Zombie Parasites | Nat Geo Live

Zombie Parasites | Nat Geo Live


( intro music )Parasites are not degenerates,they’re actually maybe the most
successful life form on earth.
And they do all sorts of
amazing things.
They were using their hostsfor all sorts of
nefarious purposes
to get what they needed.If you see a ladybug huddled
over some little bit of fluff,
you’re looking at a
zombie bodyguard.
( applause ) So originally when they were
organizing this talk, they were trying to
convince us to, dress up and I wasn’t quite
willing to do that. But, I did bring
my favorite T-shirt, so… If you can’t tell,
that’s a schistosome there. ( audience laughing ) So, my goal in this in photographing these
creatures was to… get past this visceral aversion
we all have towards parasites, and try to show how amazing
these creatures really are! So, if I’m going to try to
convince you that parasites are cool, I’m going to start with
the star of the show.So this is a ladybugstanding guard over
the cocoon of a wasp
and the way this works,
is that wasp lays an egg,
it injects an egg
into that ladybug
and the egg hatches and
it grows inside the ladybug and the larval wasp inside
actually knows to avoid the vital organs
of that ladybug because if it chews
on those vital organs it will kill the ladybug and
it will die too. So it avoids the vital organs
and when it’s ready to come out, it pushes its way out of the
abdomen of that ladybug and it spins its cocoon.
And the problem is this cocoon is a
very vulnerable stage in the lifecycle of this wasp.
It’s just sitting there immobile ready to be eaten by
any predator that walks by. So, that’s why it’s gotten this
ladybug to stand guard over it.And the amazing thing is
this ladybug will sit there
twitching for days over this,
this wasp
and if it’s able to survive
the seven days that the wasp takes to
develop into an adult the ladybug can
actually recover. The mind control can wear off and that ladybug can go to
re-grow its internal organs and go on to reproduce.This is the wasp
that’s responsible for that,
this is
Dinocampus coccinellae,
it’s, she’s barely
a centimeter long
and I can tell
she’s a female, both
because she’s got this
ovipositor at the end,
the stinger
that she uses
to inject the eggs
and also because this species
is parthenogenetic, which means it doesn’t need to fertilize
its eggs to reproduce, it can clone itself, and so it injects an egg
into the ladybug, It does not need to be
fertilized, and all of those eggs will
develop to be more females. The entire species is female. Actually there has been
four or five males that has been identified
over the course of studying this creature and frankly I don’t know
how that really works, I don’t know how
parthenogenesis works.
It’s crazy. and it will have to be the topic
of another discussion. Now ladybugs are
not the only ones that get turned into
bodyguards. There’s another wasp
in this family Braconidae that infects caterpillarsand in this case it injects
several dozen eggs
at the same time.Those eggs hatch
inside the caterpillar
and just like the ladybugthey know to avoid
the internal organs
of the caterpillar,
just like the ladybug
they have a virus that
helps them. It’s a different kind of virus but in this case the virus
tricks the immune system of the caterpillar to protect,
to hide these invaders and the virus actually
changes the metabolism of the caterpillar
so that it gorges itself and it prevents the caterpillar from transforming
into an adult, so the virus turns
the caterpillar into a feeding machine
for these wasp larva.So this is a video of this
process. It starts with the
adult wasp stinging and
injecting those eggs
into a newly hatched
caterpillar. Those caterpillars
then go about their normal life
for the next week
feeding and growingand waiting for those
wasp larva to emerge.
When they are ready
they chew their way
through the skin
of the caterpillar.
And they come out
by the dozens.
So they actually
spin their cocoon
as they are emerging
from the caterpillar.
The amazing thing
about this process is that
the caterpillar survives,
it wakes up,
it crawls on the top of the pile
of cocoons and it spins that
additional layer
of protective silk.
And the reason for this,the entire purpose
of the protection
is to prevent this.This is a hyperparasitoid waspinjecting its egg
into the parasitic wasp
that just emerged
from the caterpillar.
So an additional layer
of parasitism
above the
mind controlling one. It’s pretty cool. So this theme of
trying to protect that delicate larval stage…
that pupation, that’s a common theme. And there’s another wasp
in different groupthat uses a different approach
than the bodyguard style.
What it does is,
it catches the spider
and lays an egg on its back.So this is a spider
that lives in the
palm plantations of Costa Ricaand it’s got a wasp larva
hanging on its back.
This is one that
has hatched out
and it’s feeding on hemolymph,
the blood of that spider.
And what it does
when it’s ready to pupate, instead of turning that spider
into a bodyguard, it gets the spider to build
a special kind of web. And so normally webs are
designed to catch insects, this web is designed to support the weight
of the cocoon. And so the wasp larva waits until the spider’s done
building this web, it then kills it and
then hangs its cocoon safely off the floor
of the forest.So this is the stagewhere the spider has just
finished building that web
and the wasp returns the favorby killing it
and eating it.
And this is that
specialized web.
And you can tell
what the spiders built
because
the spider silk is white
and wasp silk is yellow.So this is a video
starting with,
after the spider
has been killed.
That wasp larva is feeding on
every last drop
of the spider’s blood in order
to store up enough energy
to transform into an adult.And then when it’s ready
to transform,
it’s finished digesting
that spider
it then drops its own silk
off of the spider web
and spins its cocoon.And you can actually see
how it uses its head
to hollow out the cavity
inside of that cocoon.
These… these wasps
have figured out this mind control thing
pretty well. And the, the queen of
all mind controlling wasps isthe emerald cockroach wasp.So this is a wasp that hunts
cockroaches to feed its young
And it is more cunning
and sophisticated
than your typical predator like
a lion or a shark. So what it does is, it starts
by paralyzing the cockroach.It stings it
right behind its head,
paralysis the cockroach
and then it snakes
its stinger into the brain
of the cockroach
where it has special censorsso that it can grope
around the brain
and find exactly the part
that is responsible
for generating the motivation
for movement.
And it disables that part.
And what that means is the cockroach is
fully functional, all of its muscles work but it cannot generate
the will to move on its own. Instead it takes its queues
from the wasp. So the wasp comes back,it holds the antenna of that
cockroach,
with its mouth
and it leads it
as if walking a dog
to its burrow,
where it lays an egg
on its belly and buries it to be
eaten alive by its babies. And those wasp larva
just like the others they know how to avoid
the internal organs they can keep it fresh
as long as possible and on top of that, they actually smear this
disinfecting substance on the inside of the cockroach
to keep it from rotting.This is a
horsehair worm,
it’s using its host as bothhousing and transportation.
So in this case,
the worm grows up
inside the cricket
and once it gets
a little cramped in there,
it wants to come out.
And really this worm has a free living part
of its life stage. It doesn’t live his whole life
in the cricket. But the problem is
where it comes out, it has to be wet,
it’s an aquatic worm when it comes out. So if it came out in dry land
it would dry up and die. So it makes the cricket
go find water so that it can jump in,
commit suicide and that worm can go on
to continue its life cycle. So, in that pond
or in that stream the worm will go find a mate,
it will lay a bunch of eggs, those eggs hatch and they
burrow into mosquito larva. And they insist themselves
in a mosquito larva, so when the mosquitoes emerge
and they fly out, their cysts are still there and that mosquito lives
its normal life, it dies on land and
it gets eaten by a cricket. And the worm cyst
actually knows when it’s inside of a cricket
and that’s when it knows, it can start developing. That’s
how the life cycle continues.This is an ant
that has been infected by
‘Ophiocordyceps’.And this fungus,
it gets the ant
to crawl up
the stalk of a plant
out till the end of a leaf
and it kills the ant there
so that when the fungus sendsits reproductive
structures out
those spores are
better able to disperse
onto the forest floor.This is actually a really
diverse group of fungi and each species of fungus
has its own host and it gets its host
to clampdown in different parts
of the plant. Some of them are
at the tip of the leaf, some of them are
on the underside, some of them are
at the base of a tree and it’s thought that they
are manipulating their host to maximize the ability
to disperse on to more ants. And so they’ve actually shown
there are places where the fungus is
getting the ant to die above the foraging lines
of its colony. So that when those
spores come out, they’re more likely
to get in contact with more ants.And actually the white eye
you see here,
that’s fungus as well.So what the fungus does is,it hollows out
the entire inside of that ant
and it just so happens
that the exoskeleton
right in front of eye,
it’s thin enough
that you can see
the fungal tissue
through the eye membrane.So this is a video of an antthis is a
different species of ant.
That’s also been
infected by this
cordyceps fungus–
Ophiocordyceps fungus.
It’s in its last hour of life.It’s just twitching thereand the fungus has forced it to
bite down on edge of this leaf.
And what happens is that
first night
after that fungus
kills the ant
it bursts through,
the weaker joints
of the exoskeleton
and spends the next week,
growing a reproductive stockout of the back
of the ant’s head.
Now… my favorite parasite
that I photographed is the Rhizocephala.The Rhizocephala is a
tiny little parasitic barnacle
that infects sheep crabs.
This is a sheep crab here.
And what it does is it
gets into the sheep crab
and if the sheep crab
started off as a male it turns it into a female.
It feminizes the crab and that’s because
only female crabs have this structure
that can house eggs. And so the parasite waits
for this feminized male to grow this egg chamber,
it lays its own eggs in that egg chamber
and then it activates the maternal care instinct
of this crab so that it thinks
it’s pregnant and it will care for
the eggs of the parasite. Then every two weeks, those eggs mature
and they hatch out and they go on to infect
more crabs. So what you see here isevery little speck
in this photo
is a newly hatched
parasitic barnacle
that is going out to infect
a new crab.
So let me, let me back up
and tell little more about
where the story came from,
where the idea came from.
So I was working
with my editor Todd James and you know, he just said
look we got to figure out a fresh approach to this, it’s got to be
something different. And you know, I agreed,
the pictures of parasites I had seen to that point
were like jars of leeches or a worm getting pulled out of
somebody’s eye and its like– They were very successful
in grossing you out, but they really failed
in getting you to appreciate how incredible
these creatures are. But then there’s also
the sake of this, this problem of okay, what,
how do I light these creatures, these parasites in a new way. Because up until that point,
macro photography for me was find a cool bug,
shine some light on it, take a picture. You know, you could make it
a sharp light, you could make it soft light, you could light if from
this way or that way, that’s about it.
I mean how do I, how do I take this
to a next level? How I find a
more interesting way to light these creatures? And I had this idea
while I was sitting in my friend Stacy’s apartment
in Oakland. And I don’t remember
what we’re talking about because I was distracted by the quality of light
on her face. She was sitting
in front of a window.This is Stacy in front of
her window in Oakland
and the window light was
coming around her head,
lighting the sides of her
cheeks and her nose
and showing
the topography in a way,
that I never really
thought about before.
I thought how do
I scale this down to a parasite level. Can I use this
to light parasites and show the shape and
contours in a new way? And so I had my Stacy light,
I had my volcano light I had this idea of how to
light backgrounds to emphasize the drama and action going on, but you know,
what does that really look like to implement in the field. Well, let me show you.Most of the work was done
in hotel rooms.
So this is a hotel room
in Costa Rica,
where I’m trying to
photograph this
spider being parasitized
by a wasp
there’s buckets of spiders
everywhere
that I’m trying to hide from
the housekeeping staff
so they won’t throw them out.And then, you know,hotel rooms really aren’t
well-designed for photography,
so there is a lot of
moving furniture around
and in this case,
what I’m trying to do is
I’m trying to set up
a time lapse
of these fungus flowers
in South Dakota, growing,
and I borrowed this light
that had been confiscated
from an illegal marijuana
growing operation in Spearfish
( laughter ) And had been
donated to the University
who then lent it to me.
And after all this effort,
it totally failed.
It was not useful at all.And I ended up building
a lot of my own contraptions,
lighting contraptions
in this case
I was trying to use this
fiber-optic linelight
to build a makeshift scanner,
to scan this plant
because there’s a
beautiful quality of light
that flatbed scanners
produce on flowers
and I wanted to try to
make that and it
again totally failed.
It was
a pain in the butt to use,
it didn’t really workout.
This is the setup
I used to photograph the cover
in a lab in Montréal.And so I was able to set up
in some research labs,
which has some advantages
and disadvantages.
The main disadvantage
is sometimes
you don’t have a lot of space,this is in Boulder
at P. Johnson’s lab
where I’m trying to photograph
this deformed frog.
Of all of these creatures,
though, the most difficult
to photograph was actually that cricket, and I visited this lab
in New Mexico, a couple of times
where Ben Hanelt had these infected crickets
in his lab. And the first time
they all died the night before I got there,
the second time they weren’t ready
the worms took too long to, to mature
so they weren’t ready when I got there
and I just said you know what, forgot this
and I packed them into my bag and I flew back with them
to California. And so my housemates
at this point are used to this
kind of nonsense and one of them is a
documentary film maker and so he filmed me, photographing these
crickets, so…I kept them in the,in the hot water
heater room,
where they would stay warm.
This is my kitchen.
And the thing about these
crickets and the worms
is that you can actually tellwhen the worms are
ready to come out.
They actually turn dark brown,and you can see them
coiled up
inside the belly
of these crickets.
And so I’m setting up
my fiber-optic lights
and getting ready to
photograph these things.
Not my best hair day.( laughter )Most of this stuff happensat 2 o’clock in
the morning and so I
sort of didn’t remember that
he was filming me that day.
And so, I’m actually putting
a layer of Rain X
down on the glass
and so that
beads up the water nicely.
And then I put the crickets
in the fridge,
for a few minutes
to cool them down
so they wouldn’t hop
all over the place.
And the liquid that I’m using
is not actually water,
it’s called cricket saline,
it’s a solution that mimics
the internal chemistry
of the cricket.
So, that when the worms
come out they don’t freak out.
They think they’re still
inside the cricket.
So that picture took me abouttwenty-three days
to figure out.
Now, a lot of that I did at
home and so it was not like
I was working on it,
24 hours a day, some days it was only
a couple of hours, but all the tricks with the Rain X,
with the fridge, with the cricket saline.
These are not things that I knew about
ahead of time. There are things that
I just had to work out on the fly, through one
iteration after the next. And you figure out a problem,
or, you come across a problem you just have to
figure out a solution. The cricket’s too jumpy,
the worm’s freaking out, the water
doesn’t look right and you just have to take what,
what you’ve solved and build on that. And so there was a point
early on in the story where my editor, Todd
wanted to see my… my progress on
the story and… you know, he didn’t really
have time to look through all my pictures,
he wanted to send me– he wanted me to send him
a small selection. And really I wanted him to see
all my pictures because I wanted to show him all the
different variations I did. I assumed
he was going to tell me, oh, go back and shoot that
from another angle and I wanted to be
able to tell him, ‘look man,
I tried all the angles.’ So, but he asked for,
he asked for a limited selection and so I was scanning
through these pictures, it was late at night
I was listening to some electronic music
to keep me awake. And all of a sudden this,
this images on my screen started to sync up with the music
I was listening to and I had this idea that
‘wait a minute!’ If I can just take
all of these images and I can create
a stop motion by playing them all
at 15 frames a second. That way in five minutes Todd can see every image
I have taken and all the iterations
and variations I did in between
and I just threw the layer of music on top
just for, for kicks. By the end of the story
I had 33,000 pictures and even at
15 frames a second, that’s a very long video so I cut that down and
here is the edited version of that original… Dubstep parasite music video.
( laughter ) ( dubstep music ) ( applause ) ( outro music )

