile and demonstrate
distinct sideways movement when disturbed. Springtails and thrips are also frequently
dislodged from flowers into the tapping tray. Record the number of plant bugs per tap, empty
the dish and repeat. Move acoss the field in a zigzag pattern,
sticking to the same variety, or other varieties in the same stage of bloom. Look at 50 or more flower clusters in the
field. The threshold for tarnished plant bug is an
average of 1 nymph in 4 clusters, or 1/4 nymphs per tap. For more information on monitoring tarnished
plant bug, visit our website, or give us a call.

The incredible (endangered) biodiversity of the Amazon rainforest | Jorge Rodrigues | TEDxUTA

The incredible (endangered) biodiversity of the Amazon rainforest | Jorge Rodrigues | TEDxUTA


Translator: Deborah Oliveira
Reviewer: Denise RQ Host: Our next speaker is
a Brazilian native and microbiologist with deep interests in biodiversity
and ecosystem functionality of the Amazon rainforest. In order to shed light on these and other
microbial ecosystems in question, he uses high-throughput
genomic technologies to study microorganism environments as diverse as tropical forests
and termite hindguts. Today, he serves as an Assistant Professor
within the Department of Biology at UTA. Please welcome Jorge Rodrigues. (Applause) Jorge Rodriguez: For the next ten minutes, I’m going to try to convince you
that Dr. Seuss has been lying to you. (Laughter) I hope that if I convince you of that,
you will go back home, buy more Dr. Seuss books,
and read to your kids, with your siblings, friends,
grandkids, and so on. Why do I say that? Because it is my own experience
when I started working in the Amazon. I was really interested
in learning more about the Amazon. If I am going there, I want to find out
what is already there. And if I am going to be there, I want to find out
if something is going to eat me, who is going to eat me there, right? So what I did was to collect a whole bunch
of information about the Amazon. I collected books, readings, videos. And I started reading all of this. But the book that really caught
my attention was this book. Why is that? Well, because it is all about
the rainforest. So I said, “This is
the must-read book for me.” If I am going there, I should read
more and more about this book. So I start reading this book
and what happened was that the book starts talking
about the rainforest and the patterns, the dry seasons
and the rainy seasons of the forest. I thought, “Oh, that is very interesting!
Let me continue reading this.” The next topic was about the locations. It told me where rainforests are located. But I am a scientist, and as a scientist
I don’t just trust data. I really want to find out
what is going on with the data. So what I did was to connect with people who could tell me more about the Amazon,
or about the rainforest. I found one expert, and the expert was seven years old. I asked him, “Where are
the locations of the rainforest?” He told me, “Rainforests are located
in Central and South America, they are also located in Africa in countries like Congo, Zaire,
Gabon, Madagascar, and back again we have rainforest in countries like the Philippines,
Thailand, Malaysia, New Guinea.” I compared the information
the expert gave me with the information
that I got from the book, and they both matched. So I am going to read
more and more about this book. The next topic in the book
was about the biodiversity. It talks about the biodiversity
of plants and of animals. I said, “I am going
to get there to the Amazon, and it is going to be like a zoo to me, because I am going to see all kinds
of animals, all kinds of plants.” It turns out that when I got there
that is what I saw. A pretty dark place,
and this is the middle of the day. I thought, “Wait a minute, all those books promised me
that I would see something else!” Actually, the books told me that 25% of all terrestrial species
are present in the Amazon. 25%. The books told me
that in a 100 by 100 square meters, I would find more plants
than in the entire European continent. Imagine the entire Europe. In a 100 by 100,
you can see more plants there. In a single tree, I can see
80 different species of ants. And if you multiple this number of insects
by the number of plants, you would find a staggering number of 42,000 different insects
in a hectare of the Amazon. If this is not enough for you, the majority of them
have not been described. We don’t know what they are doing there. And something that is
a bit more related to us: in a single sampling expedition,
we can find 72 different species of bats. If you are in the US,
we have 42 species of bats. In a single expedition, we could almost double
