10 Horrible Insect and Pest Infestations

10 Horrible Insect and Pest Infestations


Nobody really likes dealing with creepy crawlies
and pests, but just like family members you don’t like and the looming specter of death
that hangs over us all, sometimes you just have to confront them. If, like most people, you harbor no love for
things with too many legs or that carry immense amounts of disease, here are 10 stories of
horrifying insect and pest infestations to make you feel a little better about that large
spider you found in the bath that one time. 10. Mazda keeps making cars that spiders love
making nests in If that Simpsons episode where Homer designs
a car taught us anything it’s that people look for different things when buying an automobile. However, we’d hazard a guess and say that
a feature everyone looks for when buying a car is that it should be spider-free. Mazda apparently didn’t get this memo and
released a number of cars that for some reason, spiders seemed to love making nests in. The problem was first discovered in 2011 when
owners of the Mazda 6 noticed that spiders liked making nests in the car’s fuel and
vent lines. It would later emerge that, due to a manufacturing
oversight, a small crack leading to the car’s gas line could be circumvented by yellow sac
spiders, which are known to be attracted to the scent of gasoline and “other hydrocarbons.” Mazda recalled the cars and sealed the crack,
only for the spiders to find their way back in. As if having to drive with the knowledge that
thousands of spiders could be chilling mere feet away from you wasn’t bad enough, the
spiders made nests so large they could potentially cause the engine to catch fire. While there’s no evidence of any Mazda succumbing
to a spider-related fire, would you buy a car knowing that it was full of spiders and
also might randomly erupt in flames? Executives for the company seemed baffled
that spiders kept making nests in their cars, with one matter-of-factly saying he wanted
nothing to do with the issue because he was scared of them. But here’s the best part: after multiple
attempts to solve the problem, Mazda issued a software update some gleefully reported
on as being a “literal bug fix.” To be clear, the fix didn’t get rid of the
spiders, it just made it so that the engine wouldn’t overheat and catch fire. Which, to be honest, we think is worse because
at least if the car caught on fire it’d take the spiders with it. 9. For a few days in a small town in Brazil it
literally rained spiders Imagine waking up one morning and looking
out of your window to see a thin sheet of white covering your neighborhood and specks
of pearly white silk dropping from the sky. After throwing on your hat and gloves you
walk outside to enjoy the snow, only to realize that, wait… you’re in the middle of Brazil. After looking closer at the “snow” you
realize that it’s actually spider silk and those little flecks of Colgate-white sleet
you thought was snow are actually millions of spiders raining from the sky. Believe it or not this isn’t something from
a crappy Arachnophobia sequel you never saw, but something that actually happened to a
small town in Brazil called Santo Antonio da Platina in 2013. The spider rain, as it was called by no less
of an authority than the freaking Smithsonian, was noted by biologists as being a perfectly
natural, if not unusual, phenomenon likely caused by a freak gust of wind blowing spiders
from a nearby forest a couple of miles away from their home. Residents of the town seemed relatively non-plussed
about thumb-sized spiders falling from the sky, as this video handily demonstrates. Warning, do not click that video (or watch
the one above) unless you want to spend the rest of the day feeling itchy. 8. Poor neighborhoods in 60s-era DC used to have
to deal with hoards “possum-sized rats” As if being black in the ’60s wasn’t tough
enough for African-Americans just wanting to go about their daily lives, residents of
the poorer, predominantly black districts of Washington DC had to deal with – and
we’re not making this up – “possum-sized rats.” This was until a hero named Julius Hobson
decided to do something about it by making it, in his own words, “a white problem”
too. You see, Hobson was keenly aware that the
the government wouldn’t do anything about the rats if it was just a problem that impacted
black folk, so he decided to remedy that by driving around wealthy white neighborhoods
with cages full of giant rats strapped to his roof, threatening to release them all
if the problem wasn’t solved. When panicking white people tried to suggest
this was illegal, Hobson handily pointed out that nowhere did any law say he had a legal
obligation to keep captured rats in cages, and that the law couldn’t touch him for
releasing the modern equivalent of one of the 10 plagues of Egypt on their quaint little
suburb. Hobson then politely pointed out that he had
hundreds of rats hidden away and was prepared to keep coming back to release them for as
long as it took for the problem to be solved. As Hobson expected, when government officials
started getting complaints from white people they mysteriously started funding rat patrols
in the poorer regions of DC and the rats went away. 7. A couple bought a house where spiders ended
up “bleeding from the walls” If, like a lot of people, you’re creeped
out by spiders, we recommend skipping this one if you like feeling comfortable in your
home. For everyone else, let’s talk about that
time a couple in St. Louis lived what for many people would be their absolute worst
nightmare: spiders bleeding from their walls and randomly raining down from the ceiling
while showering. As noted by USA Today, problems began for
the couple when they purchased a $450,000 home near the Whitmoor Country Club in Weldon
Spring in 2007. Shortly after moving in, the couple began
seeing spiders, in their own words, “everywhere.” Specifically, the couple kept happening upon
brown recluse spiders, a venomous spider that usually grows to around half an inch long. The couple twice called exterminators, who
were woefully unequipped to deal with the problem, and at one point angry spiders responded
to their impending deaths by bleeding from the walls and showering the couple from above. The couple eventually got so sick of being
covered in spiders that they moved out and sued the person who sold it to them. Unsurprisingly, they won. 6. India’s cobra problem During the time of British rule in India,
a scheme was hatched in Dehli to try and curb the country’s rampant cobra problem. In a nutshell, the British offered a bounty
for dead cobras, which it hoped would eliminate the problem. However, wily Indians realized that just like
in an RPG, they could farm the snakes for extra gold and began instead capturing cobras
and breeding them. When British authorities learned that some
people had gamed the system and were making money from cobras, the scheme was quickly
quashed. You can probably see where this is going. With no incentive to farm cobras anymore,
everyone trying to cash in on that sweet snake-money simply released all of the cobras into the
wild. The net result? Dehli ended up with an even worse cobra problem. Which just serves as a reminder that when
you have a serious cobra problem, you should probably just leave it to the experts. 5. A woman in San Francisco spent years “breeding
rats” just so she could keep releasing them into the city Everyone, as they say, needs a hobby. Unfortunately for San Francisco one homeless
female resident made it her hobby to breed giant rats and release them into the city
for seemingly no reason other than… well, because she could. Over the course of several years officials
found that the woman, identified as Erica J, had bred hundreds of rats around the Japantown
bridge, leading to an explosion in the local population of the vermin. Every time officials took Erica’s rats she
somehow managed to acquire hundreds more and she was observed “living” with the rats,
feeding and caring for them like some kind of rat overlord. 4. House infested with so many bird mites soldier
says he’d rather sleep in Iraq Bird mites are a tiny, almost invisible pest
that is – shockingly – spread by birds. The insect feeds on blood and is noted as
being exceptionally mobile and hardy, which combined with their small size makes them
hard to find and kill. Although the mites cannot live on a human
host indefinitely, they’ll happily bite and suck the blood of a person given half
a chance. As an idea of how terrifying a bird mite infestation
can be, in 2012 a lady named Gayle White had millions of the bugs invade her house after
thousands of birds decided to chill on her roof. According to her husband, who’d served across
the world in places like Iraq, Afghanistan, and Bosnia, the worst night’s sleep of his
life was inside the bird mite infested house. White’s husband openly referred to the bugs
as “tali-mites” and lamented that he’d rather sleep in a combat zone than deal with
them again. White herself recalled waking up with the
bugs crawling inside her nose and ears and finding bite marks everywhere on her body. So yeah, next time you have a bad night’s
sleep, feel sorry for the woman who woke up with millions of tiny bugs gnawing on her
butt. 3. There’s an island out there lousy with deadly
snakes About a 100 miles off the coast of Brazil
is a pristine island called Ilha da Queimada Grande. Untouched by humans, the island is a nesting
ground for millions of golden lancehead snakes, a kind of pit viper with a bite that melts
human flesh on contact. The island is so densely covered in snakes
that estimates say there are as many as five snakes per square meter of land, and it’s
so dangerous that visiting it is illegal. On the rare occasion the Brazillian navy does
visit the island to perform routine maintenance on an automated lighthouse located there,
a doctor with a pack full of anti-venom is required to come along. Even then the bite of the golden lancehead
is so deadly that even with anti-venom, there’s still a 5% chance of death anyway. Stories tell of snakes raining down from tree
tops and slithering through open windows to bury the family who originally operated the
aforementioned lighthouse in an avalanche of hissing, flesh-melting venom. The snakes are able to survive thanks to the
fact the island is a resting place for migratory birds and, thanks to the a complete lack of
human oversight, have near total dominion over the island. Speaking of which, the island’s nickname
is, unsurprisingly, Snake Island. Because of course it is. 2. Pakistan had trees covered in millions of
spiders Spiders are remarkably adaptable creatures. For example, consider that time in 2010 when
spiders reacted to floods in Pakistan by forming super colonies containing millions of spiders
all hidden within individual trees that they sealed with spider silk. The trees pretty much became no-go zones for
Pakistani residents, with locals admitting that if you stood below them you’d be constantly
showered with tiny spiders and that you could hear larger arachnids moving around within
the confines of the silk cocooning the branches. While there was never any confirmation that
the larger spiders were commanding the smaller spiders to do their bidding, we feel it’s
safe to assume that they were. Also, as an aside, the silken webs the spiders
spun around the trees they took refuge in made them largely impervious to water, meaning
the spiders inside remained relatively safe during a period of unprecedented rainfall
in Pakistan. Contrary to what you’d expect, though, residents
reported being happy to see that millions of spiders were taking refuge in trees since
more spiders meant less mosquitoes, a common danger following floods. The same can’t be said of residents near
our next entry, however… 1. There’s a building in America filled to
the brim with spiders In 2009, during a routine inspection of a
Baltimore water plant, engineers discovered something that, regardless of your feelings
about spiders, is pretty much guaranteed to make your skin crawl: it had somehow become
a refuge for 107 million arachnids. And no, that’s not a typo. Researchers later estimated that for every
cubic meter of space, the plant contained roughly 35,000 spiders, and they observed
that in some places the sheer weight of spiders hanging from light fixtures and ceilings had
caused permanent structural damage. Just for a second, look up and imagine how
many spiders you’d need to have crawling on your roof for it to begin to sag and strain
under their weight. Feel free to continue thinking about that
fact until you try to sleep later.