Terrifying fight to the death between 28ft anaconda and 6ft crocodile

Terrifying fight to the death between 28ft anaconda and 6ft crocodile


 These awe-inspiring pictures show a 28ft anaconda’s fight to the death with a crocodile  The green snake is captured attacking the six-foot long caiman, in Pantanal, Brazil after finding it in the swamps of tropical wetland where both species live  The anaconda can be seen wrapping itself around the member of the crocodile family trying to suffocate the caiman  Wildlife photographer Kevin Dooley, 58, was “lucky enough” to capture this extremely intense moment and says he has “never captured anything like this before ”    Kevin, from Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, said: “I was sitting in a boat having our lunch when this happened I couldn’t believe it all.  “I heard all of this splashing, and when I looked I could see the caiman was suffering  “The anaconda just kept strangling the caiman. It had even broken all of the crocodile’s legs ”  The wildlife photographer said he was sitting around 30ft away from the animals eating his lunch when he “turned to the right and witnessed an amazing sight ”  He added: “It all happened in around eight minutes.  “I think eventually the anaconda ran out of oxygen and had to let go of the caiman  “And at that point, the caiman then bit into the snake.  “But the snake managed to get away and slither out, I think eventually the caiman died ”  Kevin said this was a rare occasion in his photography career and thinks he will “be waiting a long time to see this happen again ”  He added: “I felt very blessed and very lucky and somewhat sad for the caiman.  “I never thought in my life I would witness something like this ”

Chicago Adventure, Part Eight: How to be an Insect

Chicago Adventure, Part Eight: How to be an Insect


The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected natural history museums in the world. Join me as we go behind the scenes! Dun dun dun! These are huge. They’re bigger than birds. They’re katydids from Papua New Guinea. It’s like a grasshopper in the order Orthoptera. In this order there are katydids, grasshoppers, and crickets. And katydids…
– So what abou- what’s a locust, then? Are they… A locust is a grasshopper, it’s-
– Okay. It’s a large grasshopper.
– I’m just trying to like put ’em all in the same thing. It’s a common name.
– So these are- Alright, yeah, yeah. Most people call cidadas locusts too, but they’re not.
– Okay, alright. It’s just the- the grasshoppers that are locusts.
– Mmkay. So, these are probably the largest katydids you’re gonna find. I mean, they’re gigantic! Yeah, ours are probably this big. The katydids in- in North America?
– Okay? Yeah, so this is over twice as long.
– Wow. With a huge wing. And they have a shield that looks like a leaf. So the whole thing is to mimic a leaf. I-d- it definitely looks like a giant leaf. Well, we have the mantids that- so these are clear mantids
– What? that look like leaves. And when an insect is going to copy a leaf, it’s usually a green leaf so it looks live, But…
– Exceptions to the rule. Yes.
– Whaaa- gluuuh- This is the top side, right?
– Yeah. And then when they’re at rest, they fold their wings and they look like a dead leaf. Now these guys took it to a whole new level. Not only do they have the vein of the leaf and the little minor veins, they have rust spots and diseases like a dead life.
– Wow. So they- they copied their host plant.
– How- How do you find these in the wild? Like, ho- what do you- how do you even know where to look for them? You wait till they fly.
-You- Really? Yeah, ’cause you’re not gonna notice that if it’s on a twig.
– No way. I would never, I mean you had to- I looked at these in here and I was like, well, you put some leaves in here for comparison, but obviously not. So this is the underside. Woaaahh!
– Isn’t that amazing? And lookit! Even the tails look like a stem.
– Yeah! Looking like a leaf is a good camouflage,
– Mmhmm. Bu- looking like sticks too.
– *Gasps* So this is the largest, this is the longest insect on the planet.
– This is huge! The giant walking stick. This one I think is from Malaysia. That is- huge!
– And we joke around a little bit here… In-s- yeah, it says “more than seven feet.” I’m like, even I think that’s a little implausible. A lot of people don’t catch that, they’re like “what?”
– Really? Th-These things can be bigger than seven feet?! You can- you have the credentials being in a museum, you could say anything and people would believe you.
– Yes, exactly. And, are these insects too? I can’t even see what’s in here. They look like tiny, tiny dots.
– Yeah, those are probably some of the smallest beetles you’re gonna find. They’re beetles?
– They’re called feather-winged beetles because their wing- This is their wing. It looks like a feather. We have a huge collection of these that Hank Dybas, he was one of our curators here, Mmhmm.
– um , he collected. How do you collect these? We use traps.
– Oh. And we get a lot- we get a bunch of everything.
– Mmhmm. And then we sort out what we call the target taxa, things that we want to study. That’s a death’s head moth over there! Sorry, I just saw that, too. Yeah, the Silence of the Lamb moth. It has a skull on the back of it. So why does it have a skull, like, impression? No, the actual thing that it’s supposed to be looking like
– Mmhmm. is a giant bumblebee.
– Ohhhhh. Because they go into the hives and they’re able to either give off a smell or make a sound that, um, the other bees are like, “Oh, okay, you’re- you’re a friend. Doo doo doo doo.”
– Okay. And then it starts eating the honey and it’s takes it out.
– Wow. The way to collect moths is you hang a sheet and you put a light behind it,
– Yeahh. And the moths come to the sheet. And they run into it and you photograph it. These guys, certain parts of the year, they like cover your sheets, like “go away, I want other stuff!” Ohh, they’re so cool.
– And they- they run into the sheet and they knock the little stuff off. Bullies. These are the tarantula hawks. So, some people are afraid of tarantulas, but they should really be afraid of Tarantula hawks. Yeah.
– the tarantula hawks. See the stinger? So that’s where the venom comes through.
*gasps*But he- but it doesn’t kill them right away. It paralyzes them, and they stay alive? Yeah, and then they’ll l- lay an egg inside.
– What!? And then the egg hatches, and then the larvae start eating the spider inside out. Kinda weird and gross and awesome. I mean I wouldn’t have my children that way,
– Well that’s one thing… but you know. To each his own.
– Insects are found everywhere, and they’re found in other insects too. We have a huge ectoparasite collection, so. Okay, ectoparasite meaning what for- If Bill collected a mammal, he can comb the fur and he’ll find fleas, and lice, and mites.
– Oh yeah! There’s a fly that lives on bats, called a- a bat fly. And many of them are wingless and they move like little crabs through the fur of the bats.
– Weird. And we collect them because, uh, Jim and his colleagues can identify them, and you can actually find how two different species of bats are related to each other based on the relationship of their ectoparasites. Weird!
– So as the ectoparasites evolve, and the relationships among different ectoparasites, reflects the relationship among the different hosts. So it’s a- it’s a- very, very
– It’s like networking, like social networking. Totally like networking.
– It’s like Facebook. Yeah.
– For parasites. Exactly.
– That’s great.

