Mating frenzies, sperm hoards, and brood raids: the life of a fire ant queen – Walter R. Tschinkel


It’s June, just after a heavy rainfall, and the sky is filling with creatures
we wouldn’t normally expect to find there. At first glance,
this might be a disturbing sight. But for the lucky males and females
of Solenopsis invicta, otherwise known as fire ants,
it’s a day of romance. This is the nuptial flight, when thousands of reproduction-capable
male and female ants, called alates,
take wing for the first and last time. But even for successful males
who manage to avoid winged predators, this mating frenzy will prove lethal. And for a successfully mated female,
her work is only beginning. Having secured a lifetime supply of sperm
from her departed mate, our new queen must now single-handedly
start an entire colony. Descending to the ground, she searches for a suitable spot
to build her nest. Ideally, she can find somewhere
with loose, easy-to-dig soil— like farmland
already disturbed by human activity. Once she finds the perfect spot,
she breaks off her wings— creating the stubs
that establish her royal status. Then, she starts digging
a descending tunnel ending in a chamber. Here the queen begins laying her eggs,
about ten per day, and the first larvae hatch within a week. Over the next three weeks, the new queen relies on a separate batch
of unfertilized eggs to nourish both herself and her brood, losing half her body weight
in the process. Thankfully, after about 20 days, these larvae grow
into the first generation of workers, ready to forage for food
and sustain their shrunken queen. Her daughters
will have to work quickly though— returning their mother
to good health is urgent. In the surrounding area, dozens of neighboring queens
are building their own ant armies. These colonies
have peacefully coexisted so far, but once workers appear, a phenomenon known as brood-raiding
begins. Workers from nests
up to several meters away begin to steal offspring
from our queen. Our colony retaliates, but new waves of raiders
from even further away overwhelm the workers. Within hours, the raiders have taken
our queen’s entire brood supply to the largest nearby nest— and the queen’s surviving daughters
abandon her. Chasing her last chance of survival, the queen follows the raiding trail
to the winning nest. She fends off other losing queens
and the defending nest’s workers, fighting her way
to the top of the brood pile. Her daughters help their mother succeed
where other queens fail— defeating the reigning monarch,
and usurping the brood pile. Eventually,
all the remaining challengers fail, until only one queen—
and one brood pile— remains. Now presiding over several hundred workers
in the neighborhood’s largest nest, our victorious queen begins
aiding her colony in its primary goal: reproduction. For the next several years,
the colony only produces sterile workers. But once their population
exceeds about 23,000, it changes course. From now on, every spring, the colony will produce
fertile alate males and females. The colony spawns these larger ants
throughout the early summer, and returns to worker production
in the fall. After heavy rainfalls,
these alates take to the skies, and spread their queen’s genes
up to a couple hundred meters downwind. But to contribute
to this annual mating frenzy, the colony must continue to thrive
as one massive super-organism. Every day, younger ants feed the queen
and tend to the brood, while older workers
forage for food and defend the nest. When intruders strike, these older warriors fend them off
using poisonous venom. After rainfalls,
the colony comes together, using the wet dirt to expand their nest. And when a disastrous flood
drowns their home, the sisters band together
into a massive living raft— carrying their queen to safety. But no matter how resilient, the life of a colony must come to an end. After about 8 years,
our queen runs out of sperm and can no longer replace dying workers. The nest’s population dwindles,
and eventually, they’re taken over
by a neighboring colony. Our queen’s reign is over,
but her genetic legacy lives on.

Warrior Wasp Adventure!

Warrior Wasp Adventure!


(creepy music) – I just know that if
this is more painful than the Bullet Ant, it’s
gonna be one, rough evening for Coyote Peterson. (mellow music) What I’m gonna try to do is
see if I can get Harvester Ants on my hands and let them bite
and sting me for 60 seconds. If you guys want me to be stung
by the Bullet Ant someday, I think you have to
walk before you can run. (grunts) Ah, there’s
one in my neck. Mario, get the one off my neck. (suspenseful music) This is crazy guys,
this is crazy. My nerve’s going this
much for the Velvet Ants. I can’t imagine what
the Tarantula Hawk
and the Bullet Ant are gonna be like. Ow. (grunts) Oh my gosh, guys. It’s super bad. You could feel, go all
the way under the skin. This is the worst
sting I’ve ever taken. There’s no question ’bout it. It’s worse than a Harvester
Ant, it’s worse than a Fire Ant. Now they say that the
sting of a Tarantula Hawk, it’s like being
stunned with taser, all you can do is scream. (dramatic music) Ah. I can’t move my arm. (grunts) Guys, I don’t know. I don’t know, I don’t know. Actually seen the
Bullet Ant face to face, Coyote pack, it is
unbelievably intimidating. (dramatic music) (grunts) Oh, it’s sucking my arm. It’s sucking my arm. (grunts) It’s stinger’s into
my arm, look at that. Oh my gosh, oh my gosh. The Warrior Wasp is in
a league of it’s own. And it is rumored that
this does in fact have the most painful sting
in the insect kingdom. Whoa. (suspenseful music) That is an enormous nest
of angry Warrior Wasps. Stay tuned coyote pack,
the Warrior Wasp challenge is coming. (suspenseful music) The climatic end to my climb
of the insect sting pain index is just days away. Will the Warrior Wasp sting
be the worse I’ve ever taken? Stay tuned and in case
you somehow missed it, make sure to go back and
watch my painful encounter with the one and
only Bullet Ant. And don’t forget, subscribe. So you can join me and
the crew on this season of breaking trail. Two. Oh my gosh, this is it. Three. (animal howls)