Air conditioning with wind, sun and water: Ben Bronsema at TEDxDelft

Air conditioning with wind, sun and water: Ben Bronsema at TEDxDelft


Translator: Els De Keyser
Reviewer: Ariana Bleau Lugo Ladies and gentlemen, the buildings
you see here are very different. There is a town hall,
there is a big ministry building, there is an airport terminal,
there is a head office of a big bank and a small bank, and an office
of a broadcasting company and also two old buildings
from the last century, a museum in The Hague and the head office of an important
Dutch trading company from the former century. These buildings were built in the 20’s
and the 30’s of the last century. Well, these are very different buildings and yet they have one thing in common: the airconditioning systems in these buildings
were designed by me and by my staff. (Laughter) Everybody can talk about airconditioning but few have ever seen
the heart of an air-conditioning. And what you see here on this slide is the very heart
of an airconditioning plant: huge air handling units
which cool and dry your air or heat it up and humidify it. Well, this has always been
important work for me. This was my joy, this was
my passion and my life, to design this kind of things. Ordinary people
are not allowed to go in there. And architects also
don’t like those systems. Architects dislike airconditioning, in fact. It costs a lot of space. They hate the pipes and the ducts. They hide them very carefully above the false
ceilings and in insulating shafts. And at last, airconditioning
costs a lot of money. It has to be funded
from the construction budget, and that’s their budget. Then next, do people like airconditioning? Well, they generally do not. They hate the noise of the fans, the draft of the cold air
that is coming into them, they don’t like the air quality, they think the inside air quality is not
as good as the outside air quality. They complain about dry air. And, well, energy consumption
of air conditioning is rather high. So that’s also not so very good
for air conditioning. So having a relationship with architects
that is a love-and-hate relation, and customers that do not like my products, you can imagine that I had
a very hard and difficult life. (Laughter) So, should I have given up
or is there a solution to this problem? Well, can we learn from nature? What you see here
is a termite hill. I’ve seen lots of termite hills
in Africa, in Kenya. They are very large buildings
they build for themselves. Inside that building, that mound, they grow a fungus. The fungus is
their primary food source. The fungus grows best
at a temperature of 30°C. So the temperature in the mound
has to be kept at 30°C, while at the outside, it’s 50° in daytime
and the sun is shining on the hill, and at night time, the temperature
can go down to about zero. So, can we learn from some —
could we design a building like those termites do? Well, we don’t know for sure, but I think termites do not split up
the design of these mounds and architecture [and] engineering.
They build it together. (Laughter)
(Chuckles) I say: as far as we know!
(Chuckles) (Applause) And I think termites are very satisfied with the endoclimate in their buildings. So could we imitate this,
the way termites do this? It’s called the biomimicry principle. Could we learn from them
and build a building in reality? Could we make buildings
in the human world as a machine
for natural air conditioning? Then I come to the words architect
and engineer – different minds. Architects are artistic,
intuitive and creative and engineers logical,
rational and well, I must say that architects sometimes
have very fantastic ideas but they leave the quality
of the endoclimate to the engineer. The engineer is always responsible. So, different minds. I have learned the mind
of the architect rather well during my career. About 20 years ago I was
appointed as a guest lecturer at Delft University,
at the faculty of architecture and I got to know the minds
of architects even better. And then I got a new idea. Can we build a building
with natural air conditioning in the way termites do it? How do the termites do it? Well, they very carefully open and close vents that let warm air out and let cool air in, and opposite. Could we do that in the same way
as the termites do it? And could we, by doing so,
have natural air conditioning, avoiding fans, could we, by doing so,
probably, maybe, hopefully, make a zero energy building and a building where the endoclimate is more like the outdoor climate
and people are more satisfied with it? Well, this was the idea. On a morning, I awoke,
during a holiday, and I said: well,
but what’s the title for it? What about Earth, Wind and Fire? That was the working title
for this investigation. (Laughter) I wrote a research proposal on that. And I applied for funding
from the Dutch government. Well, the Dutch government
took their time — about two years — (Laughter) but at last, I got
about a million of euros. That’s a lot of money.
The good old times, you can say. It is tax money. So you all contributed
to my research. Thank you very much.
(Laughter) (Applause) So when I got the funding for my research,
the research could start. It started in the early summer of 2007. My wife, Ilona, was recovering
from major surgery after chemotherapy. About 20% of the women
survive ovarian cancer. I was convinced that
she would belong to that 20%. Then in a week in November
came the message from the hospital that the cancer was back
and there was no more hope for her. I was a caregiver, so
I had to divide my time between Earth, Wind and Fire
and Ilona. But you can understand
that that was a difficult task. And at the end of the year,
my inspiration and ambition had gone so much that I thought: well, I’d better give up Earth, Wind and Fire, forget about that and
concentrate on my wife. But she didn’t agree with me. She said, “Ben, your work, your job has always been your passion
and your life, your joy, so go on with that. And when I’m no longer here, you still have a wonderful
purpose in your life. And that little voice, I still
hear it after so many years. So she died in February 2008. For a couple of months, I did nothing
at Earth Wind and Fire, but then, slowly, I restarted. (Ramses Shaffy singing:) Sing, fight,
cry, pray, laugh, work and admire. (Applause) This is the title page of my thesis, stating that singing, fighting, crying,
praying, laughing and working, I restarted the research and was more and more
surprised by the results. As a principal investigator I put together a team of researchers. Scientists of the University of Delft
and the University of Eindhoven. A fantastic combination
of old and young, of trained intuition —
that’s me, of course — (Laughter) and open minds —
that’s the researchers. Also practical experience,
but also scientific expertise. There was a fantastic team
to do this work. You see a picture here. It’s part of my research team
and also one of my promotors. We also had a project advisory team of people from the building industry. Once or two times a year we came together and they said what they thought
about the progress of the research. Well, this was the idea:
Earth, Wind and Fire. What you see here, is a cross-section
of an office building. The wind comes from the left in this case, but it’s wind direction independent, so it’s not important to place the building
in the wind direction, but there are overhangs at roof level and the wind blowing to the facade is caught by the overhangs
and is entering the building. Part of the wind is used
for air conditioning of the building, and part of it is used for energy production by wind turbines
that are not on this picture. At the left side,
you see the climate cascade where the fresh air enters. At the top of the climate cascade cold water is sprayed,
water of 13° C That cold water cools the air in summer and preheats the air in winter. The temperature of 13° C, we can get that
from cold from the soil. The soil is about 11 to 12° C, so we don’t need chillers, we can get
the cold from the soil to cool the air. Then the air is cooled, for instance, in summer from 28 degrees outside
to 18 degrees — about 10 degrees,
we can cool that. At the top of the climate cascade,
the water is sprayed. At the foot of the climate cascade,
pressure is built up. We need some pressure
to distribute the air into the building. Because of the weight difference
between the water air mixture inside the climate cascade and the surrounding, there is a negative thermal draught, so we have positive pressure at the foot. At the other side of the building, we have the solar chimney. The sun shines into the chimney, the air is heated up, is rising, it’s thermal draught, and at the foot
of the solar chimney, there’s an underpressure. That underpressure
exhausts the fresh air that is distributed
by the climate cascade. At the top of the solar chimney, we have a heat recovery system. It would be a pity, of course,
to leave all the energy that’s in the air. It’s not only the solar energy but also all the energy
that’s produced in the building. the heat from lighting, from people,
from computers and so on. All that heat is recovered by water, that water is heated and stored
into the soil beneath the building. We can use that in winter
to heat the building. Then the air is going up
through what is called a venturi ejector. This room is like a venturi. When wind blows through the roof,
the wind speed is accelerated and there is an underpressure
in the heart of the roof. By that underpressure, the wind, the air
is removed from the building. This works all naturally. We only need one small pump to pump the water up
to the sprayers. That was the idea. I concocted it myself
in a very coarse way. But it has to be calculated, of course. So the scientists
from Eindhoven and Delft made very sophisticated
computer models. But what is the value
of a computer model? It always needs to be tested. So the next step was that we built physical models, physical mock-ups. In those mock-ups,
we did all the measurements and based on those measurements
in the physical mock-ups, we could validate the computer models. So we have very reliable
computer models now. It turned out to be really good. We have very reliable models. It’s amazing that you can
make a CFD simulation of hundreds of thousands
of water droplets — what is the cooling effect? —
but it can be done, and it was really fantastic to do that. You see the tester here,
a mock-up of the solar chimney. It’s eleven meters high
and two meters wide. For one year,
many points were measured: the solar radiation, but also
the temperatures inside the solar chimney, the air velocities and so on,
and on the basis of all those measurements we could validate and
verify the computer models. And it turns out that we have
a reliable computer model for that. We did not only build a test mock-up
for the solar chimney, but also for the climate cascade
and for the ventec roof which is tested in the wind tunnel. Well, the question is: will people
like natural air conditioning? Well, most probably, yes! There’s no noise,
there’s no draft, the air is not so cold,
it’s about 18° C, there is outdoor air quality,
the best quality you can have, there’s no dry air
and the system uses very little energy. But of course the building itself consumes energy, because of the lighting
and so on, and the computers. So we need to provide for the energy consumption
of the building itself. So the next idea was to produce the energy
for the building in the building itself. We designed a power plant on a roof, a power plant using wind and using sun to produce energy — sun by PV roofing
and wind by wind turbines. This is a picture of such a power roof. It’s an energy power plant for the building. You see the wind turbines
in the pressure room and you see the ventec roof and a wind turbine can be
situated in there as well. In the best case, we can produce
all the energy we need in the building. This is an exploded view of the roof. Here is the entrance
of the climate cascade. You see the turbines running. Again. Then at last — the idea
of Earth, Wind and Fire was to apply it in newly designed buildings. That can be done:
you can design a building so that it is ideally suited
for the Earth, Wind and Fire concept, but there is no big building production
at the moment, so I did a test, a virtual case study on an existing building in Amsterdam. This is the new view of the building. This is the south facade. We made a complete
solar facade on the south. You see the roof and the overhangs
and the ventec roof. Well, it can be done. We calculated — we tested, of course,
but only virtually — that by the Earth, Wind and Fire concept you can reduce the energy
consumption of the air conditioning by about 40-60%,
and the remaining energy we need, can be produced
in the power plant on the roof; purely with nature. So I can say that Earth, Wind and Fire
is a multiple innovation. In the first place, I think
it’s a social innovation, because architects and engineers
are cooperating so closely. Architects are engaged in the design
of the climate system and they are also engaged in the problem
of energy and indoor environment. And that’s of course very important. And also for the people in the building
you can call it a social innovation because the indoor environment is better. Scientists have proven many years ago
that when the indoor environment is better, the productivity of the office staff
is improved as well. And at last it is a technological innovation. We have air conditioning without vents. We can have zero energy buildings
and that’s of course fantastic. We should do that in the future. Some of my favorite statements: the trouble with getting old it that one doesn’t. That means that your body gets old,
but your mind doesn’t get old. Is that a problem? No,
for me it’s not a problem — (Chuckles) but that the body gets old
is sometimes a problem. The most wonderful youth is a youthful mind
when you are no longer young. That’s my favorite saying. It’s from
a famous French philosopher.

How a Stick Insect Walks | ScienceTake

How a Stick Insect Walks | ScienceTake


A stick insect just
seems improbable. But scientists
who study motion love them. They’re easy
to keep in captivity, and they’re big for insects,
about three to four inches long. Researchers in Germany stuck
little motion capture tags all over the
insects to see which leg and joints did what. They also had them walk
on force-measuring plates. They put the motion recordings
and the measurements together into a 3D
model. The hind legs provided most of the power
pushing the insect forward. The middle legs were
more involved in braking and steering. Both middle and hind legs
bore the insect’s weight. The front legs mostly poked
and probed to test
what lay ahead. All this research
is in the service of making a six-legged
robot named Hector the best it can be. But will he ever be as
cute as the original?

Douglas College UNIBUG project fights insects without pesticides

Douglas College UNIBUG project fights insects without pesticides


We have two goals in the UNIBUG project; one
is to develop sustainable urban gardening and so we are using insects that are able
to manage pests in the gardens, and so if you use biological control insect to eat your
pest, then you reduce the need for using chemical pesticides, so we wanna promote sustainable
gardening. and the other goal the UNIBUG project is to get the community actively involved
and engaged in the research. After the World War I think it was World War
II, chemicals were the big thing. We learned how to harness them, we could use them, they
were the answer to all of our problems and we’ve been learning since, that they also
cause a lot of problems. They kill off insects and they harm our health, they harm our children’s
health, our pets, our water, our air, our whole ecosystem. It really brings a lot of different people from different communities together. everyone who’s like-minded and who’s interested in the same topic of sustainable agriculture we get to work with volunteers from all over the place from Mapleridge and Surrey and Vancouver so getting the conversation started and educating people about the topic I think is one thing one reason why the project is really important favourite thing working with the UNIBUG project
would be I get to work with all these really amazing people. I get to go to people’s gardens
and visit them. They are really special people. They are people who volunteer to count insects
so they are really really into it and they are really excited about it. and that energizes
me a lot There’s of things I like about the UNIBUG project.
I love my coworkers. we are such a great team. My coworker Eva just this morning, she was
talking to someone that I volunteer with at the farmer’s market and it is just kind of
connections like that that are so neat to make in the community with other people who
are interested in the same topic. so my favorite part is the communication and getting to meet
people and I hear about different opinions and working with the volunteers and just engaging
in the community. Engaging bugs, engaging people.

Hair Loss Issues – Fungal Infections, and Options When PRP and Finasteride Don’t Work for You

Hair Loss Issues – Fungal Infections, and Options When PRP and Finasteride Don’t Work for You


Thank you for your question!
You’re 21-years-old and the photos and history that you submitted, you’re describing a
scenario where you had some hair thinning and initially you also had to deal with fungal
infections in your scalp and that you lost some hair. And after undergoing three platelet-rich
plasma (PRP), you appear to have some improvement. However, in more recent history, you’ve
been placed on a 100mg Fluconazole to take weekly and finasteride and you state that
the hairs fallen out because of those drugs so you are asking what to do next.
Well I can give you some guidance and my thoughts about your situation. I’m a board certified
cosmetic surgeon and a fellowship trained oculofacial plastic surgeon, practicing in
Manhattan in Long Island for over 20 years and I am also the founder of Trichostem™
Hair Regeneration centers, a system we’ve developed to treat hair loss which does involve
with the use platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as well Acellular matrix and has been a very
successful treatment as a non-surgical treatment for hair loss so I think that what we have
to define is the causes of your hair loss and then decide on the solutions.
First of all, having a fungal infection can have a negative impact in your hair. Fungal
infections are often difficult to manage, do require both topical and systemic treatment
which appears you to be getting. I would agree that there is some degree of hair loss associated
with fungal infection but at the same time what appears to be is that you also have a
genetic male pattern hair loss also called androgenetic alopecia. Now the challenge for
you was that of course you went to the PRP injections which appear to help you and then
the hair fell off or fell out and so you may be making the error of correlating the initiation
of finasteride and fluconazole with causation of the hair loss.
To just get some concept to the challenge of with hair loss, with finasteride what you’re
doing is you are inhibiting an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase. This is the enzyme responsible
for converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dihydrotestosterone follicles or sensitive
follicles will thin therefore, when you diminish it actually will slow down the thinning process
and that’s an important distinction. Finasteride does not necessary stop hair loss, it actually
slows it down very effectively in many people. Unfortunately, a lot of our younger patients
and a lot of patients in general come to us don’t want to take Finasteride because of
concerns of long term sexual side effects. Now it is important that you do manage your
fungal issues but at the same time there is a little bit of a window where you may have
some benefit from a treatment that is a little bit different from the PRP. As far as my experience
is concerned, platelet-rich plasma which we use a lot in our practice we use it for fine
line and wrinkles, we use it for acne scars, we use it for scar revision, we use it for
complexion improvement. We love using platelet-rich plasma, we use it for dark circles under the
eyes but in my experience Platelet-rich plasma for hair loss has a short term benefit. This
is reflected by my observations on patients who come to us. People have come to us after
they had platelet-rich plasma injection will say that I went for injection every month
for about 4 months and although I have seen some improvements, I just didn’t know If
I can keep doing that. In our practice, Hair Regeneration has been
our solution for long term treatment of male pattern or female pattern hair loss. We do
use platelet-rich plasma as part of our treatment but we also use extracellular matrix. Now
this combination appears in our experience with over 5 years of data and hundreds and
hundreds of patients come to us from around the world, with one single session treatment
we’ve been able to for the majority of our patients 99% for both men and women stop the
progression, initiate or reactivate growth of hairs that is not growing and have thinning
hairs become thicker. Now we do customize the treatments so there
are people will do maybe a second treatment in the second year but over all that system
has been able to be successful for people who aren’t on any other medications and
are particular on men who are on finasteride or don’t want to take finasteride. Finasteride
by the way also is beneficial for approximately 60% of men. That means 40% will not respond.
If you are 21 and you are undergoing hair thinning then you have very aggressive pattern.
You’ve started at a younger age and you’re losing hair relatively quickly which means
that you have limited window to do something that will at least will treat the hair loss.
I think taking the finasteride is a reasonable step but at the same time you may want to
learn more about a treatment like Hair Regeneration to get you to a place where you can maximize
your results. There are patients of ours who will take finasteride and will combine that
with Hair Regeneration treatment. The fascinating thing about hair regeneration is that we basically
uncovered and reveal that there is more to hair loss than just DHT and that it works
also for women as well where it is not considered a factor that causes female pattern hair loss
opens up even new avenues for treatment that for us has been very gratifying .
So again understand that you may be making an error in coloration and causation that
the finasteride and fluconazole are not causing the hair loss, it might be more of the wearing
off of the platelet-rich plasma and the concurrent presence of a fungal infection. You have to
see whether or not finasteride will be added quick to stable your hair loss but you may
also want to consider treatment like Hair Regeneration.
So I hope that was helpful, I wish you the best of luck and thank you for your question!