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل


Spilostethus pandurus
Lygaeidae – Spilostethus pandurus Scientific classification
Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Arthropoda
Class : Insecta Order : Hemiptera
Suborder : Heteroptera Infraorder : Pentatomomorpha
Superfamily : Lygaeoidea Family : Lygaeidae
Subfamily : Lygaeinae Genus : Spilostethus
Species : S. pandurus Binomial name
Spilostethus pandurus Pine processionary larvae marching
in characteristic fashion Scientific classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Lepidoptera Family: Thaumetopoeidae Genus: Thaumetopoea Species: T. pityocampa Binomial name
Thaumetopoea pityocampa Directed by ELBAR MOHAMED ELAMIN

FEEDING THE DEVIL | Spiders and Centipede

FEEDING THE DEVIL | Spiders and Centipede


Let’s feed some tarantulas, shall we? I will feed a bunch of different-sized tarantulas. So there will be something for everyone! We will start with Poecilotheria Metallica. As you see, I removed the enclosure from the shelf. Along with my Poecilotheria Ornata enclosure. I will use Dubia cockroaches to be more precise. Males will get cockroaches for for her, and for Poecilotheria Ornata. Let’s see.. Not interested? Come on.. (laughs) He actually went inside (annoyed) Now she doesn’t want to eat. Last week she ate, and now she doesn’t want to eat. Of course! When you want to record something, You can’t have it. But isn’t she beautiful. Okay, I guess, I guess you won’t take it. I don’t know. Maybe she will take it later When we are not watching Now the next thing is a bit of an update on that small spider that I caught. Now as you can see, it actually made a hide inside of that corn bar Cube, so that is awesome and I will try to get a lateralis cockroach and see if we can get some nice shots….Shall we? (but of course) oops Nice! I hope you saw that… you can even see it inside That was a nice takedown Awesome, awesome. I think it’s name is Serge-steen of Florentine Oscar I guess maybe florentino… sounds like that. But as always I will just write it down So you can look up the species next one it will be a Nhandu chromatus female that I showed in my.. (Hard thinking) Two videos ago, last week. It is a young female Yeah, they are always Feasting. The only thing that I dislike about them is They are really skittish, so that would be the only reason why I wouldn’t recommend this as a first time tarantula Maybe I mean, I mean it’s alright for beginners, but it can really surprise you. She will do now a happy dance for us.. …always nice to see… Even though I know what they are actually doing, I still like to call it the happy dance because it really looks like they are dancing Okay, next up… next species… I mean specious. “Species” isn’t the same. Brachypelma emilia. Let’s try to feed her off tongs [Nibble, nibble] Sweet! terrestrial tarantulas are always, always much easier to record Especially if they really don’t use their height Look at those eyes This Nhandu is really dancing! Will you dance for us? not really Not in the mood for dancing Let’s move to the next one now. I would like to feed the centipede but since it is burrowed.. I don’t know if that will be the case Because I have no idea where it is. I can actually see its legs here, but I don’t know I can I can try Are we recording yes, but I’m not sure if it’s if it’s willing to take down a prey of this size Here it is. Lets try again Whoa, whoa, whoa! Ho! Woah, that was That was intense Let me close that off Okay, I definitely need (laughs) I Definitely need a bigger bigger tub You see that? I can’t wait to make a proper enclosure for this beast! The name is Devil, so.. Woo! Can’t wait to watch that recording That was Intense! And I read on the forums That they are actually, they can actually surprise you by climbing the tweezers (hell nah) So maybe next time longer tweezers. Damn. They are so fast! All right, Let’s see if we can feed other beasts. The Pterinochilus murinus I don’t know if it will come outside or not These roaches… so annoying when they stop moving. Maybe I should throw another one to get it outside They getting some action Check that sexy foot.. sexy orange foot! And Metallica is now coming outside. What do you want? Did you eat the cockroach? Not really. So any progress? not really (whistles sarcastically) The exciting life of a Tarantula keeper… Moving? What? No That’s roach… Ah! Really? It’s burrow Starts from here and goes all the way to here So here is one entrance and here’s the other entrance so probably this roach just went into its entrance and now It’s eaten damn, but we did not see the we didn’t see the action will.. I ever be able to record the Feeding of this? Now to my trusty (spider name that I can’t spell) Rosea is actually how you should Say I mean pronounce it You won’t disappoint me right? First, I thought that we would miss the shot because Roach went here But it turned out to be an awesome awesome action-packed feeding This is actually my first Tarantula, believe it or not. Look how huge it is! I bought it this slink, tiny slink and in three years This is what you get. And unfortunately since that it is a male But I love this fuzzy guy anyway. It was the beginning of something Something wonderful. I did record the unboxing of this little Fella, but It was so bad, so bad. I never made the video. This is good. I’m satisfied Where are you going? No! No, you can’t go outside. Sorry. Goodbye Now I will feed something tiny. Tiny, but still super Super nice – super awesome whenever I got this from Neairko(?) And this is actually a dwarf tarantula But they grow so fast and they show adult coloration so early on. I hope we will get it outside So you can see it wrong side. Oh yes, on its abdomen It’s actually got a mark that looks like a heart isn’t it awesome Nice takedown, but, oh nice Isn’t it beautiful? And they are really active excellent eater.. at least for now.. excellent eater and look so nice and they don’t take much space awesome species I recommend. I recommend them. Let’s try to feed What? Done, done, done, done, done, done, not really done, not really done Brachypelma smithi, I mean, ex. smithi, now hamorii also unfortunately a male He shoots, he scores He definitely needs a bigger enclosure now We’ll have it soon I guess, I have one empty CD, enclosure But maybe I should save that for the (?). Lets actually feed the (?) even though it is already feed.. We want it to grow fast right? I will give it a small cockroach Look, what was that? not interested? or interested So I don’t know I should make more CD enclosures, and I’m not sure if I have enough materials I would like to try to record one Lampropelma violaceopes but I’m not sure if I will be able to get it since they burrow So really not exciting No, you got. That was not that impressive. I have two more though Not sure that was a good one Damn This was a funny one. Its tried to escape And the last one will be Poecilotheria ornata. Let me just set things up for it Some light… ready to go woo I actually wanted to remove the roach when I saw her coming, but she was quicker than me I don’t know how big she is now can’t really measure her, but she’s becoming really big Can’t wait To see this recording on the computer. Even though I see it in person happening, It’s not the same. It happens so fast and you can’t repeat it and my concentration is also dedicated to getting nice shots. So these feelings are actually more enjoyable to watch on the video Here is the Metallica outside, when she was in her old enclosure She was almost never outside and now in this new enclosure where I made her a nice height Now she’s always outside Tarantulas So, what do you say? Couple of shoutouts to end this video…. Wheres my mobile phone? Tarantula dude: shoutout, please. A bunch of people just asked for a shout-out, I will read those shout outs, but for next time if you want a shoutout you need to try a bit harder. So, IamFloydwhothefuckareyou 02: Can I get a shoutout? Shout outs to…. you? Sdrrshock: Shout out to you and your 4-year-old daughter. But next time, write your names! But cool, a 4-year-old watching my videos, so cute. Wait a minute? You also ask for another shout out. So now we have a 5-year-old daughter… Hmm. She had a birthday few days ago? Ruben: shoutout to you, buddy! Febe: Yes, I can give you a shout out! RockitDakota: I guess, shout out to you And it’s really cool, you’re not the only one that wrote to me, how these videos are helping them with their fear against spiders, I mean fear of spiders and arachnophobia in general I started making these videos for people that are in the hobby (of spider keeping) But to see that it has a much greater impact than just in the hobby, it’s awesome to see that. And thank you for that. Keep enjoying those videos. There will be plenty more Yeah, shout to you. RubzSpid: You never had a shout out, well now you have. I guess Northern exotic pets from Philippines? Sure! Shout out to Northern Exotic Pets Facebook Page, check it out! And one from the Instagram.. Shout out to Tarantula Keepers Philippines and Pampanga Tarantula Keepers, it’s awesome that you have so many groups of tarantula keepers in Philippines. In Croatia, we don’t have such a thing, unfortunately. So, yeah. Those are all the shoutouts And this is the end of the video I hope you enjoyed it! If you did, thumbs up and comment something. And if you new to this channel, You know all the stuff, right? Mondays! Fridays! Subscribe! B-B-B-BYE!

