AND HOME. >>THEY’RE EVERYWHERE. THEY’RE EVERYWHERE. THE CRACKS, THE SINKS. THE SHOWERS. REPORTER: FOR A MONTH NOW MICHELE LANDRY AND HER FAMILY HAVE BEEN LIVING IN A TERMITE NIGHTMARE IN THEIR APARTMENTS NEAR SLIDELL. THEY’VE TAKE THAN NIGHTMARE TO THE PROPERTY MANAGERS.>>ALL THIS DUCT TAPE IS WHAT THE PROPERTY MANAGER DID. THAT WAS THE SOLUTION. TEMPORARY SOLUTION. REPORTER: NO MATTER WHERE YOU GO THE IN THE APARTMENT — >>YOU CAN SEE WHERE THEY JUST DIED OFF. ALL ON THE FLOOR. BEHIND THE TOILET. ALL AROUND. BEHIND THE DOORS. REPORTER: AUD BOND GATES PROPERTY RESPONDED. OFFERING THEM A NEW APARTMENT, A HALF-MONTH RENT CREDIT AND A PLACE TO SLEEP IN THE MODEL APARTMENT. FIRST LAKE SAYS THEY ALSO OFFERED TO PULL SHEET ROCK TO TREATMENT FOR TERMITES BUT THE FAMILY WANTED TO WAIT FOR A NEW APARTMENT. FOR THE BETTER PART OF A MONTH, MICHELLE AND FAMILY HAVE LIVED OUT OF BOXES, COVERED THEIR CLOTHES WITH BLANKETS AND EATEN OUT A LOT. BATTLING TERMITES AND WAITING FOR A PLACE TO LIVE.>>ORIGINALLY THEY TOLD US THE FIRST. THAT’S TODAY. YOU CAN SEE WE ARE NOT MOVING INTO A NEW APARTMENT. RIGHT NOW WE’RE JUST PLAYING IT BY EAR. REPORTER: WE REACHED OUT TO FIRST LAKE VICE PRESIDENT WHO QUICKLY RESPONDED TO OUR QUESTIONS. IN AN EMAIL THIS AFTERNOON, SHE SAYS, AN APARTMENT WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR LANDRY AND FAMILY TOMORROW, WITH NO CHANGE IN RENT. SHE SAYS, QUOTE, THE COMMUNITY IS A SMALL ONE AND THERE WERE NO APARTMENTS AVAILABLE FOR HER TO MOVE INTO UNTIL THEN. LANDRY PAYS BETTER THAN $900 MONTH IN RENT. FIRST LAKE IS OFFERING A HALF-MONTH CREDIT. LANDRY SAYS A FULL MONTH WOULD BE FAIR.>>THAT WOULD HELP US OUT WITH GIVING — GETTING A MOVING TRUCK. BORROWING SOMEONE’S TRUCK AS WELL TO PUT GAS. REPORTER: THEIR RESPONSE TO US, FIRST LAKE ALSO SAID THEY WOULD SEEK A LIST OF EXPENSESES INCURRED DURING, QUOTE, THIS INCONVENIENT TIME.
Today we’re talking about loneliness;
not to be confused with introversion, or social anxiety, while those subjects are worthy topics. Loneliness actually has been defined in many ways: “a state of solitude or being alone,”
“inability to find meaning in one’s life….” Okay, this is already a downer, so look at
a picture of a panda. Aw, it’s cute! Now I want a panda. I’m gonna overnight one to my crib. I’m gonna do that. Of course, we’re not the only generation
to experience loneliness, even though listening to The Weeknd
really does make it feel like that. Health insurance provider Cigna recently published a study citing that 18-22 year olds have the highest “loneliness score,”
followed by millennials, then Generation X… so yeah,
young people, we just killin’ it right now. Generation Z cited that they feel people are
around them but they aren’t really with them, feel shy, and they feel like people
don’t know them very well. The old man in me really wants to say, “these
kids right now are out here spending too much time on the Twitters and the Fortnites!”,
but that’s not exactly what Cigna found. Cigna cited lack of an IRL social life
as part of the problem, saying that “levels of in-person interactions, physical and mental wellness,
and life balance” are better predictors of loneliness
than social media alone. So, if your IG game is on point but you like to hang
out with your friends, you should be good… but if social media IS hanging out with your
friends, go outside! Humans are social mammals and need social interaction to survive; that’s
part of why solitary confinement in prisons is so torturous. Why do that to ourselves
on the outside? “Y’all best go out to the quarry for some stickball and a swim!” You know, I’m not doing this voice again. One study breaks down three types of loneliness. Situational loneliness is when unpleasant events
or circumstances cause us to retract from society. Developmental loneliness can hinder
our capacity to balance individualism and intimacy. (Psychological disorders like depression or schizophrenia could cause developmental loneliness). And finally, internal loneliness, when a self-perception of worthlessness intensifies
the feeling of being alone. This got dark again, bring in another panda pic. Lifestyle influences our neurophysiology, so lonely people perceive the world very differently. For instance, people suffering from loneliness tend to see benign events as more threatening,
living in self-defense mode… even in their sleep. Some research suggests that lonelier
people have more restless sleep patterns, which could impact cognitive development. Research suggests that there are
neural correlates for loneliness. A 2009 study revealed that lonelier people
showed less activation in brain centers associated with reward when viewing pictures of people in pleasant situations, and less activation in parts of the brain linked to empathy when viewing images of people
in unpleasant situations. Other researchers also discovered that neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei are sensitive to social isolation. Those neurons in question, taken together
with the ones from the ventral striatum, deal with the reward neurotransmitter dopamine. So, it’s possible that low social interactions=less dopamine=less feeling good. Of course,
the latter study was run with mice, so more research is always needed. On top of that, a meta-analysis from 1980 to 2015
found that loneliness and its accompanying
depression was as bad as smoking 15 cigarettes a day, and is a risk factor for mortality.