Defining AIDS and AIDS defining illnesses | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Defining AIDS and AIDS defining illnesses | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


– So we know that an
untreated HIV infection destroys your immune system and leads to essentially an immune less
state that we call AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome. So how do we know when an HIV infection isn’t just HIV anymore? How do we know it’s progressed to AIDS? Well, in one or both of two ways. So here’s a graph I’ll use to explain. So here’s CD4 T cell count on this y-axis. And here’s a little timeline and we’ll say that 10 years is about here. Because in an untreated HIV infection it takes about 10 years
before your immune system is completely destroyed
and AIDS is developed. So when your CD4 cell count has dropped from its normal levels, right, of about 1,200 or so CD4 cells
per cubic millimeter of blood to less than or equal to about 200 cells per cubic
millimeter of blood, you’ve developed AIDS. That’s one of two ways to tell. The other possible way to
know if you’ve developed AIDS is if you have any of what are called the AIDS defining
opportunistic infections. Which are sicknesses that can
only take hold in your body if you have a failing immune system. So regardless of your CD4 count, if you have any of these
opportunistic infections and, of course, an HIV infection as well you will be diagnosed with AIDS. So let’s do some drawing here to look at what types of AIDS
defining illnesses can come on and when they might come on. Because it’s important
to be on the lookout for signs and symptoms
of these conditions. You know because they
can be really dangerous to your health. So generally speaking, people with CD4 counts
greater than 500 cells per cubic millimeter of blood are not at risk for
opportunistic infections. But if you’re hovering
right around 500ish, then sort of the daily ebb
and flow in your CD4 counts means that you might develop
some minor infections like thrush in your mouth. Or yeast infections in the vagina. So thrush symptoms to look out for would be white patches on
the gums or on the tongue. And you might also get
some pain in the mouth or in the throat and that would cause
some trouble swallowing. And yeast infections symptoms might include vaginal
irritation or itching and also a thick white discharge. And I should probably clarify, so all of these ranges
that we’re looking at, these aren’t set in stone. So you could get certain
opportunistic infections at slightly higher T cell
counts, or CD4 cell counts, or slightly lower CD4 T cell counts. These aren’t sort of fixed numbers. These are just sort of ranges. Good, so, if your CD4
levels continue to drop you could develop something
called Kaposi’s sarcoma which is a tumor, a set of tumors caused by human herpesvirus-8. Which can only really infect a person with a weakened immune system. So the classic signs that
you should look out for with Kaposi’s sarcoma are these
purple patches or nodules, growths almost, that appear
usually in the mouth, on the gums, or on your skin. If your CD4 count drops even further to between 100 and 200 cells
per cubic millimeter of blood, then you might develop some of the more severe
opportunistic infections. For example, Pneumocystis
jiroveci pneumonia. Also known as Pneumocystis
carinii pneumonia or PCP. So this is a fungal
infection of the lungs. And it causes a really,
really, severe chest infection. And in fact this is most
often the cause of death for someone with AIDS. Two other common fungal
infections that might take hold are Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis. It’s a bit of a mouthful,
Coccidioidomycosis. And these two are pretty severe because they infect many
different parts of your body, not just your lungs. So, you can look out for a PCP infection because it presents kind
of like a chest infection. So you’d have shortness of
breath, you’d have a cough, you’d have chest pain. And, you know, at this
point your immune system would still be able to mount a fever, so you’d have a fever. And these two fungal infections present in a similar way,
right, Histo and Coccidioido. But remember I said that
they’re systemic diseases so these can also cause some weight loss and just general fatigue. Those are systemic symptoms. Now if your CD4 levels continue to fall, to between 50 to a 100
cells per cubic millimeter, you can start to develop
opportunistic infections that affect your brain such as Toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcosis. So Toxoplasmosis is caused by a parasite and it can cause Encephalitis which is swelling of the brain. And because of this swelling
of the brain or Encephalitis a person might develop
neurological symptoms like a headache, or weakness
of their muscles, or seizures. These are all signs of a sick brain. And Cryptococcosis is yet
another fungal infection. And this one usually starts
as an infection in your lungs. And then it sort of moves up to your brain and causes Cryptococcal meningitis which can rapidly be fatal. So symptoms of Cryptococcal
meningitis would be sort of the classic meningitic symptoms, things like a headache, and
neck stiffness, and a fever. And while we’re in this
little bracket here, two other organisms that can
cause serious infections, right, between this 50 to a 100 bracket are Cryptosporidiosis
and CMV, Cytomegalovirus. So Cryptosporidiosis causes severe gastrointestinal symptoms. So you’d get this chronic,
longstanding, watery, diarrhea. Because your intestines
just aren’t absorbing food or water properly. You would get serious stomach cramps and you’d have severe weight loss. And CMV here, actually CMV
is present in most adults but it only really starts to cause trouble if something’s wrong
with your immune system. So in someone with really low CD4 levels, CMV can cause problems in
the digestive system as well. So the last one I’ll talk about happens if your CD4 cell count is less than 50 cells per
cubic millimeter of blood. And this one is called
Mycobacterium avium complex or MAC. And this bacteria sort of similar
to all the other bacteria, and viruses, and fungi that
I’ve talked about so far. They’re all present in
many different places soil, water, on trees, really many places in the environment. But again, they don’t cause
any problems in people with healthy immune systems,
we just fight them off. But MAC in a severely
immunocompromised person, like someone with AIDS, can cause a really, really
serious infection that spreads through the bloodstream to
many other parts of the body. And that will result in
things like high fevers, night sweats, diarrhea, all
sorts of systemic symptoms. And MAC can be rapidly fatal as well. Now everything I’ve talked about, all of these AIDS defining
opportunistic infections, they can be treated with
the right medications. So with access to treatment they don’t have to be life-threatening. You just have to get
medical help right away. And then once they’re treated the focus would then be on
raising your CD4 cell count with ARV treatment, like HAART. So that hopefully your
immune system gets stronger and none of these develop again.

Paid Content by Rice’s Termite and Pest Control – Keeping Pests Out During the Holiday Season

Paid Content by Rice’s Termite and Pest Control – Keeping Pests Out During the Holiday Season


♪>>>YOU KNOW, HOLIDAY SEASON IS THE PERFECT TIME TO OPEN YOUR HOME TO FRIENDS AND FAMILY. GATHERED AROUND THE TREE, AND IT UP IN SOME PRESENTS.>>AND HERE’S THE THING, IF YOU’RE NOT CAREFUL, YOU COULD HAVE SOME UNINVITED GUESTS JOINING YOU. RICE’S TERMITE AND PEST CONTROL AWESOME ADVICE TO HELP YOU MAKE SURE THAT THE PARTY CRASHERS STAY OUTSIDE.>>THE COLD WEATHER HAS US IN THE UP SPENDING MOST OF OUR TIME INSIDE. AND GUESS WHAT, WERE NOT THE ONLY ONES LOOKING FOR WARMTH.>>THE FALL PEST, THE MICE AND CRICKETS, AND BELIEVE IT OR NOT, THE FLEAS GET TIME THIS TIME OF YEAR, TOO.>>BRUCE RICE OF RICE’S TERMITE AND PEST CONTROL TO THE BEST WAY TO KEEP THEM OUT IS TO KEEP THEM FROM GETTING IN. UNFORTUNATELY, POLICE CAN TAKE A RIDE ON YOUR PETS, EVEN US, SO THERE’S LITTLE YOU CAN DO TO CLOSE DOWN THE PASSAGEWAYS. RICK SAID THE SAME GOES FOR CRICKETS, BUT THE TIME IN HER HOUSE A SHORT.>>GENERALLY, THEY DIE OFF WITH TIME, BUT IF YOU CAN STAND AND IN THE MEANTIME SINGING IN YOUR HOUSE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT, THAT’S PRETTY MUCH THE WORST THEY CAN DO.>>AND IN AN EFFORT TO KEEP YOUR FAMILY WARM, YOU COULD BE EXTENDING A WARM WELCOME TO SEVERAL PEST, INCLUDING WHAT IS DELMARVALIFE.com’S. FIREWOOD, HE COULD BRING STINK BUGS, CRICKETS, SMALL COLONIES OF ANTS, MILLIPEDES AND CENTIPEDES. AND EVEN THAT, YOU COULD BRING IN WOOD BOARDS, AND WOOD DESTROYING BEETLES INTO THE HOUSE. THAT CAN BE A PROBLEM. THAT COULD POTENTIALLY GET INSPECTED.>>RIGHTS SAID YOU SHOULD AVOID STORING FIREWOOD IN THE HOUSE, OR EVEN THE GARAGE PORCH. AS BEST-OF-BREED IN FROM THE PILE STRAIGHT TO THE HOUSE. AND REX JUST WALKING AROUND YOUR HOUSE, SEARCHING FOR ENTRY POINTS.>>YOU COULD MAKE SURE THAT AROUND YOUR HOUSE, THE GARAGE, ALL OF YOUR DOORS ARE SEALED AND SHUT TIGHT. ANYWHERE WHERE THEY CAN ACCESS CRAWLSPACE WILL GIVE THEM DIRECT ACCESS IN YOUR HOUSE, AROUND LIKE YOUR HVAC LINES, GOING IN. JUST MAKE SURE EVERYTHING IS FILLED UP AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.>>HE SAID MICE ARE BURNING ANIMALS, DESIGNED TO SQUEEZE AND LIVE IN VERY TIGHT SPACES. IN FACT, IF A MOUSE CAN SQUEEZE AND SAID THROUGH THE HOLE, THE REST OF THE BODY WILL FIT.>>EVEN YOUR RUBBER STRIPS, ON YOUR OVERHEAD GARAGE DOORS, THEY ARE JUST TRYING TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY ARE NEW, SOMETIMES A LITTLE PIECE MAY HAVE BROKEN OFF, OR, YOU KNOW, SOMETHING WRAPPED AGAINST IT TO TAKE A PIECE OFF, SO MICE AND CRICKETS AND SPIDERS AND EVERYTHING CAN GET IN THERE.>>RICK SAID THAT THEY USE A SEALANT CONTAINING METAL FIBERS AND CEILING PLACES THAT MICE COULD FIND.>>THEIR TEETH ARE ROUGH. THEY COULD SHOOT THROUGH A LOT OF THINGS, BUT THEY DON’T LIKE TO CHEW THROUGH METAL OR THE CLASS OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT. MORE DONE TO PREVENT GUEST FROM GETTING INTO YOUR HOME, HE SAID

Abdul El-Sayed | The Epidemic of Poverty: The Government Imperative || Radcliffe Institute

Abdul El-Sayed | The Epidemic of Poverty: The Government Imperative || Radcliffe Institute