Will I Get Worms? – Eating Parasites

Will I Get Worms? – Eating Parasites


– [Coyote] So to earn my
white coat, I must eat… – [Guest] One of
these wax worms. – Peep, peep, peep!
Peep, peep, peep! – Peep! Peep! – [Coyote] Like a
robin! I can’t hear you! (safari adventure music) – Whoo! The elevator
almost ate me. It’s been a while since
I’ve been in college. Today, we’re at The
University of Arizona. And we’re going to be getting
up close with some nematodes, but first, we need to find
Dr. Stock, in Room 720. Follow me, guys. – [Mark] So just, walk
into the first open lab you see, is kind
of the play here. – We’re definitely
in the right spot. You got biology and worms
up there on the tack board. Ah! There it is. Room 720. – What’s up guys? – Who let this guy in? – [Mark] I was gonna
say, “Who let Mario in?” – Guys, I am a
trained scientist. – All right here, let’s
see what you’ve been doing. What have you been up to? – Who let you in here
without any permission? – What have you
been up to in here? – You weren’t touching
anything, were you? – No, don’t touch that! – Oh, sorry. – I’m conducting a few
experiments, of my own. Yeah. – We’re looking for Dr.
Stock. Have you seen her? – [Mark] I don’t know.
Maybe, around that corner? – Oh, Dr. Stock!
Paging Dr. Stock. Coyote’s here. – What is all this noise? – There you are! – Nice to meet you. – Nice to meet you, too. You look very official
with the lab coat, and some, I’m assuming, some
important papers of some sort. – Oh, just looking at the
things that I need to pay for, bills of lab equipment
and supplies. – Kind of important, I guess. So, as I understand it,
we’re going to be getting up close with nematodes today. – That’s right and, does
people know what nematodes are? – Yeah, they’re like
a little amphibian. About, about little
warts, real cute, little buggy eyes, right, and
they eep, got that tongue? – [Mark] What? No toads? – Nematodes are roundworms. – Ugh! Roundworms?
Like a parasite? – Like a parasite. Yup. – [Mark] I signed up for toads. – I heard toads, and I
was like, “I love toads.” – Have no fear, because the
ones that you are going to see in my lab are actually
not that gross looking. I actually find them
very cute, interesting. – I’ll be the judge of that. Get my arm up in there.
Oh, now I feel official! How do I look guys? – [Mark] You actually
look more intelligent, believe it or not. – Yes, I have intelligent
things to say. It’s a very astute day
for Coyote Peterson, because we’re going to be
learning about nematodes, which are not amphibians at all, but are actually a parasite. I thought they were just
cute little amphibians. Okay! Let’s get into this. Well, what are we doing today? – Well you are going
to get that actually, bugs get sick too, and one
of the diseases that bugs… – Wait wait wait
wait wait wait wait. Did you say bugs get sick, too? As in insects can get sick? – Yes, so that’s my
profession. I am a bug doctor. – We’ll this is pretty cool. Now, this is one of
the first episodes we’ve ever filmed in
a situation like this, where we’re in a lab. We’re working with microscopes. And I see you’ve
got all these little test beakers and
pipettes out here. So, let’s kind of follow
what it is that you do, and we’re gonna learn
something cool today. – [Mark] Turn it
over to Dr. Stock. Why don’t you tell us about
what we’re looking at here. – Well, yeah. So, as
I mentioned before, I work with insect
diseases with nematodes and the nematodes that
I study are actually very tiny little creatures. So this flask that has
water, and if you can see the flakes that are shaking
inside, those are the nematodes. – Those are nematodes? – Yes. Those are insect
parasitic nematodes. – I see they kind of do look
like little squiggly lines. To me, this just looks
like bad tap water. – Yeah, yeah. And you
shouldn’t drink it actually. – Oh, I was gonna say,
“Can I taste it? Bad idea?” – Well, I wouldn’t
recommend that. – Okay. If the doctor says
don’t drink it, don’t drink it. – I can show you actually
other kinds of nematodes. – Oh, there’s different
kinds of nematodes. Wow! So that…that’s
a nematode. – Yeah, and you know
where it came from? – A poop? – Well, it came from
a lake in Wisconsin, and actually, that’s
a nematode that was parasitizing an immature
stasis of a dragonfly. – Wow, that came
out of a dragonfly? Now how did you extract
it from the dragonfly? – It came out on it’s own. – That’s crazy looking.
Can you actually even see that on your camera? So, that’s nothing for us
as humans to be afraid of, but if you are a
dragonfly larva, that’s like your worst
nightmare. Okay. All right. – [Mark] Well, hey. I noticed
there’s some plants down here. Are you working with
some plant research? – Yes, well actually,
it’s all connected. So, we are studying
nematodes that parasitize insects that are
pests doing more than crops and we… – Okay. Oh! Is that
a big caterpillar? – Yeah. That’s a
big caterpillar. – Wow! – I’ll get it out for you. – [Mark] Oh, wow. It is a big
caterpillar. That’s beautiful. – [Coyote] What kind
of caterpillar is that? It doesn’t bite does it? – No, it’s a Tobacco Hornworm. – So this is a pest
insect, despite that fact that it’s really beautiful. – Yes, they are very voracious. They could feed on
this plant, if we, if I put that caterpillar
on this plant, tomorrow morning,
I have no leaves. – Really? Got it! – Yup. That’s good. So, where does everything start? Right? In my research? – In a tummy? – No. In the soil. – Oh, in the soil!
Doesn’t all life come from the
belly of something? – Actually, I have to say that, thanks to these worms, I’ve
traveled around the world. And I’ve been all over
the world sampling… – What? For worms? – For these nematodes. – Wow! Those worms
are gross looking. What are those? Maggots? – No actually, this
is our guinea pig. And also, I use them
as baits to get the nematodes that are
living in the soil. – That’s nematode bait? – Yeah. So, when I go
to the field and collect dirt samples, I bring
them to the lab, then I put them in
containers like this. I put all these waxworms,
which actually are a pest problem in beehives, because if they get
into the beehives, they will feed on all the
wax in the comb of the hive, and it will destroy the comb. – So that’s where they
get the name, “Waxworm?” – Yeah, yeah. – Makes sense. – So, what I do, I
leave this dirt sitting in another room that
I have in my lab, for a week, and after
that, the magic happens. So, what I get is all these
infected caterpillars. – Those are dead? Woah! Ugh! – [Mark] What happened? – Don’t! Just
don’t! That stinks! – [Mark] Oh! I smell
it! It just hit me! Keep ’em back! I’ve
got a zoom lens. – Oh my gosh! That is putrid! I almost threw up my burrito into your little nematode
waxworm pile there. – In spite of that
smell, actually, there’s no putrefaction
here because actually the nematodes that we study, have inside their
tummies, bacteria, and this is the bacteria that
comes out from the nematodes. – So is that some
valuable research, right there, in that container? – Yes, because
actually, the nematodes, what they do, they
vector the bacteria, who are actually the
true insect killers. So, the bacteria is the
one that kills the insects, – And the bacteria is
coming from the nematode? – Yes. – Okay. So, the nematode
is the distributor of the bacteria that
ends up in the waxworm. – Yes, exactly. – I’m learning here. – And I hope you can
capture this with a camera. So, you have your
dead insects there. – Let me plug my nose and
get down there real close. – [Mark] Oh, yeah.
I see something. – [Coyote] Oh my gosh! That’s
like a deflating wax worm. – [Dr. Stock] Those are
the worms coming out. – [Mark] Why don’t we take
a look under the microscope? Because I think
everyone would really like to see these
worms in action. – Oh, yeah! So, so we can put
these under the microscope, and get an up close look
at these little wigglers. – We can go to my
other lab where we have the microscopes. The microscope! – Dr. Stock, I’m
light-headed here. All those funky smells. Whoo! – So, I have the worms here,
actually ready for you. – So, what’s gonna
happen is, I’m gonna look inside these little eye sockets, and the other camera is
gonna point at the screen, so you guys can see what
it is that I am seeing. Are you ready? – [Mark] Yup. – Here we go. Get that shot
on screen there, Mario. Oh, boy. That is one squiggly worm party! Are you serious? So,
this is what’s going on inside of those waxworms? – Yes, exactly. – And how many of
these are inside a waxworm at any given time? – [Dr. Stock]
Hundreds of thousands. – Hundreds of thousands? – [Mark] Hundreds of thousands? – [Dr. Stock]
Hundreds of thousands. – Wow. That is really cool. Okay, so what I wanna
do now, is I’m gonna crouch down here, and
we’re gonna look at this actually on the screen, so
that I can talk to you guys while we’re looking at this. Now, are we just seeing,
we’re just seeing the silhouettes of them, right? – Yeah, actually, these are
the ones that are coming out from the insects, and we call
them, infected juveniles. – Okay. So these are
opportunistic predators looking for a host, that
they can then infect. They’ll grow inside. And
then, how do they reproduce? Do they reproduce
inside of the waxworms? – So, yes, they will
reproduce in the waxworm or any other insect that
they think is suitable for them, but actually, the nematodes go into
the insect blood, and that sends a signal to the nematodes to
start opening their mouths or anuses, and the
bacteria start coming down. And so, the bacteria
are either defecated, or regurgitated,
and the bacteria throw toxins that kill the
insect, and the insect dies. Now, when the insect
dies, it’s actually the most important
part, because now, there’s all that
food supply for the nematodes to start
growing and multiplying. – Wow! Well, that’s pretty cool. I wish I had a
microscope like this. So, what else can
we take a look at? You have any other worm
species or parasites? – Yeah, I can show you
some human parasites that I use for my class. – Ooh! Human parasites! Let’s check that out. All right, you lead the way! – All right, back
in the dirty lab, and okay, somebody already
placed them on the table. I’m guessing, those are
the human parasites. – [Mark] Whatever gave it away? – Yeah, well I wasn’t
actually even looking at that. I was just looking at
that… This is what I always imagined would
crawl out of my mouth if I had a tapeworm, and I put the
bowl of milk in front of me. Are those tapeworms? – No, actually
these are nematodes. – Those are also nematodes? Giant, super-sized ones! – Yeah, they’re actually is
called Ascaris Lumbricoides. – Whoa, that’s complex
for something that just straight-up can be labeled,
“disgusting,” in my opinion. But you love these
things, don’t you? – Oh, I do. I love this. – This is fascinating to you? How would you know as a human, if you have one of these
inside of your organs? – You probably would have
many of them in your stomach. – No, no, no. Dr.
Stock, there is no way that I have any of
these inside me. – Yeah. And you would
look almost, like, pregnant with a
big swollen belly. – I work on my
physique a little bit. Do you think that I
might have some of those inside of me, though? – Oh, no. I don’t think so. – No. Whoo! In the clear. So, Dr. Stock, there
is a rhyme and a reason behind all the science,
and all the work you’re doing with
these incredibly
fascinating nematodes. Can you sum that up
for us? Real quick. – Yeah. So, actually
early, as I mentioned in the very beginning,
we are trying to develop alternatives
to pest management. – So, how does a nematode then, help you control
the pest population? – Well, nematodes actually are
important insect parasites. If they are mass-produced
and formulated, they can be used
to our advantage. – Okay, so basically
then, the nematodes can help control
populations of pest insects like these caterpillars, that
are just decimating crops. And in a sense,
they’re becoming the pest control of the future. – Exactly. And
actually, even further, they are safe to the
environment and to us. – That is so cool.
Well, this is definitely one of the most complex
and scientific episodes I think we have ever filmed. I learned so much
today about nematodes. Dr. Stock, thank you so much
for having us into the lab. – My pleasure. It’s
been wonderful. – Whew! That was crazy. – [Mark] Come one.
We’re not done yet. – What do you mean,
we’re not done? I was gonna give an outro. – [Mark] You didn’t
have your snack. And you know, the title of this
video, “Eating a Parasite.” – Oh, gosh. I was kinda hoping you guys would
forget about that! – I don’t think you
can leave this lab… – No, no, but I can
say, wait a minute, you can’t leave. I
have a present for you. – What’s the present? – The waxworm. – [Mark] Oh, which
is a parasite. So… – Well, a parasite host. – Hey, if it’s between
eating one of these, or a waxworm, I don’t know man. I think I’d go for the waxworm. – Give me the
waxworm. All right. – I would say so.
Actually, every lab member, to become a lab member,
needs to have one waxworm. – So, to earn my white
coat, I must eat… – One of these waxworms. A great source of protein. – And I’m just gonna
dump this whole thing of waxworms in my
mouth and chew it up? – Oh, no. I can
pick one for you. – Oh, just one? – Just one little snacky. – That’s a lot better. – That’s all I ask,
only one caterpillar. – Oh, you had to pick
the big squisher! – You can become the
official lab member. So, instead of chopsticks,
with these forceps. – Now, how do I know there’s
no nematodes in there? – I can guarantee that. – I’m trusting you here. Wait, I don’t know, guys,
I might puke on this. You know it happens. – Will this help? – Oh, yeah, that’ll do it. That’s 2000 milliliters. That’s probably what
I got in me right now. All right, I’m gonna hand
this little one back to you. – And I can give you that one. – [Mark] Oh! Doctors
have to feed you. – Yeah, yeah. I can help. – [Mark] Like a
little baby bird. – Just to make sure. – [Mark] Can you make a
little squawking sound? Like you’re hungry? – Ugh. Okay. – Peep, peep, peep!
Peep, peep, peep! – Ugh! – Ugh! – [Mark] What’s it taste like? – Ugh, like a bad bean. – [Mark] A bad bean? – Ugh! I’m holding it… – I’ll give you some help. – I swallowed it! – [Mark] You did it? – I swallowed it. – [Mark] You did it. – I swallowed it,
and I didn’t puke. Oh my gosh! You guys wanna try? You wanna join the club? Come on, man. – This might get me to puke. – I don’t think so. – We have the bucket,
we have the worms. – If it didn’t make me puke,
it’s not gonna make you puke. – This is called, “When
the tables have turned.” – Yeah, well look at
me! I’m doing just fine. I ate the big one,
too. Big squisher! – And he’s all energized. – Yeah. Actually, I feel
really good about myself. This is the first
time I’ve never puked from eating something. – I’m impressed. – I’ve puked from eating fruit. These are worms! – That’s definitely
the grossest thing I’ve ever seen you eat. – [Mario] That’s
pretty impressive. – [Coyote] That
one’s not big enough. Get him that big one in
the corner. Ooh, yeah! – What did I do to this guy? – That’s Chunky Charlie! Yeah. All right. Now, make
those bird noises, Mark. – [Mario] Yeah, come on, Mark. – [Coyote] Tweet, tweet!
Come on, little baby bird. – Peep, peep. – Like a robin,
I can’t hear you! No, no, no! No, no. Chew it. – I had to swallow real quick. It made my eyes water. – Did you even chew it? – It popped. It went, “Plew!” – The popping is the worst part. You expect there to be
a real pungent taste, but there isn’t. It actually tastes like a bean. – Okay. Give me my lab coat. – That’s the first time
I’ve ever eaten a bug. – Oh, man. That was… – I wish I could say
that no bugs were injured in the
making of this video, but unfortunately a couple
of them have been eaten. All right, Mario! I don’t think you’re gonna
escape this one, buddy. – I ate a big lunch
and breakfast. – You know you can
always top off a burrito with a little waxworm, buddy. It’s the new dessert. – Where’s your lab coat, Mario? (Dr. Stock laughs) – [Coyote] And, you
know the drill, buddy. You’ve seen us both do it. We’re gonna need some
good bird noises. What bird species
would you like to be? – A cuckoo. – Okay! Let’s hear what a
baby cuckoo sounds like, ’cause it’s dinner time! Mama bird has come back with a fresh pile of waxworms. – I’ll do my little wings? – Yeah, that’s cool. Well, I can’t hear the
sounds. Coo, coo, coo! – Ew! Ew, it popped. – It’s the food of the future. – Well, I’m in the
present right now. And in the present, I
had a burrito, but…nah. You know what? It
wasn’t that bad. It wasn’t that bad. – Somebody get this
man a lab coat! – Oh my gosh. I’m in trouble. Do I have enough lab coats? – Well, I sure hope so. – Well, let’s see. I’ll
give you my lab coat. – Ey! What a good Mama Bird! All right. Good job, guys! – Look at that. – High fives up here. We have all successfully
eaten waxworms. Now, my stomach
feels really funky, so, I’m go ahead
and cut this camera, and place it over here. Wow! I am incredibly
proud of us, guys. We have all eaten waxworms, and we are now all
officially doctors. Dr. Laivins, Dr. Aldecoa. – Wait. We’re doctors? – Yeah. That’s what
the lab coat means. – I don’t think
that’s how it works. – Oh, no. I’m definitely
putting, “Dr. Coyote Peterson,” in front of everything now. Dr. Stock, thank you
so much for having us into the lab today. This was enlightening. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be brave. Stay wild. We’ll see you on
the next location. (whimsical music) Hey, Coyote Pack! I’ve got some great news. We’re doing two live
shows in Australia: one in Melbourne,
and one in Sydney. The tickets are on sale now. And for everyone in
the United States: get excited, because
a West Coast Tour is coming in early 2018. And don’t forget, subscribe, so you can join me and the crew on our next big adventure. I’m Coyote Peterson. Be Brave! (audience cheers)