This is so dark; bring in the pandas! Please, don’t leave, don’t leave! I’m
not gonna leave you on a downer. Loneliness is a social epidemic, yes,
but there are remedies. Don’t replace friendships and happiness with likes and text messages.
Go out and meet people! Humans need social interaction in real life –
it’s developmentally necessary. Easier said than done, but remember, you’re
not alone in feeling alone. And if you’ll excuse me, I have a panda
waiting for me at home. I did order one, and I can’t wait to play with it. Yo, thanks so much for watching. If you’re
like, “ooh, I need a little bit more loneliness content!” watch this video about what solitary
confinement does to your brain. And if you’re like, “that’s a little bit too dark for me,”
watch this video about pandas watching… watching porn? Watch this video about pandas
watching porn. Thanks for watching my video, and also, subscribe to Seeker for more videos! Pandas watching porn?
I’m definitely gonna hafta watch that. I gotta find out what’s going
on with pandas.
These experiments are performed by trained and formed people. For your safety, do not try these at home. Last time, we did that on a turret. This time, better buckle-up. Yes folks, the potato gun is back on the channel, with the Golfator (golf canon)! The Golfator is a cannon made entirely with metal and it better be, given this one runs on oxy-acetylene. If you remember right, I already blew up a car with this. It is built with a 2cm (1″) thick chamber, custom-made carbon steel adapters, a cannon that perfectly fits with the projectile, which is first going to be golf balls. So we’ve got a lot of items to have fun with, mugs, a nice little doll, TVs, a microwave, a whole lot of sweet stuff, I think you’ll love it. Big thanks to ManoMano, they’re a big hardware website – you can check them out in the description below for supporting me in this project, big shout-out. So they brought these two Phantom cameras – yeah because one isn’t enough. The Phantom Onyx V2640, apparently there’s only 3 in the world, it’s the most powerful one out there. And a Phantom VEO 640S which is also a beauty. For comparison, this one’s about 5x as powerful as my Chronos camera and the other one… 15x, 20x as powerful? That’s madness! For this first show, we’ll shoot above a Chrony, that’s a device made to measure bullet velocity. So we’ll shoot above it, and we can have a first look at the slow-motion with these big puppies. So let’s go, first shot. Measuring speed with Phantoms… Go! That’s what I’m talking about! Oh it went into error mode, it didn’t make it. Never mind, we’ve got the high speed! I wanna see the slow-mo! [Speed: 525ft/s – 360mph] The first slow-mo shots are already awesome But with the heat and all that, I feel like the tank has a hard time releasing its oxygen properly, so we need to add more for the next shots. And now we can move on to the real experiments. For this next experiment we moved the big Phantom over here and we’re about to shoot at a thin metal sheet and we hope to get a nice vibration, a ripple that propagates on impact. Alright, shooting at the sheet… 3… 2… 1… You can even see the patter of the golf ball! It’s not even loosing speed. And all the sparks hitting… Oh that’s awesome! Hey Remy… Why is there always snow in Lorraine (north-eastern France) even though it’s super hot? I can’t stand it anymore… Let’s go again with a yellow ball this time into the cannon, straight to the the TV – so, these guys over there think it’s gonna go through, I say it’s gonna bounce back. And the Onyx is set to 1920×720, a pretty narrow format at 18,000fps. Ok, shooting the TV… In 3… 2… 1… Oh, poor ball! Now that’s a trophy! So, I want something fresh. Like a watermelon.
– Yes! Which is probably not so fresh anymore but… It’s for science. It’s too hot! Last time with the potato gun we had some very amazing shots, and it was only 4,000fps, this time it’s gonna be 19,000, it’ll be amazing. Shooting two watermelons with a golf ball… Fire! Hey but we can eat the second one!
– Yeah we can eat it! Well, the other one’s gone. Vaporized. Dude I’m telling you there were two! I didn’t see that, look, there’s just one. It’s weird how they disappear… Wanna check the slow-mo to see how it vanished? Yeah! It’s sucking on the inside! Now that’s some good slow-mo! But it’s so pretty!