– Good afternoon, and
welcome to Radcliffe. My name is Janet Rich-Edwards,
and I am an epidemiologist, and also the Life Sciences
Adviser to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. And we are so pleased
to see you here. I’m excited. We had to move this
talk from a smaller room into this auditorium to
accommodate your interest. This talk is one of several
in a series on epidemics. I hope you were with
us back in October when we did a day-long event. But in addition
to today’s talk, I want to let you know that there
are cards in the back that include the dates of our final
two lectures in the series, including one on Obesity:
It’s More Complex Than You Think –on
March 27, and then, another one on the
Alzheimer’s Enigma: the Cause Of the Dementia
Epidemic, on April 23rd. Today, I have the pleasure
of introducing Abdul El-Sayed to you. He’s the former
health commissioner of the city of Detroit. He has a medical degree
from Columbia University, and was a Rhodes Scholar
at Oxford, where he earned his doctorate in Public Health. He is a native Michigander
who grew up in metro Detroit. As many of you know,
he’s running for Governor for the state of
Michigan, and launched his gubernatorial
campaign after witnessing the systematic failures in
Flint and across the state. He left his position as
an assistant professor in Columbia’s Department
of Epidemiology to return to Michigan. He became the youngest
health official in a major American city when
Mayor Mike Duggan appointed Abdul to rebuild
Detroit’s health department after
it was privatized during the city’s bankruptcy. As Health Commissioner, he
was responsible for the health and safety of over
670,000 Detroiters. He worked tirelessly to ensure
government accountability and transparency
to promote health and to reduce
cross-generational poverty. And today’s lecture
will deal with that– The Epidemic of Poverty:
The Government Imperative. Please join me in
welcoming Abdul El-Sayed. [APPLAUSE] – All right, good afternoon. So you’ve got to forgive me. As a politician now,
the town hall style just never leaves you, so– good afternoon. Thank you. Hey. It is an honor and a
privilege to be here today. To Dr. Rich-Edwards
and the conveners, I really appreciate
the opportunity to speak, and to
talk about an issue that I believe animates
much of our work for people who are oriented to solving the
challenge of human suffering. I started my career as a
physician and epidemiologist. I’m now running for governor. And to just sort of
orient you as to why– you know, I was never
supposed to run for office. In fact, the first time anybody
with any degree of knowledge of the political
process suggested that I should run
for governor, it was at my college commencement. I was the valedictorian
of my class at the University of
Michigan, and I was selected to give the student speech. Now, the speaker that anybody,
including my own parents actually came to listen to
was President Bill Clinton. And I got to give
my student speech, and President Clinton
gave his actual speech, and he was so kind as to
mention my speech in his speech. Now, it was the first time my
Egyptian immigrant father ever mentioned anything related
to pride and my name in the same sentence,
which was great. But after the speech, President
Clinton sort of sought me out. And he turned me
around and said, son, why are you
going to med school? That is not a
question that anybody asks a graduating senior who’s
going to medical school, right. And I just looked
at him for a minute. The first thing
that came to my mind was, well, President
Clinton, we’re brown. That’s what we do. [LAUGHTER] But I told him, look, I love
people, and I love science, and I think that this is the
way that I want to serve. And he said, you
know, son, you have a real gift for
communicating, and I hope that, someday, you might
consider running for office. And I couldn’t help
it, but the first thing that came to my
mind was, I don’t know if you saw my
first name, but there are 11 letters in that name,
and that’s just the first name. This is not in the cards
for someone like me. He said, well,
look, I understand. I get it. But I hope that,
someday, you’ll consider. And to explain why I’m
ultimately doing this thing has everything to do with the
life of a 3-year-old little boy whom I had the
privilege of serving when I was Health Commissioner
in the city of Detroit. His name was Demaryius
He was the fourth child of a 21-year-old mom. He met his father, probably,
about four times in his life, because his dad’s in jail. But before I tell you
how I met Demaryius, I want to share with you the
context within which I met him. I grew up in a
family that was built by Mohamed El-Sayed and Jackie
Johnson, now Jackie El-Sayed. And Mohamed El-Sayed
is the eldest of six born to a
vegetable salesman and the smartest,
wisest woman I’ve ever met in my life,
who is my grandmother, [? Sohad, ?] who never got
to spend a day in school. She was illiterate. They raised their six
kids, of the eight that she gave birth to,
in a one-bedroom apartment overlooking the fish market
where my grandfather sold vegetables every day. And my dad knew
that, if he was going to walk a path that was
any different than the one that his father
had walked, that he was going to have to build
that path for himself with an education. And by all means, he did. He had the opportunity,
when he finally graduated from his
undergraduate program in engineering, to
pick one of two places that he was going
to immigrate to. It was either going to be
Bairoit, Germany, or Detroit, Michigan. My dad has an affinity for
the sound, roit, it seems. But the only two similarities
between Detroit and Bairoit is that they’re both places
where people make cars, and they both end
in the sound, roit. And so my dad was somebody
who did his homework. And when he did his
homework, he learned about a Detroit that was in
the United States of America. And he made the decision to
come to this country because of the ideals upon which
the country was founded. Now, my stepmother, who raised
me from the age of three, could not come from
different circumstances. She was born and
raised in a place called Gratiot County, Michigan. So you’re going to pardon
my Michigan-ness here, but Gratiot County’s just here. And her family has been
in this part of the world since before the
Revolutionary War. She can draw her lineage
to Abigail Adams, which is just funny, because
my younger brother’s name is Osama. So he’s, like, the only blue
blood Osama in the world. And so I got to grow up in
this incredible, multi-ethnic, multi-faith,
multi-context family. And my summers would have
me getting on an airplane, going off to
Alexandria, Egypt, where I’d hang out with my
grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins. And then I’d come back, in
the middle of the summer, to a place called
Montcalm County, where my family has had a cottage on
a lake for the past 90 years. And I’d hang out with the other
side, and my grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins. And I came to
appreciate some things. When your grandmother
kisses you on the forehead, or tells you you should
eat a little bit more, or calls you an idiot,
it’s with the same love, regardless if it’s
your grandmother who raised six kids, never
got to go to school, in Alexandria, Egypt,
or your grandmother who raised three kids and is a nurse
in Gratiot County, Michigan. And I came to appreciate that
the things that make us human, that bind us in who
we are, tend to be far bigger than the things
that differentiate us, despite the fact that,
if you were to introduce my grandmother [? Sohad ?]
to my grandmother Judy, and share with them the fact
that they share a grandchild, that would have
blown their minds. And that’s the blessing
of having grown up in this country. Now, my father grew
up in a market. And so he has this real
affinity for outdoor markets. And there’s this
incredible market called the Eastern Market in Detroit. Anybody ever been there before? All right, so if you ever go to
Detroit, tell him I sent you. You got to go over there. There’s the guy who
sells mushrooms– the kind that you eat
–and they’re fantastic. And so we used to drive from
the suburb just north of Detroit into the city to
Detroit most Saturdays. And one of the things that
struck me during my childhood– I think when you’re the
most perceptive about the world –is that
the difference in life opportunities and expectations
that we would drive in that 30 minutes was the same
as it would take me eight hours to cross when
I’d go off to Alexandria. And that, to me, was the
framing for everything I was interested in
throughout my education. Why is it that you can travel 30
minutes and 10 years difference in life expectancy in these
United States of America? So I knew that I loved people. And my parents are
both engineers, so I knew I loved science. And I thought, I wanted to do
something about that chasm, that 30-minute/10-year
life expectancy chasm. And that ultimately
led to the opportunity to study biology and politics
at the University of Michigan. I went off to Oxford. I was a Rhodes scholar, and
did a PhD in public health, and then went to medical school. And, in my last year
of medical school, I came to appreciate that
the clinical world that I had thought I wanted
to inhabit was not going to be the
one that was going to equip me with
the set of tools to be able to solve
that difference. Studying biology
and politics, one of the more interesting things
that you come to appreciate is that, actually, these
systems are quite similar. If of biology is a set of
rules by which our cells make complex decisions about scarce
resources in our bodies, politics is just a set of rules
by which our communities make complex decisions about
scarce resources in society. And if you want to understand
why people get sick, we spend a lot of time
focused on the biology, the odd decisions that
cells sometimes make. But we don’t focus as much on
the decisions that communities sometimes make, and the ways
in which those decisions ultimately pattern access
to all the means of health and disease– a good job that pays
a living wage, that puts a good roof
over someone’s head, puts clean air in their lungs,
clean water in their cups, allows them to walk
in their communities without being victimized by
either a neighbor or the state itself. Those are the things
that ultimately pattern health and disease. That is what differentiates
the experience that I got to grow up
in from the experience that so many live in
the city of Detroit. And so I spent the first
couple of years of my career as an academic doing
research around trying to understand how we think
about policy relevant to health disparities, and realized
pretty quickly that most of the people around me were
a lot smarter than I was, and that my best skill set
was probably more navigating the bureaucracy, which a
lot of my academic friends found so difficult, but
that seemed so much more native to me, and realized
that it was probably my curtain call on an academic career. And I knew that I wanted
it to be about solving, hands-on, that chasm. And so I got that opportunity
when, by happenstance, a friend of mine started working
with the Mayor of Detroit. And I had called him up, we
were planning to do lunch, and on a whim, I
brought a couple of CVs. Two weeks later, I’m
having a conversation with the Mayor of Detroit
about public health in Detroit. And a month later,
I’m walking in to the Detroit
Health Department, as Health Commissioner, to
rebuild a Health Department that had been shut down. Now, let me tell you the story
of public health in Detroit. Detroit first had a health
department beginning in 1827. And, in 2012, the
city went bankrupt, and they made the
decision to shut down their 185-year-old
Health Department. This, in a city with a
higher infant mortality rate than my father’s
native Egypt, in a city where our children
face triple the probability of being hospitalized
for asthma, quadruple the probability
of being exposed to lead, than the state average. They shut down their
health department. I was hired in 2015 to rebuild
that Health Department. Now, I didn’t quite appreciate
what I was walking into. When we started, we
had five city employees and 85 contractors in the back
of the building in Detroit where people go to pay
their parking tickets. So, first day of work, I know
I look a little bit young. And, at that point,
I was 30 years old. So I grew my beard
out a little bit more. I put on my big boy
suit and my big boy tie. Walking in, first day,
you’re the commissioner. You’re going to commission. Nobody ever tells
you what that means. But you’re going
to do it anyway. And this guy walks up
to me from the right. Hey, you, you work here? I looked at him for
a minute, I was like, all right, the commissioner. Yes, I do work here. He’s like, great. Can you take my parking
ticket in for me. I was like, no, sir. I’m the– I’m the
Health Commissioner. He looks at me for a minute. He’s like, why are you walking
to the parking building? I look at him. I was like, you know what,
I’m actually asking myself the same question. So we got his ticket paid. Problem solved. First three weeks of work– you’ve got to imagine the
circumstance that I’m in. My job is ostensibly to provide
basic public health goods and services for 700,000 people
who have been systematically marginalized by every single
level of government intended to serve them. And I didn’t even
know where to begin. I knew everything I could
know about the theory of public health. I’d gone to different
graduate schools to learn what public health is. And I still didn’t have
an operational definition that would actually
help me to do my job. And that’s when I got
to meet Demaryius. So Demaryius, I met him when
I was touring our vaccination clinic. And this kid walks in with
about as much charisma as you can imagine, right. This 3-year-old little
kid, just got this saunter, this swagger about himself. I was like, this kid,
I need some of that. And he just had these
big brown eyes, and just, this personality
that lit up the room. And when his mom figured out
who I was, and introduced me to him– you know, I’ve been
introduced to a fair number of three-year-olds. And usually the way it goes is
that the parent will say, hey, meet this person. And the three-year-old will
look at you just enough to realize they don’t
know who you are, and then bury their face back into
their parents, right. Kid didn’t do that. Looks me right in the eye,
shakes my hand, gives me a hug, walks back to his mom. I was looking at this kid. I was like, this kid is
either the most rational or the most confident
three-year-old I’ve ever met in my life. And, in that moment, I
couldn’t help but contrast his confidence to the
set of circumstances in which he’s living. I already told you about the
public health statistics. But just, probabilistically,
if this kid graduates from his decrepit,
underfunded public school system in the city of
Detroit, his probability of winding up in jail
remains statistically higher than it does of
winding up in college. And I realized that,
for me, the definition of public health
that mattered most was, that which gave this child
a justification for the kind of confidence that he and
any other child of his age should have in the life that
he or she is going to live. That is the work of
government, fundamentally, is that we have to
be about justifying that kind of confidence,
that kind of swagger, that kind of believe in yourself
and the world in which you live that you, in fact,
if you do your work, will have access to the kinds of
opportunities that you deserve. And that’s what led us to
thinking about our Health Department, and setting
ourselves a vision and a thesis for how it was
that we were going to rebuild this department. We rebuilt Detroit’s
Health Department around the goal of
leveraging health to disrupt
intergenerational poverty. Because, if you think about
what the epidemic of poverty is, that boy is patient zero. And if we’re not optimizing
around his experience, and the experiences
of the people that make his life
what it is, then we’re missing the point entirely. So often, in government, it’s
easy to think in abstract, to talk about tackling
one problem or the other without actually
optimizing around the lived experience
of the people who we are intended to serve. And so, for us, we identified
a set of critical outcomes that we saw as being a part
of the cycle of poverty. Teen pregnancy. 16% of all births in
the city of Detroit are unintended to a teen mother. And if a young woman gets
pregnant without intending to before graduating
high school, her probability of dropping
out is about 50%, one in two. Infant mortality. Our infant mortality rate
in the City of Detroit is higher than my
father’s native Egypt. It is the highest of any
big city in the country. And we set our goal to
address infant mortality, because, if a child
is in a position where the probability
of death is high, that kid already starts their
life behind everyone else. Lead poisoning. We all know the
biophysics of lead, and what it does to a
young, developing mind. And so it doesn’t matter what
you do around the investment if you’ve already poisoned
that mind and its ability to move, and leverage,
and make sense of information and knowledge. Vision deficits. If you can’t see what’s
happening on the school board, it doesn’t matter what’s
happening on the school board. Asthma. A child with
persistent asthma is likely to miss a day of
school every two weeks– any sort of persistent asthma. And if you’re talking about
moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, you’re talking
about a day every week. Imagine trying to learn when
you’re missing a day every week because you can’t breathe. And instead of spending
a day in the classroom, you’re spending a day
in the emergency room. Misnutrition. We find this brutal paradox
among low-income children, disproportionately
children of color, in communities
like Detroit, where they have too much of
the macronutrients that build the guts, and too
few of the micronutrients that build the brain. And so it’s not even that
it’s just malnutrition, it’s about the wrong nutrition. It’s misnutrition. And then, finally,
elderly isolation. And one would say, well, if
you’re focused on children, why elderly isolation? Well, the single best thing
you can do for a young person is give them access
to an older person who cares about their life. And too many of our seniors
in places like Detroit fundamentally can’t get
around, because of the way that we’ve built our city. And I want to share
with you just four of the projects that we
kicked off to try and disrupt this cycle of
intergenerational poverty, break down the barriers
that kids like Demaryius had to being able to learn and
earn in Detroit, like we would want for any child, anywhere. Around infant
mortality, we built a program called Sister
Friends with the idea that so many women who are
caring for the first time don’t have high-quality
mentorship, and are not connected to
the resources that do exist. And a lot of that has to do
with the brutal geography of the city of Detroit. So much of the attention is paid
to eight square miles of 138. And so many of the people
live in those other 130. And so folks don’t have access
to those kinds of resources, both as a function of
knowledge, and also, as a function of geography. And so, if you’re able to
equip a young woman who’s carrying for the
first time with access to a mentor who’s not
going to judge her, and is able to empower
her just by being there, and also because that
person can connect her to the resources that
exist in the city, then you have a chance
of being able to reduce the probability
of pre-term birth, and ultimately,
infant mortality. Around teen pregnancy,
we know that so much of the unwanted pregnancy
burden in Detroit is a function of lack