What Would Happen If All The Bugs Died?

What Would Happen If All The Bugs Died?


Hey there and welcome to Life Noggin. I took a visit to your human world the other
day, and was surprised to see so many of these little creepy-crawly things roaming around. Being so tiny, they can’t have much of an
impact on Earth, right? The answer to that just might surprise you. So, just how important are insects and what
would happen if all of them died? At first glance, it may sound like a pretty
good thing. No wasps to sting you when you go outside,
no fleas to annoy our furry friends, and no cockroaches to scare the daylight out of you… man those things look like creepy little aliens!. And there’s even some larger-scale benefits
too. We could say goodbye to insects that are invasive
species, like gypsy moths and the asian longhorned beetle. No more insects should also lessen the spread
of insect-spread diseases, like malaria. According to the CDC, malaria is a mosquito-borne
disease that gives a flu-like illness that, if left untreated, can even lead to death. They estimated that around 429,000 people
died from malaria in 2015, so stopping the spread of diseases like this could go a long
way for our global health! The benefits could also spread to our agriculture,
as it would make it so that farmers would no longer need to use insecticides to protect
their crops. Different pesticides would most likely still
be used though, as there could still be other threats to the crops, like weeds or rodents. But without insects, there would probably
be far less plants and food to protect in the first place. This is because around 80 percent of the plants
in the world are angiosperms, which are flowering plants. They directly provide us nutrition in the
form of foods like potatoes, beans, wheat, and many different fruits, vegetables, and
nuts. They are also indirectly part of our plates
by being commonly used to feed the animals we farm. While these plants can be pollinated by things
like wind and other animals such as birds, insects are often vital for their pollination. Common insect pollinators include bees, butterflies,
and beetles. Without another way to pollinate these flowering
plants, we could lose out on a pretty big supply of food! Losing out on insects would likely have a
widespread domino effect of making it harder for other animals to survive, which would
then make it harder for us to survive. Not just from their pollination contributions,
but insects themselves are also widely apart of the diet of animals like frogs, birds,
lizards, and many more! Adding up all the little things that insects
do for the planet both directly and indirectly could really lead us down a rabbit hole of
awfulness if they all died. That, and according to the UK’s Living With
Environmental Change Partnership, the global crop production attributable to insect pollination
was estimated to be worth about $215 billion dollars in 2005. That’s a lot of money! You could probably buy a couple of avocados
at Whole Foods with that much dough. Losing insects might also make it a little
harder for all my aspiring Sherlock Holmes out there. That’s because insects are drawn to a decomposing
body and may lay eggs in it. Through the study of insects and developing
larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate how long since a person died, changes in corpse
positions, and further insight into the cause of death. It’s super creepy to think about. So did any of this surprise you? Did you know such tiny things could be so
important? Let me know in the comments below! Make sure you come back every Monday for a
brand new video. As always, I’m Blocko and this has been
Life Noggin. Don’t forget to keep on thinking!

Thaumetopoea & Spilostethus Jungle Insects – حشرات الغابة : دودة الصندل


Spilostethus pandurus
Lygaeidae – Spilostethus pandurus Scientific classification
Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Arthropoda
Class : Insecta Order : Hemiptera
Suborder : Heteroptera Infraorder : Pentatomomorpha
Superfamily : Lygaeoidea Family : Lygaeidae
Subfamily : Lygaeinae Genus : Spilostethus
Species : S. pandurus Binomial name
Spilostethus pandurus Pine processionary larvae marching
in characteristic fashion Scientific classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Lepidoptera Family: Thaumetopoeidae Genus: Thaumetopoea Species: T. pityocampa Binomial name
Thaumetopoea pityocampa Directed by ELBAR MOHAMED ELAMIN

Dr. Michael Greger on Pandemic Prevention | Infectious Diseases, Aids, Climate Change, Influenza