Ant Infestation: How To Prevent the Invasion

Ant Infestation: How To Prevent the Invasion


Ant Infestation: How to Prevent the Invasion You’re in an uncomfortable state when you feel that there’s an ant in your clothes. Usually, you’ll do your best to get rid of it. Ants can be seen everywhere. They are normally around places where there’s food and water. Also, you can spot them around crevices, openings, and gaps. Are you ready to face ant invasion? Ants typically invade homes and yards. Others regard ants as pest. Others utilize chemical pesticide as solution to eradicate ants. But, for me, it’s not a good idea because the said chemical is harmful to humans as well. If you need to solve ant issue at home and you are looking for a safer way, there are natural solutions you can take. 1. Sour Fruit Juice Interestingly, ants hate the smell of grapefruit, lemon, and orange. In fact, cleaner that has scent of lemon may also work. Citric fruit scent makes ants to lose their sense of trailing. With citric fruits, ants will have difficulty in spotting food presence. 2. Sliced Cucumber Like sour fruits, the smell of a sliced cucumber discourages ants. If you will use fruits to dispel ants, make sure to remove the fruits after a few hours . Do you want to know why? This is to avoid attracting cockroaches. You can dispose the fruits, let’s say after three hours. 3. Peppermint Do you like pepper? Some people utilize peppermint essential oil to resolve their ant issues at home. With a few drops of the oil in the cotton ball, it serves as an alternative to drive away pesky ants. There are also some soaps with peppermint scent that you can use for this reason. 4. Cinnamon Cinnamon can be beneficial as it serves two reasons for you. Number one is it can make your house smells good. And, number two is it can shoo away ants. In the market, you can find it in oil, stick, and powder form. Believe me, when you sprinkle this spice on areas where there are ants, expect that these insectes will run away as they despise the smell of it. 5. Remains of Coffee After Brewing I also brew coffee. After brewing coffee, the remains are called coffee grounds. You can use these against ants. To make it more effective, mix it with peppermint and you will never be disappointed to deter ants in your area. 6. Tansy Flowers Ants hate the flower of Tansy plant. That being said, some households grow this plant in their area. Moreover, others prefer to have this plant in a pot and place it near the door to forget about the hassle that ants can bring them. 7. Fossilized algae Fossilized algae can be made to become fine oxide powder known as diatomaceous earth. According to experts, this substance is safe for humans if it’s purified. But, the fossilized algae is not good for insects, particularly for ants. Diatomaceous earth works perfectly when dry. Thanks for watching. Please like and subscribe. Take care.

STUNG by a WARRIOR WASP!