of access to very basic pre-conception
family planning services. We have one Planned Parenthood
clinic serving 700,000 people in the city of Detroit. And it’s right in midtown. Are you guys familiar
with Shinola watches? It’s walking distance
from Shinola. And so think about where
the burden of need is, and we’re not
serving that burden. So what we wanted to
do was provide access to pre-conception
family planning services in the neighborhoods in which
young women live, learn, pray, and play. And so we wanted to
put them in contexts that were discreet, that we’re
not going to be stigmatized. So, for example, if you were
able to put such a clinic in a rec center, it’s possible
that a woman could just as easily be walking in to have a
conversation about controlling her fertility as she could
to be playing basketball. And so we wanted to provide
these services in the places that people actually are. When it came to asthma,
so much of the burden of asthma in Detroit is driven
by the poor quality of air that we have in a
highly-industrial city. Corporations that
pollute have had their way, with both
state and city government, for the past several decades. We built an environmental
justice practice to stand up against
these polluters when– Marathon Petroleum, that has a
refinery in southwest Detroit, the most polluted
zip code in Detroit and in the state
of Michigan –we were able to organize
with the local community. The Michigan Department
of Environmental Quality, who is supposed to
regulate on these issues, was set to OK the deal. And we organized,
and we stood up. And together, the
voice of the community was able to force Marathon
Petroleum to reduce their emissions, when they
had wanted to increase them, investing $10 billion
to clean up their act. We did the same
thing when it came to uncovered piles of petroleum
coke on the Detroit riverfront. We were able to
force that operator to cover their piles
up if they wanted to store these piles that
release fugitive dust, and ultimately get into
the lungs of our children. When it came to the issue
of water and lead poisoning, we had built a program
called the Lead Safe Detroit. Now, let tell you what
Lead Safe Detroit was. We were in a situation
where so many of our kids that had been tested
positive for lead poisoning would fall through the cracks. We weren’t able to move all
of the goods and services that we could offer
these kids to these kids, because there was no system of
actually managing the cases. And so we would convene
a meeting, every month, where we would sit with all of
the agencies that touch lead, together, and case manage every
single case of lead poisoning, to make sure that every child
had access to everything that they needed. But there were
circumstances that reminded us that we
weren’t doing enough to prevent in the first place. And so I had just finished
inspecting city schools when I heard about the
Flint water crisis. Our teachers in Detroit– some of the most
courageous public servants you can talk about, who are
doing the impossible every day in communities where
they are under-resourced and without the means of being
able to just basically do their job –they had
conducted a sick-out, because their buildings
were not meeting code. And so, as a city, we
inspected every single school in the school district. I personally inspected
a couple of them. I want you to imagine,
with me, this. Imagine you’re walking into
a first grade classroom. It’s 11:00 AM. It’s about February 1st. And the first thing that
you see is a first grader wearing their coats. It’s 11:00 AM. And the minute you
walk into the room, you feel the chill, kind of
like when you walk outside. And you realize
that those kids go to school in that circumstance
almost every single day, because the boilers in
their buildings don’t work. And then you start
looking around the room, and you see, in the
corner, a dead mouse. Now, not just any dead mouse. The mouse didn’t just die. The mouse is literally
in a state of decay, suggesting it’s
been there for days. And then you walk out
of that classroom, and you’re walking
by the gym, and you smell the smell of mold. And you look inside, and
you see the gym floor buckling because of
the amount of mold growing underneath that floor. These are the
circumstances in which kids go to school in Detroit. And we realized that,
given those circumstances, it was possible
that our kids could be exposed to the same lead we
were hearing about in Flint, in the single place
where we systematically concentrate most of our
kids, most of the day, most of the year. And so we put
together a protocol to have every single school,
day care, and Head Start tested for lead in the water, tested
all 360 buildings in six months, and created a
protocol that is now model practice nationwide. Now you think about the
circumstances of a life. And I shared with you
some of the work that we did at the Health Department. And if our goal is to tackle
this epidemic of poverty, then focusing on
health is certainly one approach to doing that. But you and I well know
that the responsibility of addressing poverty goes
well beyond the kinds of things that you can do in
the Health Department. And I came to appreciate that. And frankly, the
hard roof of being able to work as a public servant
in appointed office, when I took on my Mayor on
issues that he didn’t want to pay attention to. The city of Detroit
shuts down 18,000 homes from having water
every single year. Now, it shouldn’t. I don’t know how many of
you are public health people or doctors, but you
all would probably agree with me that
something that comprises 70% of your body, the
lack thereof is probably a public health issue, right. It seems like it
should make sense. And the city didn’t want
to move on it, because it didn’t make financial sense. And so we’re raising the
cost of water on people without being able
to actually empower them to pay their bills. And they face shutoffs. I came to appreciate
how serious that was when I was personally
visiting a house where a woman had lost a baby. And I asked her if I
could use her restroom, and I went to use the restroom,
only to appreciate that there was no water in the restroom. Instead, there were
a couple of bottles lined up next to the sink. And I saw the baby
bath, and the bottles lined up to the baby bath. And I asked her, you
don’t have water, do you? She said, no. I said, how long
haven’t you had water? She said, a couple of months. Imagine trying to bathe your
child with bottled water because you don’t have
water in your house, because you’re paying
hundreds of dollars a month simply to pay for
something that, frankly, should be a human right. These are the circumstances
in a place like Detroit. And if you don’t pay
attention to that, there’s no way you’re going
to interrupt real poverty. And then you have
challenges relating to housing in the city. Our biggest monument program
in the city of Detroit was a demolitions
program, the idea being that if you demolish
homes that are no longer being used, that that will raise the
value of all the other homes. And, in theory, it works. Here’s the problem, though. If you’re demolishing housing
that was built before 1978, the probability that there
is lead in the walls is 100%. And if you don’t
take precautions around how you do this, around
following the kind of protocol that will protect
from fugitive dust, there’s a high
probability that you’re going to release a cloud
of lead dust into the air. We did an analysis
on this very issue. We found that the
probability that a child who lived within 400 feet
of a demolition– of that child testing positive
–was about 30% higher. And if they lived
within 200 feet, it was 60% higher, the
dose-response relationship. It’s about as good as you
get in epidemiologic studies. And, you know, what was
the Mayor’s response? Well, I need a third opinion. Well, you know, before
I did this job for you, I literally did this
kind of research. That was my job. And this kind of assessment,
this kind of study, it’s about as
ironclad as you get. And no attention paid, because
it wasn’t politically feasible. And so, in that moment, I
came to very much appreciate that the responsibility of
tackling the kind of poverty that we wanted to address,
the epidemic of poverty, required us to be
able to set the agenda around the circumstances in
which that little boy lives. I want you to think about his
user experience for a second. I want you to think
about his life. Put yourself in his shoes, and
he’s walking through his life. He lives in a home
that was built before 1978 that
his mother rents from a predatory landlord. He pays the same kinds
of rates that people like me paid in
downtown Detroit, simply because they
prey off the fact that a lot of those other
folks, because of credit score, can’t compete for
that kind of housing. In Detroit, if
you own your home, there’s a 36%
probability that you are going to lose that home,
not to mortgage foreclosure, but to tax foreclosure. Why? Because we’re assessing
homes and about 50% plus the rate of the
value of the home. Imagine having to pay 50%
of the value of your home every year in taxes. 36% default, and they’re
kicked out of their homes. And then you think
about the circumstances of his mother’s work. She works two jobs
just to be able to pay a basic income to be
able to put good food on the table for her kids. Two jobs. Why? Because you can’t actually
afford the cost of that rental and the cost of that food
on minimum wage working 40 hours a week. You think about his
grandmother, who provides most of the childcare. Well, she has
Medicaid and Medicare, but the problem is that the
way that we incentivize doctors means that there aren’t doctors
in the community in which she lives. And there’s questionably
reliable public transportation. You have to wait about
an hour to take a bus. And then for her to get
to the nearest clinic that would see her for
her heart failure, she’d have to take two buses. That means one transfer. That means the
whole trip is going to take her 2 and
1/2 hours, and she’s got four kids to care for. So instead, she winds up
in and out of the hospital, because she exacerbates
every month. You think about
that boy’s father. Man’s in jail– third time. Never even accused
of a violent crime. We incarcerate 11% more people
in the state of Michigan than the national average. We have a system of
policing that seems to want to police
on top of people rather than police with people. We are way better at violating
people’s bodies for petty crime than we are in policing the
violations of their bodies for serious crime. The probability of closing
a murder in Detroit is extremely low,
and yet the cops will pick on you
just because you look a particular kind of way. And then you think about
the air that boy breathes, and it’s polluted by
folks like Marathon. You think about the water he may
or may not have in his house. You think about
the school district he’s going to go to that’s
been under receivership from the state for
the past seven years, that has proceeded,
despite only having to do the work of
reducing that debt, has doubled the debt over
the past seven years. And meanwhile, you
have a corporate system of charter schools that
have eaten up the children from public schools. And so those public
schools are hemorrhaging to these for-profit corporations
that take our tax dollars and put them in
their back pocket. Thank you, Betsy DeVos. You think about the
fact that we don’t have reliable mass
transportation in Detroit anywhere. And if you have a
car, the probability is, in Detroit, because we have
a legal system of redlining, that you’re going to pay upwards
of $500 to $1,000 a month just for your car insurance. So 50% of Detroiters do what’s
called driving dirty, meaning that they don’t have insurance. So that forces you to
do something illegal, simply because if you’re black,
or you live in a particular zip code, or you haven’t
completed high school, or your credit score
is below 600, well, you’re going to pay a lot
more for your car insurance. The tragic irony of the
Motor City is that about 25% of Detroiters don’t have
a car in a city that was built around the car. And so, to be able to address
the circumstances of that boy’s life, if we are honest about
trying to actually address this epidemic of poverty, it
forces us to pay attention to those issues. Our campaign just put out
a 45-page urban agenda. And in that agenda,
we’re talking about how it is that we
solve that foreclosure epidemic in the
city of Detroit, how it is that we create something
as simple as a Renter’s Bill of Rights. We’re talking about
the fact that water– the basic amount
that a family of four needs, to be able to drink, to
clean, to cook, and to bathe –should be a right. It should be free. We’re talking about how it is
that we actually incentivize real mass transit, and we bar
the predatory auto insurance industry from being able
to charge differentially based on where you live, or
based on what your education level is. We’re talking about what
it means to actually build a Michigan Department of
Environmental Quality that’s focused on environmental
justice as an end, rather than being run by
a former oil executive, as it is today. We’re talking about real
criminal justice reform– policing with communities,
rather than upon communities, making sure that the
leadership of our police is not somebody who calls people
who are peacefully protesting– young black men, just
for taking a knee –calling them degenerates
and ungrateful, people who represent
the communities that they are meant
to police, and have experience in those
communities, where we’re not throwing the book
at people simply for possessing a
drug that ought to be legal in the first place,
where, if you go to jail, that jail is going to be a
place where you’re going to get access to the education that we
failed to give you when you are in our public school system,
and that once you get out, people aren’t going to ask about
your experience of having been in jail. We’re talking about being able
to build the kind of Michigan where we are empowering
people like that little boy to be the means of growth
in the first place. That has to be the
way that we tackle this epidemic of poverty. Systems matter. Oftentimes, you
know, politicians like me will stand up and just
give you a bunch of issues. Systems matter. They reinforce themselves. And they are directed in
particular directions. And if we’re not willing
to direct our system of how we govern in a
place like Michigan around empowering that little
boy to be the means of what the future looks like,
then we’re failing him, and we’re failing ourselves. And that is the
focus of how we ought to be able to move policy
that actually does address this epidemic of poverty. Now, I want to end
on a couple of notes. Recently, Amazon– you
know, the big corporation that we all click
and save –Amazon announced that they wanted to
have a second headquarters, and there was this big
sweepstakes about where they were going to go. And the City of
Detroit and also, actually, the City of Grand
Rapids both put in proposals. And neither Detroit nor Grand
Rapids made their top-20 list. And everybody in
Michigan was really upset about this whole thing. Here’s the problem. I think we’re asking
the wrong question. The question should
not be why does Amazon choose not to come to Detroit? The question has to be
how do we empower people like that little
boy, Demaryius, to be the people who start the
Amazons of the future in Detroit in the first place. Because unless we’re
willing to invest in people, and the places
in which they live, learn, work, and
play, then we’re missing the point
about what it means to grow the kind of just,
equitable, sustainable future that we want for a
state like Michigan. I also say this. Politics is very personal. And anybody who
tells you otherwise either has the privilege
of never having to have been locked out,
or doesn’t have the empathy to appreciate what
that might feel like. Politics is deeply personal. And for me, I just
recently had a reminder of just how personal it is. My partner Sarah,
about 10 weeks ago, gave birth to our
first baby girl. And this little
girl is going to be this ethnically half-Egyptian,
ethnically half-Indian, 100% American, Muslim,
soon to be woman– sooner than I’d like to admit. And I think about the world
that she’s growing up in. Every night, I get to come home,
and I get to put her to sleep. And in that moment, I
get to look in her eyes. And I feel things. And the things
that I want to feel are the assuredness that
the world in which I’m raising her is a world that
is going to support her like I hope to support
her, empower her like I hope to empower
her, to love her like I hope to love her. And I don’t feel that. And so many people don’t
feel that right now. But I can’t help but contrast
my little girl Emmalee to Demaryius, and my experience
putting my little girl to sleep every night, to
what Demaryius’s mom must feel when she walks in
and sees him sleeping. And the work that we
have to do comes down to whether or not we are willing
to live our aspirations. Now, I told you about
my dad at the outset. My dad is somebody
who does his homework, and he learned about a society
built on a set of ideals. And I had those ideals very
vividly illustrated in my mind by my public school
civics teacher. This woman named Miss Rayburn. She had this rare
gift among educators. She was the kind of person
who could go into your mind and put together
a set of concepts. It was as if you
were just there. And I remember
feeling like I was with the framers
of the Constitution when they made a decision to
make our society about ideals instead of identities. And among those
ideals is the one that I know my dad took a
bet on back in 1978 when he chose to come here. We hold these truths
to be self-evident that all people
are created equal. And in that world,
should we choose to reach out and
grasp that aspiration, that world is the world
where my daughter has no obstacles, but even
more important than that, that boy, Demaryius, has
no obstacles, either. And we have to ask
ourselves how far we are away from that
world, and whether or not we’re willing to do
the work of getting there. Now, the work of getting
there will require us, yes, to have smart policy solutions. Fine. But more importantly,
it will require us to stand up to
the institutions that have created the world as it
stands in the first place. The thing about politics
is that it doesn’t really exist without conflict. So many people want a politics
where you’re not actually standing up against anything. Everybody kind of agrees. Well, in rooms like
this, we all kind of can agree, because,
by definition, we’re the people who’ve won. And the question becomes,
are we willing to stand up on a set of things, and
against a set of others. Are we willing to
have conversations that say, no, you can’t
actually close the door on certain kinds of people. You cannot erect the kind of
institutions that hold people down. You cannot continue to eat at
a particular corporate trough if you want to actually
serve the public. Are we willing to call that out? Are we willing to have the
courage of a set of convictions about the aspirations that
are supposed to animate our society in the first place? That’s not to say that we
can’t aspire to a world where we all get
there, but that getting there means that the folks who
say that certain people don’t belong, and certain people
can’t be a part of the solution, and certain people
can’t be a part of the world we want to
build, well, those folks, they have to be sidelined. And it means being willing
to do the work of saying, those ideas are broken. They don’t work anymore. And I’ll tell you, I’ve always
believed that light drives out darkness. It’s the only thing that can. And the thing about
light is, usually, it’s the willingness to just be in
a moment where it’s hard to be. And one of the things I’ve come