the two greatest threats facing humanity
according to the United Nations are climate change and emerging infectious
disease particularly pandemic influenza the current focus of pandemic
discussions and debate understandably centers on what we in the public health
community refer to as secondary prevention mediating the impact of the
next pandemic an intervention analogous to mammography mammograms don’t prevent
cancer but if caught early enough for example we may be able to decrease
morbidity and mortality in the same with pandemic planning but what of primary
prevention the possibility of preventing the emergence of pandemic viruses in the
first place like cancer the root cause is likely multifactorial difficult to
tease out but a question worth exploring nonetheless and the question I’d like to
address here today let’s go back a few years 1981 here in the United States
Ronald Reagan takes the oath MTV starts broadcasting Indiana Jones and pac-man
mania is all the rage in June the CDC released a tiny bulletin five men in Los
Angeles it seems were dying with a strange cluster of symptoms from humble
beginnings AIDS has since killed 25 million people now the spread certainly
of the AIDS virus has been facilitated by promiscuity blood banking IV drug use
but where did this virus come from in the first place
and of course AIDS is not our only new diseases SARS Ebola mad cow bird flu but
from where do emerging diseases emerge well let’s go back a bit further much
further human beings have been on this earth for millions of years yet
throughout most of you Lucian there were no epidemic diseases
no one ever got the measles because measles didn’t exist
no one got smallpox no one got the flu not even the common cold until about
here 10,000 years ago medical anthropologists have identified three
major periods of disease since the beginning of human evolution and the
first started just 10,000 years ago with the domestication of animals we brought
animals into the barnyard they brought their diseases with them
when we domesticated cows and sheep for example we also domesticated their
rinderpest virus which turned into human measles now thought of as relatively
benign disease over the last 150 years measles has killed 200 million people
and in a sense all those deaths can ultimately be traced back just a few
hundred generations to the taming of the first cattle smallpox likely came from
camel pox we domesticated pigs and got whooping cough we domesticated chickens
and we got typhoid fever and typhoid mary and domesticated ducks and got
influenza before the domestication of ducks likely no one ever got the flu
leprosy likely came from water buffalo and the common cold from horses how
often did wild horses have the opportunity to sneeze into humanity’s
collective face until they were broken and bridled until then the common cold
was presumably only common to them and his Pulitzer prize-winning book Guns
Germs and Steel professor diamond tried to explain why the diseases of the
landing europeans wiped out up to 95 percent of the native americans and not
the other way around why didn’t need of American plagues kill
the Europeans well because there were no plagues in his chapter lethal gift of
livestock he explains how before the Europeans arrived we had Buffalo but no
domesticated Buffalo so no measles american camels were wiped out in the
Pleistocene ice age so no smallpox no pigs and no
pertussis chicken some no typhoid so while people were dying by the millions
of killers Courage’s in Europe and Asia none were dying with diseases in the
so-called new world because there weren’t essentially form animals to
domesticate there wasn’t this spillover of animal disease the next great a
period of human disease started just a few hundred years ago with the
Industrial Revolution the 18th and 19th centuries leading to an epidemic of the
so called diseases of civilization diabetes obesity heart disease cancer
etc but by the mid 20th century the age of infectious disease at least was
thought to be over we had penicillin we conquered polio eradicated smallpox in
fact in 1968 the US Surgeon General declared the war against infectious
disease has been won in 1975 the Dean of Yale School of Medicine pronounced that
there were no new diseases to be discovered except maybe lung cancer but
even Nobel laureates were seduced in the heady optimism of the time one famous
virologist wrote in 1962 textbook to write about infectious disease is almost
to write about something that’s passed into history the most likely forecast by
the future of infectious disease he wrote is that it will be very dull but
then something changed after decades of declining infectious disease mortality
the United States the trend has reversed in recent decades this is a graph from
the CDC of infectious disease mortality over time in the last 50 years or so and
as you can see it starts declining declining declining decline but then
around 1975 it started to go back up the number of Americans dying from
infectious disease started to go back up starting around 1975 new
diseases started to emerge and reemerge at a rate unheard of in the annals of
Medicine more than 30 new diseases in 30 years mostly newly discovered viruses in
fact the whole concept of emerging infectious disease has gone from a mere
curiosity in the field of medicine now it’s an entire discipline really moved
to center stage we may soon be facing according to the US since titute of
Medicine what they call a catastrophic storm of microbial threats we are now
smack dab in the third era of human disease which seems to only start at
about 30 years ago medical historians have called this time in which we live
the age of emerging plagues almost all of which come from animals but we
domesticated animals 10,000 years ago what has changed in recent decades to
bring us to this current situation well we are changing the way animals live
take Connecticut for example where in 1975 Lyme disease was first recognized
since spread across all 50 states affecting an estimated 100,000 Americans
since its emergence Lyme disease is caused by bacteria infected deer ticks
but the primary host is actually not deer but the white-footed Mouse the
ticks themselves not quite as cute really but we’ve been sharing the woods
with these fellows forever what changed recently was suburbia the
black legged ticks live on the white-footed Mouse kept at bay by
woodland predators the Zen developers came in and chopped up America’s
woodlands into subdivisions scaring away the foxes and bobcats and now we have
more mice more ticks and more disease we are changing the way animals live going
back a little farther with the big cattle producing nations fighting during
the Second World War what Argentina did took advantage of the
situation by dramatically expanding its beef industry at the expense of its
rainforest they we discovered the deadly human virus or
rather it discovered us and the so-called hamburger ization of the
rainforest exposed hemorrhagic fever viruses all across the continent
subsequently turning to the other side of the world in cutting into Africa’s
rainforests exposed a number of other hemorrhagic fever viruses including loss
of iris Rift Valley fever and of course Ebola now the inroads into Africa’s
rainforest were logging roads cut by transnational timber corporations
hacking deep into the rainforest drag down along a hungry migrant workforce
which survived on bush meat wild animals killed for food now this includes
upwards of 26 different species of primates including a number of
endangered great ape species gorillas chimpanzees who are shot butchered
smoked and sold as food now by cannibalizing our fellow primates we may
be exposing ourselves to viruses particularly fine-tuned to our own
primate physiology in fact recent outbreaks of Ebola for example have been
traced to the exposure to the bodies of infected great apes hunted for food now
Ebola is one of our deadliest infections but not efficiently spread compared to a
virus like HIV the leading theory as to the emergence of the AIDS virus is
direct exposure to animal blood and secretions as a result of hunting
butchering and the consumption of contaminated bush meat experts believe
the most likely scenario is that each fight HIV arose from human song their
way into the jungle butchering chimpanzees for their flesh along the
way now in many countries in Africa the
prevalence of HIV exceeds 25% of the adult population leaving millions of
orphan children and its way someone butchered a chimp a few decades ago and
now 25 million people are dead but mod life has been hunted for
thousands of years yes but never before like this with a demand for wildlife
meat outstripping local supplies what countries have done is set up these
intensive captive production farms cramming wild animals in these cramped
filthy cages then smuggling them around the world this intensive commercial
bushmeat trade actually started in the live markets of Asia particularly the
Guangdong province of southern province rounding Hong Kong from which the
current bird flu threat arose the civet cat popular commodity in these Chinese
animal markets in addition to being raised for their flesh they also produce
the most expensive coffee in the world so-called fox dung coffee is produced by
feeding coffee beans to captive civets and then you guessed it recovering the
partially digested beans from their feces a musk like substance of buttery
consistency secreted by the anal glands is said to give this coffee its
distinctive flavor one might say this unique drink is good to the last drop in
this animal was blamed for the SARS epidemic cloning from the medical
journal Lancet a culinary choice in South China a culinary choice in South
China led to a fatal infection Hong Kong subsequently eight thousand cases of
thar’s you know a thousand deaths 30 countries six continents maybe they
should have just stuck the Starbucks these live animal markets took a class
of viruses which in human medicine we had only known for causing the common
cold and seemed to turn them into a killer SARS which then spread around the
world viruses can escape rainforests and animals live or dead as pets
or as meat in 2003 the exotic pet trade brought monkey pox from the jungles of
West Africa to Wisconsin bird-smuggling may have actually been what brought West
Nile virus to the Western Hemisphere here it hits New York in 99 since spread
across the country hundreds of human deaths of cases all perhaps because of a
single imported pet bird so we are changing the way animals live
contributing to the emergence of these new diseases but you know there’s one
way we have changed our relationship with animals they’re really out shadows
all the rest in response to this torrent of emerging and re-emerging infectious
diseases the world’s three leading authorities got together for a joint
consultation the World Health Organization the Food and Agriculture
Organization the United Nations and the World Organization for Animal Health the
world’s leading veterinary Authority got together to uncover the key underlying
causes of this age of emerging plagues they came up with four four main risk
four main themes of risk factors for the emergence and spread of these new
diseases yes they talked about the exotic pet trade they talked about bush
meat but number one on their list was this increasing demand for animal
protein the world over yes we domesticated animals 10,000 years ago
but never before like this especially pigs and poultry chickens used to peck
around the barnyard but now chickens raised for meat are
typically warehouse and sheds containing tens of thousands of birds about half of
the egg-laying hens on this planet are now confined what are called battery
cages the small barren wire enclosures extending down long rows and windowless
sheds can be up to a million birds on a single farm about half of the pigs on a
planet are now again crowded into these intensive confinement operations
you know old MacDonald’s farm has since been replaced by the new MacDonald’s
farm these intensive systems represent the most profound alteration of the
human animal relationship in ten thousand years and no surprise they are
breeding grounds for disease few snapshots China 2005
the largest pork producing nation suffers an unprecedented outbreak of an
emerging Pig pathogen strep suus causing meningitis and deafness and people
handling infected pork products hundreds of people infected the deadliest strain
on record why well according to the World Health Organization indeed it
seems to be these intensive confinement conditions the USDA elaborates all strep
suah starts out harmless as natural gut flora
but then the immunosuppressive effect of stress due to overcrowding inadequate
ventilation causes the bug to go invasive causing infections of the brain
blood lungs heart and death starts out harmless turns deadly that’s what these
kind of conditions seem to be able to do this is not arguably how animals were
meant to live pig factories in Malaysia birth the Nipah virus one the deadliest
of human infections a contagious respiratory ailment killing 40 percent
of those infects causing relapse and brain infections propelling it on the
official US list of bioterrorism agents and again according to one of the
leaders of the field it seems to be the way in which we now raise these animals
so the three eras of human disease can be characterized perhaps as first the
diseases of domestication then the diseases of industrialization of finally
of land-use and agricultural intensification we took natural
herbivores like cows and sheep turned them into carnivores and cannibals by
feeding them slaughterhouse waste blood and manure and then we took down animals
too sick to even walk fed them to people and now have ad cow disease
we feed antibiotics to farm animals by the truckload this is the total amount
of antimicrobials used for all of human medicine every year now contrast that
with the amount we feed to farm animals just to promote growth or prevent
disease in such a stressful on hygienic environment
millions of pounds a year and now we have these multi drug-resistant bacteria
and we as physicians are running out of good antibiotic options scientists at
NYU trace the path of some of these superbugs quote-unquote starting for
example with the mass feeding of the cipro class of antibiotics to chickens
and then we there is a fecal contamination of the carcass at
slaughter we buy chicken at the supermarket polluted with fecal material
leading to longer and more severe human infections the CDC recently really
cinched it they they spend a million dollars over three year period doing
rectal swabs newly admitted hospital patients this is what they found
essentially in they found zero growth of these antibiotic resistant bacteria
within the bodies of those that had zero contact with fresher frozen poultry but
at least he’s so-called superbugs aren’t effectively transmitted from one person
to the other with the seeming propensity of
industrial animal agriculture to churn out these novel lethal human pathogens
what if these animal factories gave rise to a virus capable of a global pandemic
of disease let me put these new animal disease threats in perspective SARS
infected thousands of human beings killed hundreds niba infected hundreds
killed scores strep suus infected scores killed dozens now AIDS has infected
millions but there’s only one virus on the planet that can rapidly infect
billions and that’s influenza influenza the so called last great plague of
humankind is the only known past and capable of truly global catastrophe
these days unlike many other important diseases like malaria which are largely
confined at the equator or a virus like HIV which is only fluid borne the
influenza virus is considered the only passed and capable of literally
infecting half of humanity within a matter of months now in the 4,500 years