(dramatic music) (screaming) (suspenseful music) (roaring) (water splashing) – [Coyote] The insect
sting pain index needs no new introduction in relation to the
work that we do. My climb towards its
summit began with a small creator known as
the harvester ant. This experiment
into what happens from an onslaught of
stings, opened the door to a world of pain, that
I would attempt to endure in the name of
education and science. Ow, there’s one on my neck. Maurio, get the one off my neck! If you are watching this video, there’s a good chance you
remember the velvet ant, also known as the cow killer. This wingless wasp
is famous for having the largest stinger
in the insect kingdom. A sting from that
creature was intense. It didn’t end there. This is the worse
sting I’ve ever taken! Oh my gosh guys,
this is super bad! The tarantula hawk
delivered as promised. With a tidal wave of pain,
that literally put my arm into a state of paralysis. I can’t move my arm! And finally came the
moment that the world had been waiting for, the
one and only bullet ant. Ranked as having the
most painful sting in the insect kingdom,
it seemed as if I had conquered the sting pain
in the next mountain. (shouting gibberish) I had reached the summit. I had done it, or had I? Whispers began to drift amongst
the YouTube comment section. Questions began to arise, as to whether or
not the bullet ant is truly the king of sting! (screaming) It’s burning hot! It’s getting worse! Hold on, hold on! These whispers turned
into a haunting echo. What about the warrior wasp? Coyote have you heard
about the warrior wasp? Are you going to be stung
by the warrior wasp? Warrior wasp, warrior
wasp, warrior wasp! (dramatic music) That is an enormous nest
of angry warrior wasps. Man, they’re a lot higher
up there than I thought. This is gonna
definitely be tough. Think again, double check. Yep, those are warrior wasps. A hundred percent, and
that nest is so big. There are probably
thousands of them in there, all inside the walls. All it takes is a little
disturbance from them to literally spill out
and swarm like mad, and they’re incredibly fast, much faster than your
typical paper wasps. The local expert that
tipped us off to this field, where he said, “Yeah, I’ve seen
warrior wasps there before.” Actually at one point,
throw a rock through a nest and I was told that
they spilled out of the nest so fast,
he barely even had time to think about running,
let alone making an escape to try to get to his vehicle. And in the process he
was stung multiple times and had to go to the hospital. We do know they’re
incredibly fast, and incredibly aggressive. So Mark and Maurio are
gonna actually set up a mosquito net here underneath
the overhang of this tree. Now that will hopefully
keep you guys safe and out of the sting
zone, ’cause as we know the sting zone goal with
this is simply on my forearm, not all over our bodies. I’m gonna be wearing a
bee suit, so hopefully that will protect me
as I go in to extract one of these ornery
little insects, and with any luck, we’re
gonna get one up close for the cameras. None as one of the most
aggressive paper wasps species in the world,
these beautiful insects carry the warrior moniker,
from their commitment to attacking anything
that disturbs their nest. However, very few people
have ever been stung by one of these insects,
because unlike normal people, wasps species, they often
build their massive nests high up in the
trees of the Central and South American rainforests, a place where humans,
virtually never encounter them. Let’s go catch a warrior wasp. Alright guys I think I’m ready. Let’s get you tucked
underneath the net here. Now in the event,
that I am swarmed, it is best for you guys to
just stay completely put, and underneath this. Wrap yourselves up
as tight as you can. It’s a good chance they’re
not gonna get through there. – It’s a mosquito net,
so all the webbing’s very tightly wound. – [Coyote] Yeah. – Nothing could really
get through this, but still it’s gonna be a
pretty nerve wracking experience just to get swarmed
by the most painful stinging wasp in the world. Alright. – [Coyote] Are you guys ready? – Ready.
– Ready. – Good. – Alright guys, I am now going
to slowly approach the nest, and the goal is
going to be to just hold the net up in the
air and see if I get wasps to actually come to the net. If I am swarmed it is gonna be
one incredibly bad situation. I’m very close now. We’re all down on the low end. Oooh, its gonna be
swarmed around me. I hear a couple them movin’
around me left and right. My tactic was simple. Coax a single wasp from the
nest, using my extendable GoPro arm, and then
quickly swipe it up, using my entomology net. This was primed to be one
of the most dangerous animal catches I had ever attempted
as disturbing the nest could literally mean thousands
of these fearless warriors swarming me and the crew. Okay, I’m going to cut
this hand-held camera, and go for a catch. Here we go. (suspenseful music) (buzzing) I got ’em, I got ’em, I got ’em. I got one! I really got one, a big one too! Whew! Holy cow, that totally works. Okay there it is, right
there in the net, you see it! And what I did is I just
provoked one off the edge with the (faint speaking) we
got it right into the net. Check that out, wow, okay! Now this is the difficult part. I need to safely get
it out of the net and into the (faint
speaking) one second here. Oh man, my arm is shaking. That was the most perfect swipe, I could have possibly attempted. Nothing got scared
and there’s a wasp on the edge of the net. I just (faint
speaking), it came off, one swipe and I had it! Hold on a second. (suspenseful music) Yes! There it is, wow! Wow, there we have it! That is the warrior wasps. Oh my gosh, that
is a large wasp. Wow, I was excited to catch it. Now I realize I have
just sealed my fate. That is crazy, whew! Look at the abdomen
on that creature. Whew! Well, part one of this
mission is in the capsule. Part two is to get me stung. Oh, I have a feeling