the number of bat species in the Amazon. I did not see any animals there. I was still wondering, “What is happening?
Why don’t I see all those animals?” And I would be OK with that,
not seeing any animals there, but the problem is
that the landscape is changing. The Amazon is changing quite fast. This is a satellite picture
of part of the Amazon forest. Every little orange dot you see is a fire. A fire that started to change the land. How do we do that? You remove all the hardwood and sell it. Then you slash everything to the ground. Next, you let it dry. When the dry season comes,
you set everything on fire. And that fire will burn for days and days,
sometimes for weeks and weeks. Once everything is turned to ashes,
you sow with grass and move cattle in. There are lots and lots of cattle there. So this idea of changing the land
from forest to pasture is really changing the biodiversity
in the Amazon forest. Why is that? Because this is the most important factor affecting biodiversity losses
in the Amazon. It is more important
than the CO2 increase, more important than climate change. It is the most important
man-made alteration going on in tropical systems these days. Just to give you an example, this is the area where we do
our sampling in the Amazon. In 1975, it was a sea of green. If we looked from the airplane,
we’d only see trees all over the place. In 14 years, that is what we saw. Lots and lots of changes. This is called a fishbone
structure of development. You have a road, and in both sides of it,
you have clearing of the land transforming the forest into pasture. The road continues, and you see more; more and more changes. If the landscape is changing,
then all inhabitants are changing as well. You know that plants
and animals will change. You have a forest with hundreds of plants, and then you have
one single plant now: a grass species. You have all kinds of animals,
all animals I didn’t see before, and now you have
one single species of animal: a cow. But there are lots of microbes there
I don’t see, and I know they’re there. Those are tiny little microbes. I have one gram of soil here on my hand., a little gram of soil. In this gram of soil,
I have 100 million microbes. There are 10,000 species of microbes
in this little gram of soil. They are all changing, so I am here today to tell you
they are changing as well; not only plants and animals change
but microbes change as well. The research that we do in the Amazon
tells us that the microbial communities in the Amazon soil
are increasing in similarity. What does that mean? It means that the microbes are becoming
more and more the same. They are becoming more and more
equal to each other. Genetically, they are becoming
more and more similar to each other. Why is that important? I have two reasons for you. The first reason is related
to the environment. Environments, ecosystems
provide us some services, and microbes as well. We don’t know that on a daily basis, but you have more microbial cells
than human cells. In the Amazon, those microbes are responsible
for recycling all nutrients. All dead carcasses of animals
are recycled by microbes. All leaves that fall from the trees
are recycled by microbes. So microbes are responsible
for all the biogeochemical cycles. If you are changing those microbes, then those biogeochemical cycles
will be altered as well. Now imagine the Amazon, that place that is the largest forest
terrestrial ecosystem in the world. If this ecosystem is changing,
then the Earth is changing. That is the first reason. The second reason is because microbes
are reservoirs of new antibiotics. They are reservoirs
of new biotechnological products. They are reservoirs
of cancer-fighting drugs. In fact, there are at least
120 prescribed drugs these days that came from the forest. If we are losing all those microbes,
we are losing the opportunity of finding new drugs, new antibiotics,
new biotechnological products. This is a picture that I took
during my last trip in the Amazon. When we are removing wood from the forest, we are not removing only wood,
we are removing something with it. I just told you that,
the microbes are disappearing. If the microbes are disappearing,
we are removing something else: their genes, those antibiotics
that we are supposed to find. You and me, we are all
driving that truck together. You like it or not, you are responsible
for driving that truck. As a responsible driver, or as a driver,
the question for you to ask is: “Should I step on the gas pedal
and go for it as fast as I can, or should I slow down a little bit and find the safest route
for me to keep going?” Thank you very much. (Applause)

Would you eat insects to save the world?