that we as species have had influenza since the
first domestication of birds influenza has always been one of our most
contagious known diseases but only since the emergence of this highly pathogenic
highly disease causing strain h5n1 as the influenza virus also emerged as one
of our deadliest h5n1 spreading out of Asia 2004 2005 2006 and continuing to
this day has only killed about a hundred few hundred people and not to minimize
each death is a terrible tragedy but in a world in which millions of people
continue to die of diseases like AIDS Tuberculosis why is there so much
concern about the so called bird flu because it’s happened before because the
last time a bird flu virus adapted to human beings it triggered the worst
plague in human history the influenza pandemic of 1918 modern flu strains tend
to spare young healthy adults but the 1918 virus killed people in the prime of
life in 1918 a quarter of all Americans fell ill this is a chart of percent of
population die humanity’s greatest mass murderer eluded scientists for nearly a
century before a mass grave in Alaska was unearthed victims of the pandemic
frozen in the permafrost for 80 years traces of virus in her lungs allowed
scientists to piece together letter by letter the genetic code of the 1918
virus solving perhaps the greatest medical detective story of all time
humanity’s greatest killer was bird flu for
civilian casualty in the u.s. was September 11th ironically 1918 and then
in a single month this was week one week two week three week four and this is
1918 we’re talking steam locomotive here scientists at the Imperial College of
London ran a simulation to see how a pandemic might spread today in the UK scientists at Los Alamos ran a
simulation through their supercomputers to see how a pandemic might spread in
the day of commercial airline travel here at hits LA in this simulation and
in a few weeks the entire country is blanketed in 1918 between 50 and 100
million people lost their lives a similar virus today could kill many many
more what started out for millions as muscle aches and a fever ended days or
even hours later with many people bleeding from their eyes from their
nostrils from their ears into their lungs homeless orphans their parents
dead wandered the empty streets one agonized official in the stricken East
sent an urgent warning West quote hunt up your woodworkers and set them making
coffins then take your street laborers and set them to digging graves this is a
clipping from the New York Times at the time victims of plague everywhere great
pyres of bodies consumed by the flames many victims strangled and their own
bloody fluids their corpses tinged blue from suffocation were said to have been
stacked like cordwood outside of morgues as cities ran out of coffins so they dug
mass graves that bird flu originating virus killed more people in 25 weeks
than AIDS is killed in 25 years no war no plague no
famine has ever killed so many people and so short a time as the 1918 pandemic
yet in 1918 the mortality rate of this disease was less than 5% this estimate
here potentially tens of millions of people dead in the next pandemic is
based on that same two to three percent mortality rate what the CDC is now
calling a category five pandemic around two percent mortality around two million
Americans dying so that’s two percent currently h5n1 is officially killing
over half of its human victims don’t even seem to get a coin toss as to
whether or not one lives through this disease dr. Robert Webster the world’s
leading authority on bird flu we go back to 1918 2.5 percent of people died how
many people are dying with bird flu 50 percent we’ve never seen such an event
since the time of the plagues up to 60 million Americans come down with the flu
every year what if it suddenly turned deadly that’s what keeps everyone up at
night the possibility however slight that a virus like h5n1 could trigger a
human pandemic that’d be like combining one of the most contagious known
diseases influenza with one of the deadliest like crossing a disease like
Ebola with the common cold where did this virus come from well the current
dialog surrounding avian influenza speaks of potential h5n1 pandemic as if
we’re a natural disaster hurricane earthquake of which we couldn’t possibly
have control the reality though is that the next pandemic maybe more of an
unnatural disaster of our own making in poultry bird flu has gone from an
exceedingly rare disease to one which now pops up every year the number of
outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in the first few years of this
century have already exceeded the total number of outbreaks recorded for the
entire 20th century you’ll note that these are five-year
intervals on just the first five months of 2006 we were already up to here
without breaks continuing to this day if one looks at the number of birds
involved the escalation is even more dramatic at this scale not even a blip
until the 1980s bird flu seems to be undergoing evolution in fast forward as
one leading flu expert told science we’ve gone from a few snowflakes to an
avalanche and the increase in chicken outbreaks has gone hand in hand with
increased transmission to humans a little over 10 years ago essentially no
known people not a single person known to get sick directly from bird flu but
since h5n1 rose in 1997 for other chicken flu viruses have affected people
from Hong Kong to New York City we can add another pink ring for the four cases
in England and Wales last year in the Netherlands outbreak there’s evidence
from a government investigation of a thousand people infected with
symptomatic poultry workers passing the virus on to whopping 59% of household
family members human-to-human transmission at a rate of seasonal flu
so ten years ago the dozen years ago essentially no one was getting infected
with bird flu and now there’s been over a thousand cases in continents around
the world now the Netherlands outbreak 30 million chickens died but only one
person one of the attending veterinarians tragically died so the
Netherlands virus was good at spreading but not a killing h5n1 is kind of the
opposite for h5n1 isn’t even good at spreading from birds to people look it’s
been around 10 years over ten years only a handful of people a few hundred people
have become infected and currently certainly not good it’s spreading from
person to person but the human lethality of the strain is ferocious of ten times
deadlier than the worst flu virus on record that which triggered the pandemic
of 1918 so what the Netherlands outbreak shows us is that this virus can evolve
to go directly human to human what h5n1 shows us is that this virus
can evolve into an efficient human killer if this trend is allowed to
continue our nightmare may one day be realized the worst of both worlds
contagious end deadly so to slow down or stop this rapid recent emergence of
highly pathogenic flu viruses one must first ask well what triggered this
avalanche in the first place what has changed in recent decades to bring this
all upon us the emergence of h5n1 has been blamed on free-ranging flocks wild
birds but people keeping chickens in backyards for thousands of years and
birds have been migrating for millions bird flu has been around forever what
turned bird flu into a killer well the senior correspondent news hour with Jim
Lehrer posed that question to dr. Webster the so called godfather of flu
research was there something qualitatively different about this last
decade made it possible for this disease to do something has never done before
some kind of changing conditions that suddenly lit a match to the tinder
Webster reply he said farming practices have changed she talks about growing up
on a farm but now we put millions of chickens into a chicken factory next
door to a pig factory and this virus has the opportunity to get one of these
chicken factories and make billions and billions of these mutations continuously
and so what we’ve changed is the way we raise animals and our interaction with
those animals then he talks about how the virus is escaping from the factories
infecting wild birds he says that’s what’s changed we’ve changed the way we
raise animals but we’re changed the way we raise handled by the billions the
number of chickens we slaughter every day spread wing to wing would wrap more
than twice around the world’s equator the big shift in the ecology of avian
influenza has been the intensification of the global poultry sector
the developing world meet Meg consumption has exploded leading to
these industrial scale commercial chicken facilities arguably the perfect
storm environment for the emergence and spread the so called super strains of
influenza in the early 1980s nearly all the chickens in China were raised in
tiny backyard outdoor flocks but now there are 63,000 Kay foes and China
concentrated animal feeding operations with a few of these so-called factory
farms confining 10 million birds on a single form the World Health
Organization blames emergence of h5n1 SARS Nipah virus all these new deadly
emerging Asian viruses in part what they call the over consumption of animal
products in this intensive animal agriculture the Food and Agriculture
Organization the United Nations starts up there seems to be an acceleration of
human influenza problems in recent years this is what they mean this from the
World Health Organization these are all the new influenza viruses infecting
human beings over the last century or so now turn your attention to just 1995 on
seems to be kind of snowflakes to an avalanche in people too but why well
according to the world’s leading agricultural thority this is expected to
largely relate to the intensification of poultry production and possibly pig
production as well they elaborate an internal FAO document chicken – chicken
spread particularly where assisted by this intensive husbandry conditions
causes the virus to shift adapt to a more severe highly pathogenic type of
infection intensive production favors the rapid spread of the viruses in the
so called hotting up of the virus from low pathogenicity to highly pathogenic
types factory farms it seems can be thought of as the incubators for the
emergence of highly disease-causing strains of this virus in this diagram
here they actually trace the path of a human pandemic starting with increased
demand for poultry products and ending up with a virus capable of
human-to-human transmission the United Nations in fact is called on all
governments to fight the role of what they call factory farming quoting from a
UN press release governments local authorities international agencies need
to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory farming
which combined with these live bird markets provide ideal conditions for the
virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form let me show you how it
works all bird flu viruses start out harmless to both birds and people very
important to understand they start out harmless avian influenza
has existed for millions of years as an harmless intestinal virus of aquatic
birds like ducks waterborne virus I said well how does in a duck’s intestinal bug
end up in a human cloth well in people the virus must make us sick in order to
spread must make us coffee in order to shoot fires from one person to the next
when the viruses natural reservoir Quantic birds like ducks the virus
doesn’t need to make the Ducks sick in order to spread in facts in the viruses
evolutionary best interest not to make the Ducks sick is dead ducks don’t fly
very far so the virus silently multiplies and the intestinal lining of
the duck is secreted out into the pond water is swallowed up by another duck
and the cycle continues as it has for millions of years and no one gets hurt
but if an infected duck is dragged to a live bird market for example crammed in
cages high enough to spot a virus infected feces on land bass birds
terrestrial birds like chickens well then the virus has a problem if the
virus finds itself in the gut of a chicken no longer has the luxury of easy
waterborne spread chickens aren’t paddling around in the pond so the virus
must mutate or die unfortunately for us mutating is what influenza viruses seem
to do best so in its natural reservoir it’s been described as being in total
evolutionary stasis harmless but when thrown to a new host like land-based
birds it quickly starts mutating acquiring mutations
adapt to its new host in the open air must resist dehydration for example and
it may have to spread to different organs to find a new way to travel the
intestines ain’t going to work anymore and they may find the lungs and become
an airborne pathogen which is bad news for terrestrial mammals such as
ourselves goes into chickens as an aquatic virus but may come out as the
flu in its new host the more virulent the more violent this virus becomes the
quicker may be able to overwhelm the immune system of its new host but if the
virus becomes too deadly though it may not spread as form in an outdoor setting
at least if the virus kills its host too quickly
the animal may be dead before it’s a chance to spread to too many others so
when nature is kind of a natural limit on how virulent these viruses can get or
at least there was until now enter intensive poultry production when
the next beak is just instant inches away there may be no limit how nasty
these viruses can get evolutionary biologists believe that this is the key
to the emergence of hyper virulent predator type viruses like h5n1 disease
transmission from immobilized hosts see when you have a situation where the
healthy cannot escape the disease where the virus can knock you flat and still
transmit disgust you’re so crowded then there may be no stopping rapidly
mutating viruses from becoming truly ferocious and this may explain the virus
of 1918 rising out of the trenches of World War 1 there were these crowded
troop transports boxcars were labeled 8 horses or 40 men so when this harmless
virus found itself in these kind of conditions that turned deadly millions
forced together into clamp cramped quarters no escaping a sick comrade this
is thought to be where the virus of 1918 gained its virulence from the viruses
point of view though these same trench warfare conditions
exist today in every industrial chicken shed every industrial egg operation can
find crowded stress but by the billions not just millions the industry is slowly
waking up to this growing realization that viruses previously innocuous to
natural host species have an all probability become more virulent by
passes to these large commercial populations is from an industry rate
Journal starts out harmless turns deadly that’s what these conditions may be able
to do this is not arguably how animals were meant to live so how does the
poultry industry feel about the possibility that its own animal
factories may produce a virus capable of killing millions of people around the
world well the executive editor of poultry magazine wrote an editorial on
just that topic she wrote the prospect of a virulent
flute which we have absolutely no resistance is frightening however to me
the threat is much greater to the poultry industry I’m not as worried
about the US human population dying from bird flu as I am that there will be no
chicken to eat this is this is how the Department of Interior puts it
domesticated poultry as the necessary stepping stone to create a pandemic
strain of influenza now we used to think pigs were an important link in this
chain so this probably not a good idea h5n1 found a way it seems not only to
kill people directly but seems to have gone full circle reinfecting its natural
hosts migratory aquatic species who can potentially fly this factory farm virus
to continents around the world now unfortunately for us there’s there’s
some quirk of evolution the respiratory tract of a chicken seems to bear