this maybe just as bad as the bullet ant. (suspenseful music) Just based on the
knowledge that these are extremely aggressive,
I have a feeling that the sting is going to
be unbelievably painful, but I am mentally prepared
to take the sting, and I know this is the
moment that everybody’s been waiting for. We thought that I had climbed
the insect sting pain index, and reached the summit, and that was it, the
bullet ant was it. But, of course, we all knew
that we teased the warrior wasp at the end of that
episode, and ever since you guys have been
asking for it, so today, Coyote Peterson is
going to deliver. Here we go. (operatic singing) (leaves crunching) There it is. That is a warrior wasp. Now the ultimate question
that we are answering today, is will the warrior wasps sting, be more painful,
than the bullet ant? Oh, I have to just
sit back for second, and admire this creature. How could something
only that big, about an inch in
length possibly contain such a potent sting? Look at that iridescent blue
coloration on the wings, and its abdomen, almost looks
as if it’s covered in velvet. You’ll notice the body
structure of this wasp is very distinct. Of course, it has the
head, it has a thorax, and then a very,
very narrow space, between its thorax,
and its abdomen. Now one thing that I
did notice when we saw these out flying
around the nests, is when they fly, they
actually turn their abdomens upwards to a point in the air. Very different looking
than other wasp species that we see flying around. It’s interesting that this
thing looks like a warrior, and when all of
them are together and they’re on the
outside of the hive what they will do
to ward off anything that’s thinking about
getting into the hive is they will go boom, boom,
boom, boom, boom, boom, and sometimes they are
actually called drumming wasps, because they beat
their wings together, all in unison and that’s where they get the name warrior wasps. It sounds like
soldiers marching. So when I look at this creature and its fierce appearance,
definitely reminds me of one determined warrior. And you know the other thing
that’s real interesting about these wasps is they
have massive front mandibles. Now this is a species that
will kill caterpillars, and bring them back
to feed their young, but they mostly feed
on nectars and sugars. So this is not a
creature that’s out there hunting for self, only
hunting for its young, but those front mandibles,
I can easily see be used to decapitate or
kill something like a caterpillar or a grub. Whew, it’s an intimidating
face on that creature. Almost looks like the
face of the bullet ant, but, of course, it has wings, and a slightly different
body structure. This is the only time, I
have ever seen a blue wasp. Look at that. Now just like with did
with the tarantula hawk, the way to get this
animal to sting me, is we’re gonna actually
place a glass capsule inside of this net, and I’m
gonna take off the glass top, let the net fall down
on top of the insect and I’m going to pick it up
with these entomology forceps. I think you guys all know
the game plan from there. Coyote’s arm goes
down on the table, the insect touches my forearm, and a sting is induced. Now, of course, for safety we
always have an epinephrine pen on set, just in case
anybody’s wondering. I’m gonna just place this off
to the side at this point, and if you guys are ready, let’s get the warrior
wasp into the net. Mark are you all set? – [Mark] I’m all set. What happens if the wasp gets
aggressive and flies at us? – Whoo, that’s a great question, because I will tell you what. This is one fast insect. Now when I’m stung, as
always, I’m gonna try to get the glass
capsule back over top. If I do not, and
the wasp flies off, just hold your
ground for a second. A good chance is, it
just wants to escape and it’s not gonna
come after you guys, but if you are stung, I’m
pretty much just gonna turn the cameras around
and film you guys and see what happens. (laughter) – Oh, lets not do that today.
– Let’s hope. – That doesn’t happen. Well so far, I’ve managed
to get everyone of these stinging insects back
inside the glass capsule so that we can safely release
it back into the wild, right where it came
from and with any luck, we’ll be able to pull that
off again, once more today. – [Mark] Let’s keep that
streak alive please. – Yes, yes, for you guys’ sake, let’s definitely keep it alive. Maurio are you ready? – Ready. – Mark are you ready? – I’m ready if you’re ready. (blows air) – Alright I am going to
slide the warrior wasp off to the side. You stay there buddy. I’m going to place the net, right in the middle
of the table, and just like I did
with the tarantula hawk, I’m then going to replace
the capsule right there and I’m going to
lift up the net. See that, good. You guys got that shot. – [Cameraman] Yep. – I’m now going to
remove the glass capsule and let the wasp– – [Cameraman] A little
delicate procedure. – Ohh!
– Okay. – The wasp is in the net. I’m gonna gently pin it,
and I need to grab it right at the back of its thorax. Got it! Perfect hold. Okay, wow! There we have it! Okay, I’m gonna have
to do this quick. And that is about as good a
hold as I am going to get. Whoa look at that stinger. (suspenseful music) I’m Coyote Peterson, and I’m
about to enter the sting zone with the warrior wasp. Here we go. One. Two. (suspenseful music) (screaming) (screaming) Ooohh! God! Arrgh! – [Cameraman] Are you alright? – Ahhhh! Ahhhh! – [Cameraman] Talk to
me, what are you feelin’? – Oh man! Oh man, yep, don’t be sad! Oh man (faint speaking)
really quickly. So far, not as bad as
the bullet ant though. Oooh, nope, nope, nope, hold on. Arrgh! Oooh, sharp shooting pain! There’s the sting
zone, right there. You see that, oh my gosh! My arm is swellin’ up
really, really quickly! Arrgh! Hold on, back to the
table, back to the table! Okay, so what is happening
right now is the venom is getting into my
bloodstream, right. And what’s happening
is it is breaking down the membranes around
my blood cells, and it’s causing