– So ugly! So we’ve got this doll, it’s pretty… Horrible. We need to smash it, I think we’ll place a massive INP or some metal stuff there, we’ll make sure it’s wedged and we’ll send it right in her snout. The body is gonna stay in place, it’s just the head. Pop! Only the head comes out, that’d be awesome! Alright, see you ma’am, and don’t ever come back and haunt our nightmares! 3… 2… 1… – It didn’t move! The head flew away, I saw it! It didn’t budge! [Demonic cries] – Oh it’s disgusting, look at the small hole at the back! It’s totally cursed now, it’s possessed! We’re reflecting some light, because we’re gonna shoot at 40,000fps with the big boy, and we’ll shoot this golf ball… Strait at this sturdy piece of steel. The goal here is to see how much we can crush the ball, and that’s gonna be interesting I guess. 3… 2… 1… So the ball turned into dust, it’s over. No, I think I saw a chunk fly over here. Found it! – But what happened? That’s a hard hit… How original, ExperimentBoy! We’ve got a microwave, but we’ll also swap barrels on the Golfator and turn it into a can-cannon, Yep, we’re shooting a soda can again. But this one should have a little more… And the cameras have a little more… See? Shooting a full can at the microwave… 3… 2… 1… Wow, that’s a huge explosion! The can exploded inside the barrel, there’s so much – it’s too big! It pushes so hard! What’s crazy on the Onyx shot, is that you can see the explosion… And slowly after, the shock wave vibrates the microwave. We’re not stopping here with the microwave failure that we just drenched with coke, I think now we need to end this with a bang as they say, by showing you what happens if you use this gas mix… in a standard PVC spud gun. You know, what I’ve always told you not to do? Well, we’re doing it. Yeah! So we’ll blow up this old potato gun, that we patched for the occasion. Remy, ready to sacrifice your potato gun for science? Nah I don’t want to! It’s a relic!
– My head’s so hot! – Yeah I’m hot! We need to be far away from that one. Ok let’s go! PVC potato gun filled with acetylene, in 3… 2… 1… That’s why you don’t want to do it kids, get it? Let’s have a look at what’s left! Did you find a piece?
– Yeah but it’s a fitting, it’s even worse! The whole thing blew up! Even the plank got shredded! This was attached to the plank! These things always work! – I think our potato came out!
Did it? – It works, but it’s one-shot.
Where is it? We placed a golf ball inside, it must be gone now! I really want to see that. – Yes! Congrats! There you go guys, now you know why I need a Phantom in my own house. Hey, don’t you steal it huh! Oh actually – ok grab this one, I’ll take this one. One, two, three! Again a huge thanks to the guys at Love High Speed, you can check them out in the description and their beautiful cameras. It’s leaving home now… Big thanks to ManoMano also for supporting this project, without whom we couldn’t do it. Well then, I think we’ve got chunks to sweep… I’ll just pick up my TV and go then! See ya! This video contains 23,060 images. On every shot, the Phantom V2640 captured 72,000 and turned 4s of real time into 48 minutes of video.
Ice creates a lot of problems, from safety, to damaging structures, to just limiting the operational range and ability of large pieces of equipment. At HRL we have recently created a new coating technology that can combine very dissimilar materials, so materials that you might like to put in a coating but it’s difficult because they don’t mix well together or blend. We’ve gotten some very exciting properties in the ice-phobic space, or a coating that can shed ice with very low stress by combining a flouro, kind of a nonstick Teflon-pan-type material with a solid antifreeze that tends to lower freezing point. And the way we do this is an emulsion-based technique where we’ll mix materials up and they’ll take a structure similar to a salad dressing, like oil on water, and so then we can spray that down onto a surface, lock that structure into place by curing it, and then express both of those materials at the surface. What makes our work unique and thus patentable is the combination of the materials we choose to put in the coatings, the levels that we’ve found that operate best, and also most importantly that two-dimensional microstructure. The general idea of just combining dissimilar elements creates a number of other applications: areas like power lines, transmission for ice storms, if you could have ice shed more easily you would be less inclined to take down power lines. Things like Arctic shipping, or Arctic oil platforms, wind energy with the turbines. We’ve looked at things like anti-bug technology, where we try to combine that flouro frying pan nonstick component with a slick element to get the bugs to just slide off. Also, like an anti-smudge fingerprint screen. There’s also opportunities in improved battery technology. Given the flexibility of the system, there are a number of different possibilities for future work moving forward. I’m Andrew Nowak, and I’m an inventor on the patent on High-durability Anti-fouling and Anti-icing Coatings.
If you have ants in your pants, that normally
means you can’t sit still, and have too much energy. Or it might mean you actually
do have ants in your pants, and that’s highly creepy.