striking resemblance to our own primate respiratory tract on a molecular level
on a virus receptor level so as the virus gets better at infecting killing
chickens the virus may be getting better at infecting and killing us
viral gist Earl Brown specialists in the evolution of influenza viruses you have
to say dr. Brown concluded again this high-intensity chicken rearing whether
the perfect environment for the evolution for generating virulent avian
flu virus now in contrast there has never been a single recorded emergence
of a highly pathogenic flu virus ever from an outdoor chicken flock never once
has dangerous deadly virus ever arisen that we know of in chickens kept outside
you can breed a deadly virus here it can escape in fact backyard birds
free-ranging flocks even wild birds but that transition from harmless the deadly
always seems to happen in these kind of conditions because of the overcrowding
remember transmission from immobilized host because the sheer numbers because
of the inadequate ventilation the dankness helps keep the virus alive
because of the stress crippling their immune systems because of the filth the
virus is in the feces that they’re lying in which decomposing releasing ammonia
burning the respiratory tracts predisposing to respiratory infection in
the first place and because there may be no sunlight the UV rays and sunlight are
actually quite effective in destroying the influenza virus 30 minutes of direct
sunlight completely inactivates h5n1 but it can last for days in the shade and
weeks in moist manure so you put all these
factors together when you have this kind of perfect storm environment for the
emergence and spread of new super strains of influenza but what about
biosecurity don’t we want all the birds confined indoors away from waterfowl I
mean does it matter if these kind of conditions can turn a harmless virus
into a deadly virus if the harmless virus can’t get inside in the first
place well an FAO research report addressed this very question they in
their evidence-based analysis they looked at the best data set available a
massive survey of flocks in Thailand in which over a million birds were tested
for h5n1 in factory farms and backyard flocks and what they expected to find
was that backyard flocks would be at higher risk for infection because
they’re just out there in the open what they found was exactly the opposite they
found a backyard flocks are at significantly lower risk of infection
compared to commercial scale operations industrial quail and chicken operations
were at least four times more likely to become infected than backyard flocks so
not only may factory farms be the incubators for the original emergence of
high path strains based on the best science available they may also play a
role in the spread the subsequent spread of the virus as well in part because of
the massive inputs and outputs required for this industrial style of animal
agriculture tons of feed and water go in tons of waste comes out tens of
thousands of flies buzzing around and these these high volume ventilation fans
blowing dust and waste out into the countryside potentially contaminating
the air soil insects rodents transport industrial-style production can lead to
industrial style contamination of the environment
researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health I look back and
realize that their conclusions were actually consistent with other high path
outbreaks whether in the Netherlands Canada Italy other diseases factory
farms consistently at higher risk they concluded them there’s no empirical
evidence to support this myth that backyard flocks or somehow the crux of
the problem and again people been raising birds in their backyards for
about four thousand years before this disease erupted out of control on other
factors the studies have uncovered widespread disregard for biosecurity
even in developed countries which claim to have the best biosecurity in the
world according to North Carolina University poultry health management
high biosecurity is still wishful thinking in many areas of intensive
poultry production a bird flu outbreak in Virginia in 2002 led to the deaths of
four million birds found its way inside 200 factory farms highlighting just how
wishful the thinking is that industrial poultry populations are somehow
completely protected against this kind of infection based on the rapid spread
of avian influenza in Virginia recently this decade USDA poultry virologist
conclude the obvious that biosecurity on many farms is simply inadequate
investigators from the University of Maryland surveyed chicken facilities
throughout the delaware maryland virginia peninsula perhaps the most
concentrated density of chickens in the world and concluded that us chicken
flocks constantly at risk for infection triggered by these poor biosecurity
practices but even if the industry had perfect compliance with these guidelines
even if everyone going in and out stepped in antiseptic foot baths scrub
their boots wash their hands even with perfect compliance it likely would not
be enough we now know that h5n1 can be carried by flies you cannot keep
flies out of a poultry shed see h5n1 is a biosafety level 3 plus pathogen that
means in a laboratory setting this virus must only be handled in unique high
containment buildings specially engineered with airlocks double-door
access shower in shower out of floors walls ceiling sealed waterproof all
electric outlets phone cords cocked collared sealed to prevent any air leaks
all surfaces decontaminated daily all solid waste incinerated that is supposed
to handle this virus that’s biosecurity in contrast to this the global
industrial poultry industry seems to be breeding viruses like h5n1 and
essentially biosafety level zero so the poultry industry may not only be playing
with fire with no way to put it out there may be Fanning the flames and
firewalls to contain this virus do not yet exist
unfortunately leading USDA poultry viral just told an international gathering of
bird flu scientist unfortunately this level of biosecurity just doesn’t exist
in the United States and doubts really it exists anywhere in the world and
according to Merida’s poultry professor author of handbook on livestock diseases
standards of biosecurity may actually be in decline in an attempt for the
industry to cut costs now biosecurity measures is there currently practiced
certainly better nothing but may not be something we want to stake the lives of
millions of people upon for the sake of cheaper chicken a pandemic caused by
h5n1 or some comparable future bird flu virus has the capacity to trigger one of
the greatest catastrophes of all time so to decrease the risk of generate
increasing ly dangerous bird flu viruses the global poultry industry must reverse
course away from greater intensification by for example here in the annals of New
York Academy of Sciences replacing these large industrial units with smaller
farms with lower stock densities of animals which could
potentially result in less stress less disease susceptibility less intense
infectious contents and lower infectious loads across the board in 2007 the
Journal of the American Public Health Association published an editorial that
went beyond just calling for D intensification of the poultry industry
they questioned the prudence of raising so many chickens in the first place in
their editorial chickens come home to roost it is curious that changing the
way humans treat animals most basically ceasing to eat them are the very less
radically limiting the quantity of them that is eaten is largely off the radar
as a significant preventive measure such a change if sufficiently adopted or
enforced however even at this late stage could still reduce the likelihood of the
much-feared influenza pandemic it would even more likely prevent unknown future
diseases that in the absence of the change may result from farming animals
intensively and killing them for food yet humanity does not even seem to
consider this option we don’t tend to shore up the levees until after the
disaster hopefully won’t take a pandemic before we take these recommendations
into account the editorial concludes those who consume animals not only harm
those animals and endanger themselves but they also threaten the well-being of
future generations on this planet to switch avian images it is time for
humans to remove their heads from the sand and recognize the risk to
themselves that can arise from their maltreatment of other species how we
treat animals can have global public health implications it’s not surprising
then that the American Public Health Association the largest Association of
public health professionals in the world has called for a moratorium on factory
farms urging all federal state local authorities to impose a ban on the
building of new in of livestock operations to protect the
health of the local communities in terms of air water land contamination
pollution the prudence of this measure certainly grows with our increasing
understanding of the role that these operations play in emerging infectious
disease I’m often asked how the industry responds to this kind of sentiment from
the scientific community well last summer the United Nations
released yet another report on the global health risks of intensive animal
agriculture let me show you that how US agribusiness responded to this report
feedstuffs is America’s leading agribusiness publication and init Oriole
responded this way to the FAO research report FAO claims to you scientists to
generate as reports but I wonder if those scientists don’t resemble a
bearded guy living in a cave in Pakistan who wants the US on its knees all too
typical of the kind of year with us or against us industry attitude
unfortunately now this is an extreme example there are those within industry
who can take a step back and look at the longer term view avian health expert in
longtime industry insider Ken Rudd wrote a really candid article and poultry
Digest called poultry reality check needed drawing on his 37 years
experience from within the poultry industry he concluded with these
prophetic words he said now is the time to decide we can go on with business as
usual charging headlong towards lower costs or
we can begin making a prudent moves necessary to restore balance between
economics and long-range avian health we can pay now or we can pay later but it
should be known and it must be said one way or another we will pay so cutting
down our consumption of chickens and fighting the role of factory farming as
the United Nations has called for mainly prevent emergence of future viruses but
h5n1 has already been hatched already spread and
mutated into a more dangerous form and now that it is endemic in poultry
populations across two continents eradication is unlikely dr. Michael Haas
her home is the director of the u.s. Center for infectious disease research
policy a associate director with the department of homeland security he tried
to describe what an h5n1 pandemic could look like in one of the u.s. leading
Public Policy journals called foreign affairs he asked policymakers to
consider the devastation of the 2004 tsunami in South Asia
he said duplicate the tsunami in every major urban center rural community
around the planet simultaneously add in the paralyzing
fear and panic of contagion and we begin to get some sense of the potential of
pandemic influenza that’s what he thinks it could be like a tsunami in every city
every town everywhere people drowning in their own bodily fluids or we could
imagine Katrina imagine every city New Orleans around
the world at the same time all perhaps because people insisted on eating
cheaper chicken the next pandemic maybe more of an unnatural disaster of our own
making a pandemic of even moderate impact may result in a single biggest
human disaster ever far greater than AIDS 9/11 all the Wars of the 20th
century and the tsunami combined has the potential to redirect world history as
the Black Death redirected European history in the 14th century
hopefully the direction world history will take is away from raising birds by
the billions under intensive confinement so as to potentially lower our risk of
us ever being in this precarious place ever again my intention on today was
just to focus on primary prevention getting to the root cause but with the
unprecedented spread of this truly precedented virus it is important that
everyone be prepared for the next influenza pandemic so let me just throw
out some resources the CDC has set up an excellent pandemic preparedness website
pandemic flu gov if you click across here you will find pandemic preparedness
checklist for businesses schools communities face base faith-based groups
all the way down to individual and family preparation which really focuses
on getting everyone right now to stockpile weeks of essential supplies to
shelter in place during a pandemic isolating ourselves and our families in
our homes until the danger passes the u.s. department of homeland security is
now using as a key planning assumption that the US population may be directed
to remain in their homes under self quarantine for up to 90 days per wave of
the pandemic to support social distancing kind of like a snow emergency
where you just told to stay inside don’t go out and let’s emergency but instead
of lasting a day or two last weeks or even months everyone ready to stay in
their homes for three months if we have to go out to the corner store during a
pandemic to buy toilet paper or something we be maybe bringing back to
our family more than just groceries this is important topic I wrote three I have
six chapters on preparing for and surviving the next pandemic in my book
on the subject all the proceeds I received from the sale book go to
charity to address the problem and the entire contents of the book is now
available free full-text online at bird flu book dot org the goal is to be
prepared not scared this presentation by design given the time constraints is an
oversimplification of a serious public health issue so I encourage people to go
to the website learn more about the topic all the citations are hyperlink
clickable all 3168 of them this is a lay publication
for those interest in the technical science the underlying evolutionary
biological theory allow me to refer you to an invited review that I wrote for
the last issue of critical reviews of microbiology anyone interested in a
reprint copy be happy to send you one if you just email me at M G re ger at
Humane Society org let me end with a quote from the World Health Organization
the bottom line the bottom line is that humans have to think about how they
treat their animals how they form them how they market the basically the whole
relationship between the animal kingdom the human kingdom is coming under stress
in this age of emerging plagues we now have billions of feathered and curly
tailed test tubes for viruses to incubate and mutate within billions more
spins at pandemic roulette along with human culpability though comes hope if
changes in human behavior can cause new plagues
well then changes in human behavior may prevent them in the future thank you you

What is an Epidemic?

What is an Epidemic?


Epidemics and pandemics, are when you get a sudden burst of an infection. It can be a relatively small outbreak. It can be a fairly severe one in a localized area. For example, the Ebola epidemic that hit West Africa a few years ago or it can be massive like the flu pandemic of 1918 This is the centenary year of that epidemic which actually killed somewhere between 50 and 100 million people. Some epidemics are passed on by insects like mosquitoes or fleas. Some are passed on by airborne methods some are passed on by food and water. Some are passed on sexually and some are passed on by touch and depending which of these it is we can do different things to try and control them.