them to scatter. Now there’s cells in there
that are neurons, right. Those neurons are sending
messages to my brain that are screaming
pain, pain, pain, and trust me, when I say
there’s massive amounts of pain going through my arm right now! (groans) Initial onset is not as
bad as the bullet ant, but it’s an electrical
shock similar to that of the tarantula hawk. Hold on, let me compose
myself here for a second. Arrgh, oooh, oh my gosh, the pain is actually
getting worse, as time goes on, and I don’t
know if that’s actually the venom taking hold or
that’s just the neurons firing to my brain, saying you are in a lot
of pain right now Coyote. Hold on guys, give me a second. Arrgh! See the red! – [Cameraman] You
seem more squirmy. Arrgh! – [Cameraman] You
can’t sit still. – This is more of
a continuous sting than the bullet ant was. This is, this keeps firing. This just keeps firing. God this GoPro. Arrgh! (suspenseful music) – [Cameraman] Let me know
if I need to be worried. Talk to me. – I’m trying to just mentally like absorb the pain right now. And we’re tired. We’ve been working hard all
day and it’s hot out here. I’m light-headed. You know, when you get
into a really hot shower, and the steam sets on and you
feel like you’re gonna faint, I do feel like I’m
getting close to fainting and that is not good. I’m just trying to
control my breathing. Arrgh, look at that welt. Man! That thing walloped me! I can only imagine
what it would be like to be swarmed by these. Just a single sting dwarfs
the sting of a yellow jacket. The initial sting was not as
painful as the tarantula hawk, but then it set in, and it
was electrical in nature. It felt like an electrical
current going into my arm, and I was over here, I was
hitting the ground saying it’s not as bad
as the bullet ant, but in its own way,
it’s different, because the bullet ant hit me,
and then just kept radiating. This feels like I’m being
stung over and over and over. – [Cameraman] Man
it’s really swollen. It usually doesn’t
swell quickly. – Look at that. Go ahead, put your hand out. Feel the tauntness
of my forearm. – [Cameraman] Oh yeah. – And you can see–
– Oh yeah. – [Cameraman] Big time. – [Coyote] The stinger
insertion point is definitely swollen. It is very much isolated. It almost looks like a little BB or something underneath my skin. – [Cameraman] You know,
you’re reacting more like you did with the bees, with that immediate welt. – And my body may start to
react differently to venoms. At this point I’m just
feelin’ really light-headed, very hot, my arm is very
hot and I’m not necessarily a state of paralysis
like the tarantula hawk, but my– – [Cameraman] Any tightness
in your chest or– – Not my chest! Tightness in my hand,
like this motion, squeezing of my hand, is very,
very difficult right now. I’m really having a hard
time squeezing down a fist, and you can see the swelling
is setting in there. It does still feel, like
pins and needles in my arm, but I know, that everybody
wants me to answer the question. Is the sting from the
warrior wasp more painful than the bullet ant? I would definitely say that
the bullet ant is worse. However, keep this in mind. If you come across a bullet
ant while you’re out there venturing through the
rainforest of Costa Rica, let’s say one lands on your arm, falls out of tree,
and stings you, you can easily brush it off. However, if you stumble upon
a nest of warrior wasps, and you disturb it, you’re
going to have thousands of angry insects attacking you, and not only are they
going to be attacking, but they are going to
be chasing as you run through the underbrush. Now, imagine if you were
to talk sting after sting after sting, it could
potentially be lethal. So word to the wise, if you’re out there in the
rainforest of Costa Rica, simply admire these animals
from a safe distance and always pay attention
to your surroundings. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave, stay wild! We’ll see you on
the next adventure! Hey, wait a second, (needle scratching record) I feel like we’re
missing something. – What? – [Coyote] You famous line. – Oh, you didn’t
notice my t-shirt. – [Coyote] Oh. – I been wearing
this all day man. – Cool!
– Check it out! – I read the comments guys. – [Coyote] As I hike back
through the sweltering rainforest, I could feel
the physical and mental exhaustion setting in. Yet I knew there was still
one thing left to do. Alright guys well, my arm is in considerable pain right now, but as always it is time
to release the creature back into the wild. What I’m gonna do is
open up the capsule, and let this warrior wasp fly
right back up to its nest. Slowly opening the capsule I
released this fearless warrior and watched as it
returned to the nest. I felt a sense of completion. My personal mountain, known as
the insect sting pain index, had finally been conquered. It was a long painful journey, but as I climbed
past the cow killer, traversed the tarantula hawk, battled the bullet ant, now
withstood the warrior wasps, I felt as if I had finally
reached the summit. However, as I stood upon
this moment in time, it seemed to pass in a flash, as I was quickly reminded
that the universe will always present
it’s next challenge when you least expect it. Alright guys, so we have
looked up vespid wasps of Latin American, and I
have found out what this is. Just after we finished
filming the warrior wasp, we came upon a species
whose sting had yet to be officially
documented and ranked on the insect sting pain index. Could this sleeping
giant be the dark horse that would emerge
from the shadows to claim the throne as the
newly established king of sting? There is only one
way to find out. I’m going to be stung
by the executioner wasp. If you are excited to
see how bad the sting of the executioner wasp
is, make sure to go back and pay homage to the
reigning king of sting, the bullet ant, and
don’t forget subscribe to join me and the crew on
this season of Breaking Trail! Oh my gosh this is it! (howling) (birds chirping)