Now, when ants start an invasion of your home and yard, you gotta be prepared to fight them
off. If you aren’t a huge fan of chemical pesticides (and I hope you aren’t, since
they can be harmful for humans) – there are natural ways to get rid of those annoying
insects and keep them out for good. 1. Citrus fruits
You might love the smell of oranges, lemons, and grapefruit, but ants just can’t stand
it! Use this knowledge to your advantage and leave some ground, dried citrus peels near
entry points to the house, in flower beds, and in potted plants to scare away ants. Spraying
openings, sinks, counters, and table tops with pure lemon juice or even lemon scented
cleaner day by day should also bring visible results. Ants will lose their sense of tracking
and won’t be able to detect the odors of food particles and residue they’re naturally
attracted to. 2. Cucumber slices Similar to citrus fruits, cucumbers smell
like trouble to ants. Apparently, there’s something in their chemical composition that
eliminates the fungi that ants love a lot. So find the hot spots in your house where
ants are most frequently visiting; normally around food and water, and also any gaps,
crevices, and holes. Leave some cucumber peels or slices in these places. This is a quick
and temporary solution for visible ants, but make sure to remove the cucumbers after a
few hours since you don’t want to attract cockroaches, which aren’t afraid of them! 3. Peppermint If you have ants in your kitchen and bathroom,
you can repel them using peppermint essential oil. Sprinkle cotton balls with a few drops
and leave them in areas where the ants hang out. You can also mix equal parts mint scented
liquid soap and water in a spray bottle and then spray it directly onto a group of ants.
Believe me, they won’t like it. 4. Cinnamon Cinnamon works as a double agent: it makes
your house smell like a dream and helps you defer ants at the same time. Powder, oil,
and sticks are all good for this purpose. You can just sprinkle your regular kitchen
spice at entry sites to disrupt the ants’ route. You can draw a dry cinnamon barrier
line, or a cinnamon oil line, with a cotton swab. If you mix cinnamon oil with water in
a spray bottle and sprinkle it on ant trails, windows, doors and cracks, it’ll have an
even stronger effect. Cinnamon sticks casually thrown around the hot spots will also do the
trick. 5. Coffee grounds Before you throw away used coffee grounds
after you enjoy a hot cup, remember they can, in fact, be of good use to you. Put them right
in the cracks, sprinkle them around the flower bed, or even the entire base of your house
(you’ll need a lot of coffee for that). Ground coffee will be even more effective
if you mix it with a few drops of peppermint essential oil and spread it on counter tops,
near the garbage can, and other places ants love to frequent. 6. Tansy Tansy flowers might look cute to you but not
to the ants! Plant it near your front door, under full or indirect sun and in pretty dry
soil, or among other plants you want to protect from ants. You can also keep dried tansy flowers
by the window sills to repel those nasty insects. 7. Diatomaceous earth
Food grade diatomaceous earth is a fine silica powder of fossilized algae. It’s perfectly
safe for humans, but dangerous for insects. Sprinkle an ant trail or the perimeters of
your house with it for instant anti-ant results. Make sure you keep it dry or it won’t work.
You might have to add more than one layer for the best outcome. If you decide to put
it in a flower bed, watch out for petals – bees won’t be able to do their job if they encounter
this substance. 8. Chalk
No ant shall pass a border made of chalk, since they can’t walk across powdery materials.
It also messes up their scenting abilities. So draw a line around your front and back
doors, and windowsills. You can ask your kids to do it to make it more fun.
9. Baking soda and powdered sugar Ants love sugar but can’t stand baking soda.
The smell of sugar will attract them, and baking soda will say “hi” to their digestive
system, and the results are pretty dramatic for them. Mix the ingredients in a 1 to 1
ratio, ¾ tablespoon of each should be enough for it to work. You can put the bait on a
jar lid, or directly into areas that ants love. The insect won’t know the difference
between the sugar and baking soda, and you already know what’s gonna happen.
10. Cornmeal Cornmeal isn’t the quickest way to ruin
an ant colony, but it’s completely harmless to humans and super cheap, so you might want
to give it a go. Sprinkle it on ant trails and nests. The insects will see it as food
and have a feast, but they won’t be able to digest the meal.
11. Vinegar Another affordable thing ants totally hate
is vinegar. Mix it in a 1 to 1 ratio with water in a spray bottle. You can spray it
onto the ants, around the windowsills, doorways and places that ants love. You can even wash
floors, windows, and countertops with this solution – this way you’ll get them both
super clean and ant-free. And, there’ll be no scent left behind after it dries.