Would you eat insects to save the world?


Depending on who you ask,
insects are either gross or fascinating As it turns out,
they’re also incredibly nutritious surprisingly delicious and there’s a chance they could help to
alleviate world hunger and climate change Already about 2 billion people
regularly consume insects as part of their diet Beetles, caterpillars, bees, wasps and
crickets and grasshoppers are by far the most popular They’re all packed full of
protein, mono saturated fats, vitamins, minerals and fiber. Grasshoppers have as much
protein as ground beef, for example and per gram locusts contain as much
protein as lobsters, shrimp, squid and mackerel However, there’s an abundance
of insects all over the world and we could use them to feed
millions of starving people as well as ourselves. As insects are also
evolutionarily quite distant from humans they are also thought to be far less
likely to spread diseases that will affect us unlike conventional livestock Normally cattle require a lot of
food and water to maintain them and a majority of their body masses
aren’t actually edible However insects take far
less resources to grow and we can eat almost every part of them Traditional livestock also accounts for
18% of our greenhouse gas emissions If the world farmed more insects for food our carbon footprint would shrink dramatically So, chomping on a cricket and help fight against climate change too You probably think that the
texture and taste of bugs is unappetizing Weirdly, a loss of our food already
contains bug fragments Up to 1% of regular chocolate can contain tiny bug bits and there can be up to 50 aphids
per 100 grams of spinach Who knows? Maybe a sauteed spider or
barbecued beetle is tastier than you think