Warrior Wasp ANTIDOTE?


– [Coyote] Okay I’m gonna
have to do this quick. And that is about as good a
hold as I am going to get. – [Man] Oh I can
see the stinger. – Wow, look at that stinger. (dramatic music) (sighs) I’m Coyote Peterson, and I’m
about to enter the sting zone with the warrior wasp. Here we go. One, two, three. (dramatic music) (yelling) – [Man] You’re
turning red already. (yelling) Talk to me, what
are you feelin’? – Oh man. Oh man, yep, oh it’s bad. Oh man it’s gettin’ a lot worse. – Is it?
– Really quickly. So far not as bad as
the bullet ant though. (yelling) Nope, nope, nope, hold on. (yelling) It’s a sharp shooting pain. There’s the sting
zone right there. See that, oh my gosh man,
my arm is swellin’ up really, really quickly. (yelling) Hold on, back to the
table, back to the table. Okay so what is
happening right now is the venom is getting
into my bloodstream, right? And what’s happening
is it is breaking down the membranes around
my blood cells. And it’s causing
them to scatter. Now there’s cells in there
that are neurons, right? Those neurons are sending
messages to my brain that are screaming,
“Pain, pain, pain.” And trust me when I say
there’s massive amounts of pain goin’ through
my arm right now. Initial onset is not as
bad as the bullet ant. But it’s an electrical
shock similar to that of the tarantula hawk. (breathing heavily) Hold on, let me compose
myself here for a second. (yelling) Oh my gosh the pain is
actually getting worse as time goes on. And I don’t know if that’s
actually the venom taking hold or that’s just the neurons
firing to my brain saying, “You are in a lot of
pain right now Coyote.” Hold on guys, give me a second. (yelling) You see the red? – You seem more squirmy.
(yelling) Like you can’t sit still. – This is more of
a continuous sting than the bullet ant was. This keeps firing. This just keep firing. Cut this GoPro. (yelling) (upbeat jungle music)
(airplane flying) – [Man] Alright Coyote,
it’s time for the aftermath. The warrior wasp
after sting special. – Yeah, you know it’s
interesting between when we stopped filming and now, ’cause we took a little
bit of a water break after we wrapped the episode. Look at this dark
spot in my vein. Do you see that? It’s almost like a
broken blood vessel or something like that. And you can see just how
red the sting zone is. It’s interesting,
my forearm reacts in a very similar way to
every sting that I take. But this one specifically
does still feel like pins and needles coursing through my forearm.
– You actually turn your arm, you can see where it crests out.
– Yeah, oh yeah. It’s almost like you
can feel it right there. It feels like a golf
ball under there. – Yeah, it’s like a goose egg, like if you hit
your head real hard. – Yeah. – So you’re impressed. – Yeah, no I am
definitely impressed. It wasn’t quite the
theatrics of the bullet ant. But to be honest with you guys, it was painful but not
as bad as I expected. And I think at this
point we do know that the bullet ant
is the king of sting. It holds strong on it’s throne
and that’s totally cool, totally respect that. But what we wanna do
now is actually apply a little relief to my arm ’cause it is really
hot and really stinging and you guys know we
always use Sting Kill. So let’s see how Sting
Kill works up against the sting of a warrior wasp. Will this help with the burning? Works against bullet
ants and yellow jackets so I’m gonna go ahead and wager that this is gonna feel great. Let’s see here. Oh there it is. The green
(scoffs) now that’ll wake you up. Benzocaine and menthol. My two favorite things. Oh yeah. That’s nice. You know what guys? Sting Kill is in
my adventure pack and in an instance like this, I’m going to apply it because
we do have a very long hike out of the rainforest
back to our jungle camp. And I just wanna make sure
that my body is reacting well to the venom. And back to the actual
sting of the warrior wasp. It is very different than any of the other stings I’ve taken. And it does feel like the
venom is continuing to work and trigger my neurons
to say, “Oh sharp pain.” And then a couple seconds
later, “Oh sharp pain.” And that’s what I’m
experiencing right now, just continuous pain. Have you ever pricked