to appreciate is that so many of the people who have been told
that the circumstances in which they live are a function
of others, right, so many of those folks,
when you sit down and you’re willing to
actually be with them, and you’re willing to hold
a conversation with them, you’re willing to dignify
them for real people, you’re willing to appreciate
the pain that they have, and you’re willing to articulate
a future that says that, actually, when we come together
as people who have been locked out in different ways
for different reasons, when we come together around
a politics that brings us together, that in fact, the world can be the kind of
place where all of us succeed, all of our children
have the kind of future we would dream of for them. And that’s going to mean
being willing to take on institutions,
and to ask ourselves what role we play in
perpetuating institutions, and what role we can play
standing against institutions when they’re wrong. The thing about institutions is
that they’re usually populated with good people, right. Almost everybody in institutions
is a good guy, a good person. They don’t mean wrong. The problem is that
the institution enforces a certain way forward. And so, for us, it’s about
coming together and standing up within the institutions
that we live in, and deciding that we won’t just
be validated by whether or not those institutions tell
us that we’re good, and give us gold
stars, but that we’re willing to stand up on a
set of ideals and values that we believe in to drive the
institutions in the directions that they need to go. And I know one thing
about this country is that the people here, we have
a unique capacity to correct. See, the thing about the
idea of a more perfect union is it implies two
mutually exclusive ideals at the same time, which is
itself fundamentally human– A, that you’re not perfect to
begin with, because otherwise you couldn’t be more perfect,
but B, that you aspire to perfection even still. And so, in a moment like
this, where the politics look so broken and we
are so frustrated, I believe that if we’re willing
to aspire to that thing, we’re willing to
have conversations with the people who
animate institutions, we’re willing to ask ourselves
what our ideals really are and what they imply
for who we ought to be, we’re willing to stand
firm on those ideals, we’re willing to grab hands
with unlikely partners, and we’re willing
to walk forward, that that world of ours,
that more perfect union, that we can get there. And I look forward
to partnership as we walk that path together. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] – I wish I lived in Michigan. So we have, I think, about
15 minutes for questions. So I’d encourage you
to come up to the mic, tell us who you are,
and state your question. And thank you very much. – My name is Ned Bacon. Thank you so much for, really,
an inspirational speech. And I commend you
for your ability to tell stories that make
all of this very real. I’ve worked in institutions,
I’ve worked in businesses, and I’m sure you’ve encountered
the same problem, which is that, whether it’s Harvard or
whether it’s a big corporation, the need for
resources always seems to exceed the resources
that are available. And I like the
discussion of ideals. How do you get the
resources in place– because these problems
you’ve described are so big and so broad, and
there’s a need– so how do you address that problem? – Yeah. Thank you for the question. You know, one of
the first things I was ever told
about a budget is that it is a manifestation
of your ideals and your values, right. Because your ideals mean nothing
in infinite resource space. You can do anything, right. But the question becomes,
when your resources are finite, what do you spend
those resources on, and why? And I do agree that we have
deep resource constraints, but we also have deep
resource constraints within the context of the
ideals that we’ve already sort of seemed to bake in to
what we spend our money on. So we live in a
country right now where we spend 46% of the
world’s military expenditure– the world’s expenditure. And I get it. It is hard knock
world out there. And yes, you have
to defend yourself. But 46% of the world’s
military expenditure. And when people talk about
things like universal health care, they say, well, it’s
going to be so expensive. So yeah, it is going to
be kind of expensive, but the question
becomes, is it what we’re willing to spend
our money on vis-a-vis all of the other things we
already spend our money on. And I think the
responsibility, obviously, is to be working
toward situations where your solutions are non-zero
sum, where you can actually generate more out of
what you choose to do. But I will also
say that it’s going to mean making hard
decisions about the things that we already
spend on, and why. And this is what I meant when I
said that it means standing up against certain things. And I wish we could have
everything, and have our cake and eat it, too, but that’s
not the world that we live in. And the world we
live in is one where we have to toggle against
different viewpoints and different perspectives
on what is a value. And we have to ask ourselves
whether or not what we spend is consistent with what
our values purportedly are. And then, we have to be willing
to do the work of elevating the people who speak on behalf
of alternative viewpoints, right. I mean, I’m here
talking to you today. I really wish you could
just meet Demaryius. I wish he could be here
talking for himself, because, if he was, the
question of whether or not he’s worth it– the investments are worth it –I
think that would be answered. And I think that’s what we
have to be about doing, right. Places like this
in particular are uniquely good at shaping
the kind of conversation that we have, about
dictating what is of value and what is important. And when we marginalize
people like Demaryius, and the people who
live in communities like his all over the country– I mean, this could just
as easily be Roxbury, right –it’s a lot easier to
continue to make the decisions as we continue to make them. And I want us to
have a conversation where we are shedding
light on what the alternative uses
of our money look like, and what the fallacies of the
current uses of our money look like. – Amelia [? Kohn. ?] You laid
out an inspiring program– a inspiring electoral
proposal, basically. So my question is– I have two concerns. And one is that your
program is somewhat narrowly urban-oriented, and also it
has a narrow class basis. So what is the
demographic situation, because you’re running for
governor of Michigan, right. So I wonder how you– I assume you’ve
thought that through, but you haven’t addressed it. And the other is,
how are you going to realize this ambitious,
very humane program given the federal context in
which you’ll be working? – Yeah. Thank you for your question. I really appreciate it. So I focused, today, on what
was ultimately our urban agenda. We will be rolling out a rural
agenda in the next three weeks. And the reason I chose to
focus on the urban agenda today is because it comes out
of my work in Detroit, and is educated by
that experience. I’ll tell you this, though. I took a bet on the fact
that the kinds of challenges that people in urban communities
and people in rural communities face tend to actually be
more similar than we’re allowed to see. And that inability to
look beyond the curtain has been driven, in large part,
by the goals and the agendas of politicians who benefit
tremendously from dividing these two groups of people. I also say that, when
you talk to folks who don’t suffer
that kind of poverty, one of the big challenges
that many of us face is, why has the world
become so insecure. And there’s a lot of
conversation about neo-populism in this moment. And a lot of that is driven by
the manifestations of stories told to people about
why they no longer have what they used to have. And then the question
becomes, well, what do we do to make sure
that people don’t lack access to those things in the future. It’s easy, I think, in this
moment of time where we get hyper-segregated– by race certainly, but also
by socioeconomic position –to assume that the
lives that others lead have no implication for our own. And I think that’s a very
dangerous assumption. It’s a dangerous assumption
because it hurts people. But it’s also a dangerous
assumption because it just fundamentally not true. We all live in the same world. And, you know, when I speak
on the coasts, sometimes, about the situation in
the middle of the country, I often get very well-meaning
questions about, well, why did people go for Trump? I’ll tell you, my own uncle
voted for Donald Trump. He is a guy who drove
truck his whole life. And I mean, he
was somebody who– I’ll tell you, he was
the most fun uncle. He was the guy who took us
snowmobiling in the winters, took us water skiing
in the summers, introduced me to mustard
pretzel, which, if you’ve never had one, is delicious,
and, you know, went as far as to learn how
to prepare venison halal so that my family could eat it. He’s not motivated by any
anti-Muslim animus at all. But he lost his business in
2008 when the economy went bust. He was told by the
Democratic establishment that the economy is back. Well, it’s back if you’re
a trader on Wall Street. It’s not back if you’re
my uncle in the middle of the state of Michigan. And so, for him,
he felt like he was between somebody who
was kind of crazy, but was speaking right
to him, and somebody who seemed not to care about
people like him at all. And he made what was,
within the boundedness of his information, a
pretty rational decision. You’ve got to imagine I
was quite surprised, right. And I confronted him about it. You know, I’ll never
forget what he said. You vote in your best
interest, and I vote in mine. And it’s time for us
to be able to have a conversation,
across these bounds, about what drives people’s
decision-making, and about the facts and realities
of those lives. Because if we don’t
pay attention to them, we risk not only tearing
apart our social fabric, but allowing people to live
in unnecessary suffering– the kind of suffering
that we could solve if we’re willing to get it
right about where we allocate our funding. – Hi, my name is Nikhil Patel. I’m actually a student here
at the Business School, and, coincidentally,
I’m also actually going to go work in Detroit this
summer, in the Mayor’s office. So it’s exciting and
encouraging to hear this. My question to you is regarding
your comment about Amazon. So you mentioned how there
is a state of the world where you invest in making it
so that, in Detroit, there could be the next Amazon. If you were governor,
how would you balance that versus the
very real possibility that cities like Boston, or
San Francisco, or even Austin already have business
momentum, and if we take too long to build that
business momentum in Detroit– or even in the state of
Michigan –then you’re going to lose that
battle over and over. So, how would you
prioritize getting companies to come first, and
then investing, or the other way around. – It’s a great question I’ll
tell you this, right, all three of those cities that you
named, they have a really strong startup culture, right. And, if you’re a startup,
you want two things: you want talent and capital. Agreed? Here’s the problem. In Michigan, we have played
by an economic script that says that we actually
have no capacity to generate our own businesses–
organic, growing businesses. And so the best
thing that we can do is provide ridiculous tax
subsidies to huge corporations to come and bring
jobs that we know are going to get offshored or
automated within the next five years anyway, and then when
those jobs that we promised go away and they’re
still getting subsidized, well, we’ve got to go
back to the drawing board. So what do we do? We do the same thing again. And then you’re left
in a circumstance where you no longer have the revenue
to be able to invest in people and infrastructure, and you
have a couple of corporations that run highly-automated
factories in random parts of your state. What’s lost is the ability
to actually attract talent and capital. So, to me, I would
much rather start investing in our talent and
our infrastructure, which, if you talk to any business
leader in the world, they will tell you,
the things that I want are highly-talented skill
set and skilled workforce, and really great
infrastructure that’s not going to let me down. You do those things, I’m
a lot more interested in coming to where you are. And right now, we’re so
beholden to our dependency on these huge
corporations, and we’re so at a loss for the
ability to actually invest in people
and infrastructure, that we’re stuck doing the
same thing over and over again. Do you see what I mean? And so, you know, part
of the question is, like, well, if you’re losing the
game, do you just give up, or do you just start
playing the game better? Well, you start playing
the game better, right. And so, in Michigan, we have to
start playing the game better. That means, to me,
a couple of things. Number one, it means really
believing in our ability to build a small business,
startup-oriented kind of economy. People want to come
to Detroit if we’re able to incentivize
them to come. That means, when
they come, they know they’re going to have
an awesome workforce, and they’ve got
great infrastructure. And infrastructure also
means the kinds of things that you– as a
young person who’s making a decision
about where you want to build your life –the kind of
lifestyle that you want, right. Unfortunately, in
Michigan, almost all of the housing we have is
single-family units, right, in random neighborhoods, that
young people don’t really want to live in anymore. And so unless
we’re able to build around trying to attract the
people who are going to build the economy of the future,
and more importantly, invest in our people
in Michigan, right– that little boy. So he’s the kind of person
who goes to college, stays in Michigan, builds a
great startup that becomes a billion dollar corporation. I’d love to see that. See what I mean? And so it’s about making
those investments, strategically, now,
and recognizing that the short-term
incentive sets that most politicians and most
corporations are beholden to are only going to allow us to
swirl further and further down the toilet bowl, right. And, at some point,
you gotta rethink it. I was sitting with the Crane’s
Detroit Business Editorial Board– they’re like the business
magazine for Detroit companies –and articulated
this vision to them. And they’re like, well,
that’s a 50-year vision. I was like, yeah. He’s like, well,
you’re not going to be able to accomplish
it in eight years. I was like, yeah, I agree. But the question– the
question to me has to be, how do I make the Michigan
where my daughter chooses to raise her kids, and her kids
choose to raise their kids, not how do I make myself
look good for four years, so everybody pats
me on the back, and then we’re all right
down where we were. We need leadership that’s
thinking on a 50-year to 100-year time horizon. That’s what all
leadership should be. [CLAPPING] – Thank you very much. This has been a refreshing talk. I guess my question,
as I think about this, is as I think it was
Frederick Douglass said, power never cedes anything
without a struggle. Never has; never will. And it looks like the
corporations and the people who want tax cuts for the rich
and so forth really have a pretty loaded deck right now. So how can we help citizens
who have been shamed, who feel like it’s their
fault that they’re poor, or they’re not getting
educated, to feel like they can unite and
stand up to Citizens United? – Thank you for the question. The caustic influence
that corporate money has had on our politics– I mean, I don’t even think
the full story has been told. You know, just as somebody
running for office, I don’t take corporate money. So even without taking
corporate money, I know I’m going to
be vastly outspent, both in the primary
and the general, by people who do
take that money. And I still spend 60% of my
time raising money, right. And that just is a complete
waste of time, honestly– a complete waste of time. It’s not going to make
me any better because I spend five hours on the phone
asking people for money, right. That’s the state of
running for office. It’s a big reason why a lot of
folks who are well-qualified don’t, because it
just– it sucks. And so the question becomes
how do we reverse that? I think a couple
of things, right. Number one, we have to
center those conversations. I thought the
point that you made about Frederick Douglass’s quote
and power struggle matters. We have to center
the voices of people who suffer in the
conversations that we have. And we have to recognize that
the challenges that they face have nothing to do
with circumstances of their own making. They have everything
to do with structures that have created a very easy
way for money to follow money, right. And we’ve allowed the
biggest institutions in our society to not
just corrupt our economics and create this
kind of inequality, but corrupt our politics
as well by being able to reach over and control,
right, via access to money, the kinds of people who run. So, aside from centering
those voices, which I think is probably the
most important thing, we also have to think,
I think, systematically about how it operates, right. One of the
frustrations that I’ve had with the way the
Democrats have operated over the past several
years is that we’ve forgotten that the real
action is local, right. And everybody is focused
on the presidency and federal elections,
but we forget that real action is local. And I don’t mean to
make this partisan, so Republicans, probably
did the same thing. But they actually didn’t. Republicans knew exactly
where the action was. And so we’re about
two state legislatures away from the possibility
for, nationwide, Republicans to host a
Constitutional Convention, and ratify changes
in the Constitution. I want you to think
about that means. So focusing local is critical. Gerrymandering is probably the
most important local governance issue, aside from
money in politics. And I think there’s been a
lot of really great headway in the courts, and a lot
of really great headway that citizens’ groups
have come together. In Michigan, there’s a group
called Voters Not Politicians. They got 400,000 signatures in
a matter of, like, three months to get a ballot proposal
on our 2018 ballot so that people can
actually vote on nonpartisan independent
redistricting, which is amazing. But those kinds of
efforts matter a lot, and that’s where this
needs to be fought. And then, in terms
of money in politics, I also think that this
is a local fight, right. Overturning Citizens United
is a much hairier process at the federal level. But what we can do is focus
on state-level legislation that at least sunshines, and
if not sunshines, ideally, gets that money out of politics. I’ll tell you, in my race
alone, any individual can spend $6,800 on the race. A couple can do $13,600, and
a corporation can do $68,000, and all that’s above board. That’s not even including
Super PACs, right. We just passed, at the state
level, a policy proposal, or a body of bills,
now law, that they call Citizens United on steroids. It basically makes it
state law, in Michigan, that there is no actual
limitation on what a corporation can
give to a Super PAC, through dark money
and soft money means. But focusing locally
to try and undo that, or to block it where it
happens, I think, is critical. And then, the final thing
I’ll say is get out and vote. I mean, this is the crazy
thing about it, right. 30%– I mean,
probably in this room, you’re talking about most
of you get out and vote, but 30% in any given election
actually come out to vote. If everybody voted,
politics in Michigan and in the United States would