5 CRAZIEST INSECTS FIGHTS CAUGHT ON CAMERA

5 CRAZIEST INSECTS FIGHTS CAUGHT ON CAMERA


5 Insane Insect Fights
Hi guys! Insects are the largest and the most diverse type of animals on Earth. 1.5 million
of different kinds of insects inhabit our planet. They may be found in all environments:
they reside on the ground, in the sky and water… Often insects get mixed up in mortal
combats and even wars. Pretty much like humans do. Insects are very sophisticated killers.
Its always fascinating watching them fight. And that’s why now you are about to see
5 epic insect battles of all times. 1. Mantis VS Scolopendra
When you look at mantis you kind of think that it`s from outer space or a creature from
a horror film. Most mantis have elongated bodies that are very different from other
arthropods. It s got very flexible triangular head that almost spins on its axis, allowing
spotting approaching enemy even from behind. Some mantis grow up to 17 cm. long.
When mantis encounter their enemies, they first try to scare their opponent. They rise
in a frightening pose, spreading their wings like a kind of hand fan. They expose their
grasping legs pulling up bottoms of their bellies. Such pose usually accompanied by
a scary organic sound. If opponent seems bigger and stronger mantis prefers to fly away. But
when it feels its dominance or chances seem equal it often wins the battle.
Scolopendra. There are about 600 types of these predators. They are classified as centipedes
and the biggest specimen can be up to 30 cm. long. Scolopendra has one significant nuisance:
when disturbed these animals can cause inflammatory skin diseases. Scolopendra is a night predator
and it doesn’t feel comfortable in open space in broad daylight. Most scolopendra
are great runners but there is also a giant type that runs significantly faster than others
of its kind do. They mostly hunt for small invertebrates underground:
Larvae, earthworms and beetles but scolopendra gigantean can catch and kill a small reptile,
a frog for example, a mouse, bird, or even a small snake.
Let the battle commence. Opponents converge and both wait for a better
moment to strike. And the mantis strikes first! We are witnessing the fierce, mean battle.
Chances seem equal. One wrong move and the mantis is defeated. Scolopendra can now enjoy
a pleasant dinner. 2. Hornet VS Scorpion
There are 20 types of hornets known to man. The majority (12 types) lives in the South-East
Asia. The biggest type Is the Asian giant hornet. It can be almost 6 cm. long.
Fully grown hornets mostly feed on insects. They settle near bee houses and can do a lot
of damage killing honey bees with their sting or with their jaws. Their big and poisonous
stinger allows them attacking almost any insect in their habitat. Grasshoppers, wasps and
locusts do not have a chance against these merciless killers. The only ones who can confront
these flying monsters are the Asian bees. That is if they strike collectively. They
surround the hornet, trapping it in a kind of bee-sphere. The vibration inside the sphere
creates high temperature that could be almost 50 degrees. It is that heat that kills the
hornet. Scorpions are one of the most ancient arachnids
known to man. It can be found in many completely different parts of our planet. There are many
types of scorpions. Biologists discovered at list 1750 kinds. But only 50 of them are
poisonous and dangerous to men. Their body length varies from 1.5 to 20 cm. They can
be of almost any color. There are green, brown and even black scorpions.
Lets take a look at the fight between the hornet and a small scorpion. Hornet strikes
first. It doesn’t seem like the scorpion is ready to fight at all but it has no choice.
It tries to hit the hornet but there is not much luck there. After a while scorpion starts
using its claws. Useless. Hornet is set to win the fight. After a few more moments the
scorpion is defeated. Well, that was a small scorpion. In the future
episode you will see hornet fighting against the Emperor scorpion.
3. Hornet VS Tarantula Tarantulas are venomous and hairy. They belong
to the family of spider. Tarantula`s size varies from 2.5 up to 10 cm. They can swing
their legs as far as 30 cm. Females are always bigger and their weigh can reach whole 90
gram. They have large, deadly 1 cm long fangs. During their lifecycle tarantulas change their
natural chitinous “armor” that covers almost entire body of the spider. They feed
on smaller insects and even amphibians. Sometimes they hunt frogs.
Ok, let’s take a look at the merciless fight between the hornet and the tarantula they
call king baboon spider. Unlike the previous video this hornet doesn`t seem that active.
It`s like he`s not even trying to protect himself against the spider. Although if there
was more space to operate, we might have seen a whole different kind of battle. The spider
bites the hornet dealing a lot of damage. The cold-blooded spider slowly finishes his
prey. 4. Spider VS Scorpion
When spiders and scorpions collide, the later usually wins because of it`s heavy armor.
Spiders just can`t bite through scorpion`s protective layer. Scorpion in it`s turn easily
pierces spiders with its deadly tail. But if the spider happens to be a lot larger then
the situation changes drastically. Take a look at this unfortunate scorpion and his
massive opponent. This scorpion shouldn’t have come where he is no wanted.
5. Scorpion VS Sun spider As you already know, if a scorpion and a spider
are the same size then the scorpion would always win. But there is one exception. Sun
spider. Those spiders go by many names. Camel spider
is just one of them. Some of them are 7 cm. long! Its cephalothorax, which is his body
and head has a dismembered structure. It has two bulging eyes. They have powerful jaws
and ten legs. Sun spiders are typical predators and have
abnormal voracity. Despite the fact that these spiders are not venomous they can attack and
kill larger animals. They mostly feed on insects. Their usual diet are centipedes, termites,
scorpios and spiders as well as small rodents. Larger specimen also hunt lizards and small
birds. When up against each other, sun spider does
a very slimy trick. It pretends to run away making scorpion chase it. But the chase doesn’t
last long. The sun spider turns around swiftly and strikes the scorpion before it has a chance
to bounce off. Spider hits the deadliest part – scorpion`s tail. Now the scorpion is disarmed
and seems to be no longer dangerous. But it isn`t over just yet. The scorpion tries to
shake off the spider and release his tail from the spider`s grab. It`s useless. Sun
spider holds it for a few minutes. When scorpion loses all his power, the spider begins devour
his inattentive opponent. Do you guys wanna know about the black widow`s
fighting technique? Well then don’t miss upcoming episodes, press the like button and
subscribe! That`s all for now folks, thank you so much for watching, bye-bye!