your finger on the tip of a cactus or on an
actual sewing needle or a safety pin?
– Oh yeah. Oh yeah, oh yeah, oh yeah.
(yelling) – Oh no.
(yelling) (laughing) Now it’s in your hand.
– Coyote. – Yeah?
– Why do you always get me in these situations?
– Sorry man. – Like a band-aid?
– Like a band-aid. (yelling)
(laughing) – Oh my gosh that hurts. (laughing)
– Imagine what I’m goin’ through now? – Oh my gosh, it feels so
much worse to you right now. – Oh first blood, first blood.
– Okay. – That’s what it feels
like every few seconds. It’s just like boop, boop, boop. And it kind of radiates in
this entire egg looking area on my forearm. Look at that, you can see
all the liquid under the skin at this point. See that when I move the
– Oh yeah. – [Coyote] See it
move in my skin? – [Man] It’s almost
like a water balloon. – [Coyote] Yeah, now that
is my body’s natural defense to the venom. It is forcing water
into this area so that the liquid breaks down the concentration of the venom. That venom is working
very hard right now to keep me in pain. Now imagine if you were to stumble upon a
warrior wasp nest and be stung many times. It would be extremely bad. Especially if you
were stung in the face or your neck or near your eyes. The arm, look how much swelling
there is in just in arms so I can imagine if you were
stung all over your body, it would be really, really bad. – [Man] So Coyote out of all the insects that you’ve
been stung by so far, which one has been
the most intimidating? – Definitely the tarantula hawk. Nothing could ever take the
place of how intimidating that insect was, it was massive. I imagined that the warrior
wasp would be a lot larger than it was when I
actually saw it in person. But when it comes down to it, often times it’s
size that is scarier but not always the sting
that is more potent. A smaller creature like
that has more powerful venom to help ward off any
potential predators. – Would you say the warrior wasp is worse than the
tarantula hawk? – It lasted longer. At this point, my
arm definitely still was not in pain from
the tarantula hawk. And I still have
pins and needles going through my
forearm right now, yeah. I’m still in pain, I’m just
managing to compose myself really well right now. – I got a question.
– Yeah. – Can we maybe take
on another challenge? Like fluffiest animal out there? – Like what’s the cutest baby
animal that exists out there? I don’t know, Coyote
pack, you tell us. Do you want us to climb
the cute baby animal index so that we can get
the cutest animals up close for the cameras? I’m sure everybody’s writing in the comment
section right now, “Cute animals no, unless you’re
gonna get bitten by ’em.” – [Man] What about
the slimiest creature? – [Coyote] Slimiest
creatures, yeah. I’m sure we could come
up with our own index to climb with a number
of different cool things about these animals. But when it comes to stings, yeah guys, I believe we
are at the end of the road as far as what has been tested
out before and what we know. – [Man] But the adventure
continues right? There’s a whole lot
of adventure ahead. – Oh yeah, more
episodes than you guys can possibly imagine. The brave wilderness
train is a rollin’ and trust me guys, heading into 2018 it’s
going to be absolutely epic. I’m Coyote Peterson,
be brave, stay wild, we’ll see you on
the next location. – [Man] Ready for some dinner? – Ready for some more adventure. – [Man] Let’s do it. (dramatic music) – Alright guys, so we have
looked up vespid wasps of Latin America, and I
have found out what this is. Just after we finished
filming the warrior wasp, we came upon a
species who’s sting had yet to be
officially documented and ranked on the
insect sting pain index. Could this sleeping
giant be the dark horse that would emerge
from the shadows to claim the throne as the
newly established king of sting? There was only one
way to find out. I’m going to be stung
by the executioner wasp. Did you see the full
warrior wasp sting episode? If not, make sure
to go back and watch as I go skin to stinger
against this incredible insect. And don’t forget, subscribe
so you can join me and the crew on our
next big adventure. (coyote howling)