12. Borax, water and sugar Make a thin paste of powdered Borax laundry
booster, sugar and water in equal parts. Put a few tablespoons of it on a jar lid and set
the bait. This solution attracts all possible kinds of ants with its sugary smell. They’ll
want to eat it, so they’ll bring it back to the colony and ingest it there. You can
experiment with the ingredients a bit and add a touch of peanut butter to make the mix
even more attractive for the insects. (Who doesn’t like peanut butter?) The paste dries
in a couple of days, so if it hasn’t worked by then, you’ll have to make some more of
it. The mix is also effective against cockroaches. However, you should be careful with this solution
if you have kids or pets in the house. 13. Boiling water and dish soap
Another ant secret they don’t want you to know is that they just hate hot water. Yes,
something as simple as that makes them tremble with fear. A spray bottle with water and liquid
dish soap can help you get rid of visible ants. And even just pouring a kettle of boiling
hot water directly onto their colony is more powerful than you can imagine. It will also
kill the weeds if you have any in the sidewalk cracks. One thing you have to remember, though,
is that it can kill the good plants, so watch out for those as you’re pouring hot water
onto your yard. 14. Mini moat Most ants just go for the food, but some love
plants, both potted and planted ones. To prevent them from building a home in what’s adding
aesthetics to your own home, try setting up a moat filled with water, much like people
did in ancient times building fortresses. Put the container with plants on a tray filled
with water. You can sprinkle cinnamon powder in it for an even stronger effect, or put
a cinnamon stick directly into the soil. The same moat trick will work with pet food bowls.
Set the bowl in the center of a tray or lid that’s larger in size so that it’s surrounded
by the water. Ants can’t swim, so they won’t be able to get inside the bowl. And of course, once you’ve succeeded, your
can sing the Dead Ant song, which goes like this: Dead Ant, Dead Ant, Dead Ant-Dead Ant-Dead
Ant… Hey don’t make fun — that was a big hit in 3rd grade! So Have you tried any of these solutions,
or maybe you know some others that work? Let me know down in the comments! If you learned
something new today, then give this video a like and share it with a friend. But – hey! – don’t go committing insecticide
just yet! We have over 2,000 cool videos for you to check out. All you have to do is pick
the left or right video, click on it, and enjoy! Stay on the Bright Side of life!
(mellow music) – [Narrator] On the
Italian island of Sardinia, there’s a delicacy that has been consumed for thousands of years. It is known as the world’s
most dangerous cheese. Yeah, you heard right. (mellow music) Meet Simone Ibba, a third
generation sheep farmer. – [Narrator] Casu marzu
literally means rotten cheese, and it’s not for the faint of heart, because this cheese is infested with thousands of live maggots. And while that might seem
a bit off-putting at first, it’s the maggots that give the cheese its distinctive texture and flavor. Here’s how it works. First, a traditional
wheel of pecorino cheese is made from sheep’s milk. Then a special fly called a cheese fly is allowed to lay its eggs in it. – [Narrator] Over the
course of two to three months, the maggots eat the cheese,
and then excrete it out again, transforming it into the
soft and creamy casu marzu. – [Narrator] Today, it’s a
favorite for special occasions, like weddings and birthday parties. But eating this cheese can be dangerous. – [Narrator] Even though cases
like this are extremely rare, it’s risky enough that the
cheese is illegal to sell. But farmers like Simone continue
to make it for themselves. – [Narrator] And they
just can’t get enough.
[spaceship engines roar] – WAIT, WAIT. WE GOT TO BE CAREFUL HERE. THIS PLACE IS CRAWLING
WITH THEM. WHAT WAS THAT?
– WHAT? – COVER ME. – GUYS! HEY, GUYS! HEY, GUYS.
OH, THANK GOD. HEY, WE STARTED
A COMMUNITY OF SURVIVORS. Y’ALL COME LIVE WITH US. – WAIT.
HOW DID YOU KNOW? – COME ON. REDNECK WANTS US TO MOVE
INTO HIS COMMUNITY? US?
LET’S GO. – GUYS, OVER HERE! OH, THANK GOD THERE ARE OTHERS! – WOULD YOU LET
ME DATE YOUR DAUGHTER? – OF COURSE! – OH, MY GOD. OH, MY GOD.
OH, MY GOD. OH, MY GOD. AAH!
PLEASE DON’T HURT ME! MY BEST FRIEND IS BLACK
AND I LOVE JAY-Z, AND MY FAVORITE MOVIE
ISTHINK LIKE A MAN.– SHE’S GOOD.
– COME WITH US. – OKAY.
– STAY CLOSE. – OKAY.
– WHAT’S YOUR NAME? – EMILY.
both: OF COURSE IT IS. [tense dubstep music] ♪ – HEY, HEY, HEY!
DON’T SHOOT! DON’T SHOOT! – WHAT DO YOU THINK
ABOUT THE POLICE? – WELL,
I LOVE THEIR THIRD ALBUM. – AAH! AAH!
[stammers] I DON’T HAVE ANY MONEY! NO MONEY! [screaming] [continues screaming] – OH, MY GOD. OH, MY GOD. THANK GOD YOU GUYS SHOWED UP. I GOT TO GET OUT OF HERE. IT’S A SILVER LEXUS. JUST PULL IT RIGHT UP FRONT, AND DON’T SCUFF THE PAINT,
ALL RIGHT? I JUST HAD IT BUFFED. – WAS HE AN ALIEN, TOO? – YEP.