look substantially different. And the work of getting
people out and getting them to the ballots– that matters. That’s the only thing that
does matter in the end, right. And I think a lot
of the attention has to be paid around
getting out the vote, and getting communities out
to vote, which also means thinking differently about the
kinds of people who run, right. You know, one of
the things that’s been really
interesting in my race is that people like
me don’t usually run. And when I say, like
me, I mean like me in a lot of different
ways– young, you know, ethnic minority,
religious minority, somebody who has a professional
skill set outside of law –those folks don’t run. And I think that we
need to be empowering different kinds of
candidates, because they’re able to speak to the
electorate in different ways. And I think we start to
see a lot more movement in that electorate when
people actually see themselves in their politicians. – Hello, my name is Omar
[? Al-Hawari. ?] My parents are Egyptian immigrants, and I
am a dual degree student here at the Harvard Kennedy School
and the University of Michigan Law School. – Go blue. – Go blue. Well, I thank you for your time. So many of us here on campus
and across the country who are young Muslim Americans
are looking up to you. When we read articles like,
Abdul El-Sayed, great guy, not-so-great name. Many of us are
left wondering how a person like you is both
navigating about the media internal to Michigan,
and establishment politics in the state. Yeah. I– I like my name. [LAUGHTER] I’ll tell you a funny story
about how I became Abdul. So, my whole name is
actually Abdulrahman, which is as about
as intimidating as it sounds in English. And my parents got divorced
right after they had me, and both remarried. I was raised by my
father and my stepmom. And 1989 rolls around, and I’m
about to start kindergarten. And my stepmom looks
at my dad and is like, the kid’s not going to make
it a day with that name. So they sort of cast about
looking for a new thing. And it turns out that
1989, in September, guess who’s topping the charts. (SINGING) Straight
up now, baby– it’s Paula Abdul
with “Straight Up.” And so, at that point, they’re
like, this is his name. It’s going to be Abdul
from here on out. [LAUGHTER] And I told you about my
little brother Osama. My parents were–
you know, they didn’t want to mess it up twice. So eight years later, he’s
being born, and they’re like, we’re going to give
him a really easy name. It’s Sam with O on the
front, and A on the back. What could go wrong? So they’re kind of 0 for 2
on boys’ names at this point. My sister got [? Samia, ?]
which is a good name. And Osama is a good name, too. And [INAUDIBLE] is
a good name, too. But look, I’ve grown up
with the rare privilege of being able to cross
different worlds of experience pretty seamlessly, just
because of who my family was. And a lot of folks
who either don’t know Muslims or Muslims
who haven’t spent time outside of the
Muslim community, don’t understand–
like honestly, in their gut –don’t
understand how somebody like me could walk
into a community where people
haven’t met Muslims, and just have a conversation. Here’s the thing
about it, though. You just do it. It’s not that hard, right. And the thing about it is
that, as a Muslim community, we center so much
the Muslim thing. And it becomes– we have antenna
that pick up stories about it. And so it becomes the thing
that we’re all conscious about. And I’ve known enough, because
of my life growing up with my, you know, white American
family, that people don’t care that much. They just don’t. If you make it a thing, they’re
going to make it a thing. But if you don’t,
then they don’t care. And I’ve found
that Michiganders– they actually don’t
really care how you pray. They care what you pray for. And you know, and for me,
I know what I pray for. I pray for my little girl. I pray for my wife. I pray for my family. I pray for my parents. I pray for the University
of Michigan football team. Those are the things
that I pray for. And those tend to be the things
that most Michiganders pray for, if they know
what’s good for them. [LAUGHTER] And so, I knew that if you’re
willing to stand in and have a conversation– not
ignoring your faith, right, but also not
making it about your faith –but just having a conversation
about what you believe to be what’s in the best
interest of all of us, people are quite receptive. And you know, the
interesting thing about it is that there are going
to be some people who hate me because I’m Muslim. Trust me, I know about that. But they were never going to
vote for a Democrat anyway. And I’m not going
to make my life decisions about who fears me
out of their own bigotry, right. And for them, you know,
we don’t respond to that. And the reason we
don’t respond is because, for me, the
best way to get back is to force them to deal
with the cognitive dissonance of, after having eight
years of my leadership, that they have to
deal with the fact their life’s actually
a little bit better because of a guy named
Abdul El-Sayed, right. And so, you know, I think
for a lot of us, in a moment like this, it’s
really easy to look at the barriers in front
of us without paying as much attention to the
opportunities in front of us. And, you know, for
whatever privilege that I have or don’t have– would this be easier if
my name was Andy Smith? Probably. But here’s the thing. I also get to be the
first person to do this. I mean, that’s a real privilege. And I also know that,
for so many people who have never seen
themselves in a politician, that I know what it was like to
watch Barack Hussein Obama get elected and be like, that guy
is kind of like me, right. He may or may not be Muslim. [LAUGHTER] The funny thing is, if you ever
want something to laugh at, if you go look at
some of the sort of like, alt-right, white
supremacist blogs about me, they’re like, he’s like Barack
Obama, but openly Muslim. [LAUGHTER] I was like, thank you
for the comparison. I’ll take it, every day. But I’m pretty sure Barack
Hussein Obama is not Muslim. The funny thing about it
is Keith Ellison is Muslim, but they’re like, yeah,
his name is Keith. I mean, come on. So all of that is to say there
there’s a real responsibility, I think, to focus on what we can
do rather than what we can’t. And, you know, in
places of privilege oftentimes the
underprivileged focus a lot on the lack of privilege rather
than recognizing that, in fact, privilege comes
with responsibility. And the responsibility
of being the first is that you do it, right. And if you’re so focused on
what’s in front of you that stops you from
doing it, you won’t. I mean, you look back at– I mean the crazy
thing about this is that, looking back at the
real leaders in our history, people like Martin Luther King,
he was assassinated at 39. Everything he accomplished,
he did before he was was 40. And I’m pretty sure,
most of the time, he didn’t complain
about why it was unfair. Why it was unfair
was obvious, right. What he was focused
on was what he was going to do to make
it more fair for somebody who came after him, right. And I think, for those of us
who feel sometimes locked out, the job is to unlock the door. I mean, obviously,
that’s the job. Don’t sit there and be upset
because the door’s locked. You got the opportunity to
be the one with the pick. So we’ll pick it, right. Or the one with the shoulders
that will break down the door, right. [CLAPPING] – Thank you very much. – Hi. My name’s Kim Yannon. I’m currently doing some Public
Health, Health Care Delivery research at MIT. Recent graduate of
Michigan State University, actually, so go green. Go white. So– and in the wake of
things that have been going on at Michigan
State University– the heartbreaking,
heartbreaking, heartbreaking failure
of the institution to address the Larry
Nassar crisis –I’m really on board with the things you’ve
been saying about standing firm with our ideals against
institutions that have blatantly disregarded some
of the most vulnerable people that they’re charged with
protecting and taking care of. So, speaking to your
public health record, you mentioned, kind
of, the phrase, like, forming
unlikely partnerships, which is actually a really big
buzz phrase in public health. In fact, the Harvard Chan
School of Public Health just hosted the
Surgeon General, who used a similar
phrase when he was talking about his prerogatives. So can you speak
a little bit more to exactly how maybe reaching
out to an unlikely partner who may have a lot of disagreements,
in terms of other values, interests, maybe even
political affiliations, and how do you identify
those partners. How do you kind of
incentivize, like, an alignment of values, and
laying out, like, OK, this is valuable to you,
too, and really getting on the same page with that. – Thank you. So first, I just
have to say that the massive failure at MSU– I hate to say it, it’s just
one of the most heartbreaking things that I watched develop. And you think about the courage
of those women to come up and to say their truth. I just think that we need
more courage like that. And the other side of
this that often gets missed in the
conversation about MSU, and frankly, the conversation
about the Me Too movement, is the culpability
and responsibility of men to reach out and to
be a part of breaking down a culture of sexual violence
and toxic masculinity that we’ve allowed to
pervade our institutions and our culture for
far too long now. And if this is not a wake
up call for men to stand up and to speak about these issues,
and to engage on these issues, I don’t know what will be. And my hope is that men, as
a function of the courage of women to stand up and
call this what it is, will be willing to take this and
do the work that they uniquely can do around being able
to call this out everywhere we see it, right. You know, this concept
of locker room talk came out of the President’s
piss poor attempt to try and justify the things
that he said about women. But locker room talk
is a real thing. And if we’re not willing to have
a conversation with a young man who’s talking about
objectifying a woman, then the question becomes,
did we enable something? And I think that’s where the
locus of the conversation needs to go. So about unlikely partnerships. One of the things that, I think,
is really important for folks who aspire to leadership
to remind themselves is that leadership is
not just about finding the world as it is. It’s about creating the world
as you believe it should be. And, oftentimes, it means
being very vocal and honest about the values that
animate your work, and then watching as
people will align to what you’re talking about, right. Great political
leadership is not just– we’ll say effective political
leadership –is not just about being able to find what
people are talking about. It’s about being
able to dictate, in some way, what the
conversation ought to be able to move forward. And I’ll use a very bad
example of this just to see how effective it was. Polling showed that
immigration was not even on the top-10
list of issues going into the 2016 election. But the current person
who is president now was able to make
that an issue, right. Build the wall. It’s a solution
to a non-problem. But, by making a solution
to a non-problem, he turned it into a problem. Does that makes sense? And we have to remind
ourselves that, as leaders, we have the ability to move
the public conversation, not just to find the
conversation where it is. And what that means is
that, when people see you as being a credible believer in
the things that you care about, they’ll sometimes
find you in ways that you wouldn’t have expected. One of the things that I
learned at the Health Department was exactly this, was
when we were trying to move on certain issues,
we found that, oftentimes, some of the small business
organizations in southwest Detroit, when we were
advocating against Marathon, they were our
biggest supporters. Why? Because they have to live
in that world where the air is so poisoned. They wouldn’t be
the natural partner. But because you’re
standing up on something, they’re saying, you know,
that’s an issue for me, too. And I’m going to
be a part of this. Even though, traditionally,
they’re saying, well, why are you regulating
on business? Why are you telling
business what to do, et cetera, et cetera,
et cetera, right. And so I think it’s about, more
than anything else, believing in the values that
you bring forward, and the actions that
those values necessitate, and then being
willing to touch hands with people who sometimes
might come out of the woodwork, right. And then the other
thing about it is being willing
to say that there is no such thing as an enemy. There is such a thing as
opposing the wrong action in a particular moment. And the willingness
to say, we’re going to be about
values, rather than being about traditional enemy
versus friend alliances, allows you then to be very
thoughtful about being able to pick partnerships
across the various things that you work on, because you
are credible on the issues that you care about. I think, more than
anything else, people look for
partners that are firm on what they believe in. Because they don’t
want to be shown, you know, for being unable
to move the world the way they want to move it. So being able to say,
this is what I believe in, this is how I believe in it,
and this how I fight for it. Keep a big smile on my face, and
we’re going to move forward– you’ll find that people
come out of the woodwork and will want to work
with you on things, and in partnerships
you would never expect. And I think it’s being
firm on what you believe, driving forward on the
action that necessitates, and then being willing
to partner with anybody and everybody who wants to get
that thing done– recognizing that in the next iteration,
you might not be partners. But hey, that’s
the world, right. – Thank you – Hey, I’m Amanda Markovitz. I’m a doctoral student
in epidemiology and a former Michigander. – All right. You want to come back? We need epidemiologists. – Yeah, I had a question. So, you know, we talk a
lot about the disconnect between science and politics. And I’m so glad that
you’re bridging that gap, and especially that you’re
talking about statistics in a way that reaches
people, and talking about these stories
and anecdotes that really matter to people. And I wonder if you have other
lessons for us scientists that are trying to communicate
with our communities– maybe not running for Governor, but
on a smaller level –and ways that we can do a better job. – Yeah. So first of all, do it. You know, a lot of scientists– the incentives that
exist in academia sometimes preclude
well-meaning scientists who want their work to move the
public conversation from doing it, because it’s
not what’s rewarded. And I honestly think that’s
a big problem with academia, and one of the things we
all need to fix, right. Let’s be clear. If your work is not actually
moving the public conversation, then what’s it moving–
especially in epi, especially when so
much of what we do is about misaligned actions
of institutions, right. So be the courageous one in the
institution who communicates, who gets your work out there. Don’t just write the paper,
write the op-ed, right. That’s number one. Number two, oftentimes
the difference in the ways that scientists
communicate versus policy people communicate
allow the conversations to miss each other in the air. So scientists always ask,
what’s not known, right. That’s the question:
what’s not known? And then, how do I get to making
a known out of an unknown. Right, that’s like
the push for science. Policy people
aren’t asking what’s not known, they’re
asking, what are the implications
of what is known for what I can do right now? Do you see what I mean. And I think it’s on both of them
to be able to translate well, right, because most of the
time, if you have a policy person who’s not
trained in science, they’re always asking why the
scientist keeps putting caveats behind what they’re saying. Because most science would
be like, this is the– my work’s suggesting– like
last paragraph of every paper, right –this work suggests
that opportunities for future research
look like this. You’re like, no no no, what
does this mean for the world? And a lot of
scientists will always caveat what they
tell you they think should happen based on the best,
most rigorous work out there. And if scientists
themselves who are doing the best,
most rigorous work aren’t willing to give you a
firm answer, then at some point you’re like, meh,
nobody knows anything. I’m serious. And so part of what scientists
need to be able to do is speak like policy
people do, which is to say, of the current
opportunities that exist, this is the one
that would create x outcome that you are
interested in maximizing your policymaker. See what I mean? So being able to
speak that language. And then, one of the
interesting thing things that I’ve come to
appreciate about science is that we often get
so focused on methods, and the way of knowing, and
the epistemology of the thing that we get sidetracked from
issues that actually matter, and actually change
facts on the ground. And I would encourage
any young scientist who wants their work to shape
the public conversation– or even more importantly,
public policy –to ask, every question that
you ask as a scientist, ask yourself what the policy
analog of this should be. What does this suggest
about the world. And if you don’t have a
good answer, that’s fine. You don’t have to yet. But remember, policymakers are
constantly making decisions. We don’t have the luxury of
waiting for future research. Do you see what I’m saying? And so if you recognize
that to be the case, and you know that your
work can animate something, then I think it is
a responsibility to stand up and say, I know. I’ll say this, as a
professor, I always knew that my PhD students
were ready to graduate when they could comfortably
say, I don’t know. Because I think the
exercise of getting a PhD is becoming comfortable
with the vastness of knowledge, and what you actually don’t
know about that knowledge, right, what are the
bounds of your expertise. And the problem with
that is that most people don’t think that way. Most people, and the
nature of ignorance, is to claim knowledge, and
the nature of knowledge is to claim ignorance. Right. And if you think
about it that way, that’s why we have a bunch of
really ignorant policymakers making decisions, and scientists
being like, I’m not sure. And so when you
recognize that that’s just the social pressure
behind what you do, there’s a responsibility to
be able to step up and say, actually, I do– I know a lot more than you do,
and to call it how you see it. Truth has a moral
implication to it. And the last thing
I’ll say on this issue is that we have sort
of devoided science from the moral
imperative for truth. And if we believe
something to be true, then it has actionable
responsibility that comes with it. And our failure to action
to make that actionable– that carries more weight. And I think there
is a responsibility for the community to come
to grips with the fact that we don’t want to be
doing science in a vacuum– because we’re not doing
science in a vacuum. And the world right now, when
it comes to good information, can feel a lot like a vacuum. So if you’re doing the
work that fills the void, then be a part of pushing that
work out in the world right. So thank you for the question,
and you know, for all of you guys who are really pushing
the public conversation to be more rigorous and more
scientifically-oriented. Thank you. But keep doing it, because
again, the people who don’t know tend to speak the
loudest, and the people who do tend to be the quietest, so– [MUSIC PLAYING] [APPLAUSE] I – Want to thank Dr. El-Sayed
for inspiration for us voters, for activists, for scientists. That was really phenomenal.