Venom Injection: How Ant Stingers Work!

Venom Injection: How Ant Stingers Work!


This is what happens underneath your
spin when an ant is stinging you. About a year ago I filmed this footage
of a fire ant about to sting my finger. And in the corner of the frame was
something I hadn’t seen: before a droplet of venom being formed at the tip of the
stinger. So, I went to read more about this, how venom is actually pumped out of the stinger, and I found out that no one’s actually filmed it before. So I’ve
been working on that and now I’ve got a bunch of footage that I want to show you. This is a stinger of an ant piercing a
thin wax film and pumping venom. It’s filmed in slow motion at a thousand
frames per second. I think I know why this has been filmed
before. Ant stingers and the parts of them that are moving are really tiny and
really fast. For scale, here’s the stinger of one of the ants in this video a
harvester ant. The stinger is about 40 microns wide that’s smaller than the
width of a human hair. Stingers are made up of three parts: a stylet and a pair of
lancets. The lancets attached to the stylet and form a hollow canal through
which venom is pumped. In some ants, like harvester ants, the tips of the lancets
are barbed. While others like this trap- -jaw ant stinger are smooth and more
needle-like. What I found most interesting about this
footage was seeing how an ant actually delivers venom. When it inserts its
stinger into something the lancets are moving back and forth beyond the length
of the stylet. That back and forth movement helps the stinger drill deeper
into its target but it’s also what actually pumps venom out of the stinger. Droplets of venom are formed with each
extension of a lancet. From analyzing these clips it takes an average of 75
milliseconds for a lancet to move back and forth. That’s faster than the blink
of an eye which takes about 80 milliseconds. So, in just one second an ant can deliver
13 droplets of venom and even more if the back-and-forth movements of those
lancets overlap. So what I think this footage is showing us is that back and
forth movement of the lancets controls how fast and how much venom an ant can
deliver during the sting. So whether or not an ant catches its prey or avoids
becoming prey itself is all wrapped up and how fast it can move these two
little threads of cuticle. For example, this is an ant trying to sting a
mealworm. This is slow-motion footage 25 times slower than real life. If the
ant wants any chance of successfully delivering venom and has to be fast. I hope this video has shown you something
new about ants, I know it has for me making it. While you are here check out the
full fire ant video that inspired this one and be sure to subscribe to this
channel for more videos like this. All right let’s cut it!

The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look

The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look


The Peruvian Amazon rainforest is bursting
with life, but it’s a hard place to make a living,
especially when you’re small. Competition… is fierce. Violence and betrayal are everywhere. Up here, in the canopy? These trees have made it. Lots of leaves. Plenty of sunlight. But down here, on the forest floor, it’s
another story. This sapling desperately needs to grow, to
get more sun. And in the meantime, it’s vulnerable. It doesn’t have many leaves yet. Each one is valuable. Losing just a few could be its demise. So this young tree, it’s called an Inga,
enlists bodyguards.. hundreds of them. These big-headed ants swarm over the sapling,
fighting off any leaf-eating intruders, like this caterpillar. The price of protection: a meal: sugary nectar. The tree serves it up in ant-sized dishes
called nectaries. Both the ant and the tree have something to
gain from the deal. This is called “mutualism.” But that only works when both sides play by
the rules. Here’s another intruder. See how the ants rush to meet it? But they aren’t biting or stinging it. They don’t attack it like they’re supposed
to. Instead the ants just… watch… as the caterpillar gorges on the fresh leaves. They’re just letting it happen. Why? Because they found a better deal. See how the ants tap on the caterpillar’s
rear with their antennae? Those two little pits on the caterpillar’s
back are called tentacle nectaries. When the ants tap, the nectaries secrete drops
of nectar. It’s made of sugar that the caterpillar
drained out of the leaf. In exchange for the payoff, the ants give
the caterpillars free access to their so-called partner, the Inga tree. They’ve been bribed. As for the tree? It’s left weaker, a little less likely to
make it up to the canopy. And that’s the sad story of the young Inga. Sold out for a drop of sugar water by a fairweather
friend. You like ants? We got ants. Lots of ants. Winter ants battle Argentine ants with weapons caught on film for the very first time! Leafcutter ants that have been farming since
before we humans walked the earth. All that and more on Deep Look. So subscribe… And thanks for watching.