And of course it’s when we come back to our hut that we find the biggest chapulines Really, man? You think you’re clever? There you go, we have breakfast for tomorrow now So we’ve been in Asia, Oceania, and America Which continent should we visit now? Hmm, are there bugs in the Antarctic? … There’s krill… Yeah, that doesn’t really count Anyway, in Africa, 250 edible insect species were counted Yep, that would do Excellent, let’s go then The first stop in our african itinerary is Cameroon It’s one of the continent’s countries with the most diverse climates and landscapes From the rainy forests to the savannah not forgetting the deserts and beaches every landscape of the continent is represented which leads to Cameroon’s nickname “All Africa in one country” So, according to wikipedia the official languages in Cameroon are french and english All right, we’ll manage better than in Mexico Also, 307 local languages and dialects Well, we’ll just have to speak the universal language of MUSIC. *interesting cover of rick astley* OR we could hire a guide, you know? Nah yeah let’s do that A diverse environment means diverse edible insects Here, you can find everything Orthoptera, coleoptera, lepidoptera hymenoptera, and even isoptera In Yaounde, the capital these can be easily found on the Mfoundi market Like for instance these palm weevil larvae these dried termites and these caterpillars, also dried Because, here too, most of edible insects are seasonal So when they’re out of season, on the markets, they’ll be preserved one way or another Excellent Let’s hit the road and investigate on how they’re all harvested One of the most popular insects of Africa is undoubtedly the termite [untranslatable pronoun-based french joke, sorry] Contrary to the other social insects we’ve seen termites are hemimetabolous bugs which means that their larvae look like miniature adults When they grow up, these baby termites will become workers soldiers or sexed individuals with a nice pair of wings who fly away from the hill during the swarming to go and reproduce elsewhere and become king and queen termites leading their own colonies while laying eggs all day and eating organic mushrooms cultivated in the termite hill by their servants Well, that’s if they manage to escape before we catch them Because unfortunatelly for the winged termites it’s coincidentally this caste that’s eaten These delicious isoptera are found everywhere on the continent and they’re also popular in Cameroon During this trip we had the privilege to be guided by Valentin who knows a lot about edible insects, and especially termites So he took us on the road to show us around In Cameroon there are different types of termites who swarm at different seasons and at different times of the day Amongst the most popular are the Sil the Kap and the Pele The Sil come out at night during the rainy season and the Kap come out around 5pm at the beginning of the dry season as for the Pele they swarm around 2pm Let’s give honour where honour is due let’s talk about the Sil first The termites on the cameroonian markets are mostly Sil and those can be found in these big red termite hills These termites are the biggest, but also the most difficult to catch This is the termite hill of the Sil They often come out at night around 5 am but they’re not in season Usually, the mothers catch them with a hurricane lamp You use a basin, you turn the lamp on When the termites come out, they’re drawn to the light so they drown in the basin Ah, the famous light trap is making a comeback! It sure is a good way of catching bugs. However, we arrived at the beginning of the dry season in october/november so not at all during their swarming period Never mind, then For this variety of termites the winged termites are not the only edible caste Out of season, you can always munch on the soldiers As it’s not the season when we were children, we often went out to eat the soldier termites To catch these termites you first need to renovate the hill a bit by adding a little skylight on the roof to introduce a small piece of rubber The soldier termites will be so happy you made their home brighter that they’ll make lots of kisses to the piece of rubber and they’ll get stuck like morons And then, you can just chuck them over the fire or you can also eat them live, here and now You take them like this and you press the head which makes them close their claws It’s the head that’s eaten It’s rich in calcium It’s funny, it’s crunchy It’s not bad It’s slightly lemony Or rather, that’s probably the taste of grass Don’t worry about the termites The workers are already correcting your little architectural eccentricity They’ll just need a good night of work to repair this Well, soldier termites are a nice snack to start the day but they’re not the easiest to harvest also, they bite! Let’s rather talk about the harvest of winged termites and while we’re at it, of winged termites that are in season so, the kap Let’s hit the road again and try to find some! But on our way, around Ombessa we find something interesting So that’s a caterpillar that’s eaten around here, locally? Yes A caterpillar that’s eaten around here, locally. These ones are called mibing in the local dialect Before cooking it, it needs to be turned inside out on a stick like a sock Like this, you have to hide the small quills I could eat them like that, quills and all but if you give it to a small child of 5 or 6 they’ll be afraid This way, it looks like a harmless white worm And you can just cook the sock in a pan It comes with its own oil The grease you can see here Okay, so you can just add it to the pan Yes, you just need to stir with some condiments the oil comes out on its own You can make broth or roast it it depends on how you want to eat it Lots of caterpillar species are eaten in the centre and western regions of Cameroon They’re found during the rainy season up in the trees eating leaves and from time to time, they come down the trunk