The youngest victims of the opioid epidemic

The youngest victims of the opioid epidemic


It’s 2018. Overdose deaths are skyrocketing. More people are dying than at the height of
the AIDS crisis. And every 15 minutes a mother gives birth
to a baby, born dependent on opioids. Neonatal abstinence syndrome – that’s what
it’s called when a baby goes through withdrawal from drugs they were exposed to in the womb. Babies can experience seizures, breathing
problems, fevers and have difficulty eating and gaining weight. We’ve had to take care of more babies with
these symptoms. But I think that goes for all the hospitals
in the Baltimore area and I think we’re a part of this Maryland collaborative, where
we’re all working together to kind of come up with more protocols so that everybody’s
not treating these babies differently. So there’s actually a scoring system called
the Finnegan’s Scale, maybe you’ve heard of it? If you haven’t, the Finnegan’s Scale assigns
a score to each infant’s symptoms. The total score determines how much morphine
each baby receives and how quickly doctors can wean them off the drugs. This kind of care isn’t cheap – the average
hospital cost for a newborn with NAS is over $66,000 compared to $3,500 for infants who
haven’t been exposed to drugs. And newborns with NAS stay in the hospital
for almost 17 days, compared to just 2 for infants born without. For those with an addiction, from young adults
to future mothers, opioids are more accessible than ever. A bag of heroin is cheaper than a pack of
cigarettes now. In Maryland, drug-related deaths increased
for the seventh straight year in 2017, reaching an all-time high. We had 761 people die from overdose in our
city of 620,000 people. When addiction was something that seemed to
affect poor people of color in inner cities, that it was seen as a moral failing. A choice. And therefore if you made a bad choice and
you end up incarcerated or dead, it’s your fault. Unless we address these deep-rooted issues,
we’re not going to really make progress in treating addiction as the disease that
we know it to be. My name is Angel. Um, I was an addict for 33 years. I think it’s important to talk about stigma
when it comes to heroin. I can’t tell you how many times people have
come up to me and say, ‘I can’t picture you doing heroin.’ I mean, people from everywhere can be a heroin
addict, and it just does not discriminate. I don’t think the community understands
that we do recover, that we do get better. Every day I wake up with that renewed hope
that today is going to be the change that we see in our society. The numbers are getting worse still. Overdose deaths are at a record high. And life expectancy across the US has decreased
because of the crisis. But, there is a growing awareness of the epidemic
and many people in recovery and advocates on the front lines are urging a shift in the
social stigma against the disease. Their hope: to turn the tide on intervention,
and treatment.

Bug Songs for Preschoolers | Bug Songs for Toddlers | Songs About Bugs

Bug Songs for Preschoolers | Bug Songs for Toddlers | Songs About Bugs


hi my name is marisa and im one of the operators of preschoollearningonline dot com and activity school bus dot com and use a tissue little com yankee song
that goes along with a little car any and that he and the israeli
researchers alzheimer’s Monday time I and it my car and in my circle then Rs not your day bug song for preschoolers at home car and he has a handle process
and I have this on the back so I never have to worry about retailer is it to Nissan in only the
left circle or I’m smart I’m ISAs redhead and all the pieces are in sight
so is it located yes lunch you I’m close pay bug song for toddlers the resources make your own feel free to
email me at preschool learning online and yeah
yes an idiot initially how we present it to the kids
and cold bug songs for preschoolers all you know when the mother earlier in
your summer and i think is interesting tax collaboration and learning in the fire coalition worrying the Easter I P E coli yeahh only if you love the
liberation for anything he say analysts and the like that in there I
did bug songs for toddlers Olesya really have no money Alicia for you know honey I have a really good he enlisted should
be other the location where your money coalition
really care then coalition where they had been there angle 1999 she also believes me when i’m
gona showroom really and 11 all that we sure marine army pollution lawyers mama and aunt adult hockey trophy truck the Orioles
Indian Islam the luxury small and Irene and that’s all and in all the leaking should really learn Visual I’m can now
easily create a cashiers engine and haitian day and yes and page on Facebook is Ltd to he spoke up com slash preschool learning online as the find it on there