and that’s when they can be harvested They’re sold alive on the markets when they’re in season They can also be found out of season but they’ll be dried or even frozen That’s what Maman Solange did a cameroonian woman who works at the Mfoundi market in Yaounde Her caterpillars, of the minkong variety were caught a few months ago cleaned and frozen And they’re very nutritious They have lots of vitamins You know, we all grew up with this In the village, the children went out in the bush for it My daughter is 7 years old she cooks them really well! Well, you know us Of course we jumped on the occasion to buy a few caterpillars and try out the recipes Maman Solange recommended We couldn’t do a cooking video without caterpillars Hungry caterpillars To enjoy their natural flavours You just need to let them simmer with chili tomatoes and local herbs the messep, the ossim nam, and the odjom They’re not bad And indeed, Maman Solange’s recipe gives them a natural taste They taste a bit like shrimps It’s really nice, I can’t taste the tomato Anyway, that was a really nice snack but it’s time to look for termites again The termite type that’s most likely to be found is the Kap These termites announce the dry season and fly out of their hills around 5 – 6 pm That take off is called the swarming and that’s when you can catch them And to catch them, the essential tool is this basket This basket is the one my mother bought when I wasn’t even born yet so it’s more than 40 years old Real relic of the Angoni family it will be a great help to catch tonight’s dinner First, around noon we go out to spot the termite hills who are the most likely to swarm tonight And bingo after one hour of searching we find a couple of very promising-looking hills Look, they’ve already widened the holes A few hours before the swarming the workers make small openings on the top of their hills to let the winged termites through Anyway, we found the place We’ll finally be able to see how termites are caught! That night, we go back to our promising termite hills and there are indeed more holes Here we go, then! It’s time to grab the ancestral basket of the Angoni clan and to trap the future kings and queens of the local termite empire! First, you wet it with water so that the termites stick And now, you cover What, now? Yes Even if they’re not coming out yet? No They want a bit of darkness When it’s a bit dark in there they think the night has already fallen they need to get out quick Once all the hills are covered you just have to wait And wait And wait a bit more Huh, okay, something’s wrong It failed Ah, well, looks like the termites didn’t come out that night in spite of all the openings on their hills Maybe tomorrow So we return empty-handed for this time We’ll try another time Tomorrow, we ride again It’s a brand new day for our termite hunting expedition Expedition that’s interrupted by an unusual discovery Woaaah, it’s a big beetle A big beetle This coleoptera of the augosoma family is a beautiful Augosoma centaurus specimen or rhinoceros beetle Specifically, it’s a female rhinoceros beetle recognizable by its skirt and its lacking of a horn, which is a male feature Some beetles of the augosoma family are edible but before snacking on our discovery we’ll ask for an expertise so that we don’t make any mistake So we met Gwenne-Marie for a gastro-entomo identification Is this the mbombogo? Yes, that’s it all right That’s the mbombogo, the brother of the weevil We were right! It is a rhinoceros beetle It has a lot of vitamins It’s thanks to food like this that we’re still strong She says you have to be careful, because they pinch She’s about 81 years old Oh, all right That’s why I told you that it’s old mothers like these who know if you can eat it or not If she had told us that we can’t eat it, we would have discarded it So it’s edible Okay, so we can eat it Great, let’s get cooking! Or let’s get frying Or let’s get roasting? Okay, how do you cook it? Well, you can season and roast it or braise it slowly on the fire while peeling it for a natural taste You need to go slowly, slowly Yeah, that’s about right It’s gonna burn Ah, it’s ready! Lunch is served! Is it good? When you eat it, it smells like palm tree This beetle is quite hard, as expected We chew it to enjoy the strong herbal flavours and we spit the shell bits out It’s a bit hard It has a lot of fat The mbombogo has a nice palm taste and a bit of bitterness You can really taste the vitamins No doubt, this thing is filled with them But let’s get back to our termites The search goes on to find a good hill to harvest nice and juicy kaps However there’s a slight problem *rain* Termites hate rain And when their termite hills are wet they don’t come out Finding a hill that hasn’t been hit by this downpour typicall in this end of the rainy season is quite hard But that was not counting on an unexpected ally who gave us a hand when we arrived around Ebebda Termites are coming out OH WOW, they’re everywhere! You can spot where they come out when you see the birds flocking together like that The birds These little smartasses know where the termites usually come out and won’t hesitate to dive in for an easy snack therefore revealing where the termite hills are There are so many! A termite colony, protected by this barn was spared by the torrential rains What’s funny is, the termite hill’s inside So even if it rains it doesn’t get wet, it’s inside the house With the villagers of Ebebda we hurry and harvest the precious termites So that’s the termites Those are termites We eat them it comes out of the ground we put it on the fire and it gives vitamins You can fry them with salt and pepper or you can eat them live Hmm, not bad! They’re good, aren’t they? It’s sweet! It’s tasty and marvellous! Termites have a delicious arachid flavour, without the crunchiness They’re very different from thai ants because those were more a spice and termites are bigger, fatter and can be enjoyed like that like flying peanuts We were told that this kind of termite is often harvested by children probably because they can easily be caught in the late afternoon not like the Sil we mentionned before who require to get up in the middle of the night with light traps By the way, we understood why it’s the Sil, the nocturnal termites who are overrepresented on the cameroonian markets whereas the kap can’t be found there even when they’re in season It’s actually because when children go catch the kap they rarely come back with their harvest as they eat everything on the way back And frankly? I get it It’s good and rich We collect them and put them in the bag It’s funny, it’s really a treat that can be found in the nature it reminds me of wild strawberries but without the foxes who urinate on them We were lucky this time but we have to admit that our harvest is quite meager We won’t have enough termites for dinner Was the harvest meager, or did you eat everything? Yes Ah well, here we go again But before we get back to our tireless quest for juicy termites Valentin takes us to the forest near Nkolnguem to find another type of insect, just as juicy Even more juicy, actually Wayyyy more juicy We’re about to discover one of the Centre region’s most popular bug They’re locally called Foss and it’s none other than the larva of the palm weevil To get these critters, you have to go in the forest These larvae are found in the trunk of a very special tree The raphia It’s the palm tree used for the famous palm oil, but there’s more Its sap can also be extracted and fermented to make a rather nice alcoholic drink The matengo Yes, alcohol again We keep telling you Where there are insects, the drinks aren’t far Anyway The raphia are fallen, the sap is extracted and once the trunks are empty the adult weevils lay their eggs in them That’s the adult? The larvae grow up in the fallen palm tree and you just need to get them out with a machette Oh wow, that one’s huge Sometimes, you need to gauge with your finger If it’s close, you can’t cut too deeply you need to be careful And you’re absolutely right it is the same insect that we saw in Thailand Well, not quite The thai weevil is the red palm weevil Rhyncophorus ferrugineus while the african species Rhyncophorus phoenicis is more black But both are palm tree parasites and have a holometabolous cycle with a still nymphal state between the larva and the adult Thank you, captain entomologist Let’s mention that the foss is the third edible xylophagous insect that we see on our world tour after the palm worm and the witchetty grub Well, it’s even 4 if we count the longhorn beetle that we mentionned in the episode about Japan However, if we consider it a repetition of the thai palm worm we fall back on 3 Anyway, wood-eating bugs are often eaten around the world Then again, it is logical A larva protected in its habitat by a natural armour of several centimeters of wood and bark has no incentive to develop defense strategies based on poison or toxins Worst case scenario, they’re just too small to eat but they’ll almost always be edible Of course, the downside is that xylophagous larvae are far from easy to harvest precisely because of this massive wooden armour they carry around And sometimes, success is a bit random We didn’t get much around here Lots transformed into adults This harvest is all the more difficult that the cameroonian forest, in spite of its beauty has a very hot and humid atmosphere And we were lucky, it didn’t rain In the end, we visited five rapha trunks and harvested about 60 larvae Let’s mention that in the dry season the weather is better suited for the development of the foss and the harvest can be a lot more bountiful With a bit of luck, you can find up to 100 larvae per trunk Suddenly TERMITES TERMITES EVERYCHERE TERMITES! TERMITES! There are lots of them! And all the lizards are out to eat them We are on a small road next to Obala and it’s 2pm Time for the third type or termite we mentionned to come out The Pele And we’re lucky, there are lots of them Everywhere These black termites are very easy to spot and very easy to catch Very easy to catch on the flight They don’t fly that well, actually We cover them so that they don’t fly away They’ll stay in the basket They’re very nice! We were lucky to find a very abundant termite hill We were covered in termites from head to toes Annie developed another catching technique What? Her hair! And our harvest turns out bountiful Look at that Well great, we have our lunch! At last After one week of long research we finally found enough termites to make a meal So, how do you cook these? Is what you’re about to ask because you are curious Well, very classical, in the pan with a bit of salt and pepper to go with the matengo Or they can also be incorporated in a “dish” The “dish” is a typical cameroonian food it’s a sort of donut made with arachids or other seeds steamed, with meat or vegetables inside And to learn how it’s prepared let’s go to the village of Efoumelessi Essong where we meet Marie-Louise and Marceline who will do a demonstration First, clean the termites and take out their wings Just turn them like that to get the wings off Then, squish the termites and mix them with condiments like onions and local herbs Then form the donuts wrap them tightly in banana leaves and steam them for about an hour in a big pot Then, it’s time to serve it It’s really good, huh? Yes Hmm, it’s nice! You can really taste the termites and their peanut flavour It’s really good and it goes well with garlic and it’s tender Interesting and cool fun fact you may have noticed the fresh termites are not just a garnish added to the dish like meat or vegetables They replace the arachid paste itself And it’s probably the first time we see an edible bug with such a structuring culinary function In the end, this termite hunt was eventful, full of twists and quite random But apparently the fact that it’s so random is very common Even if their lifecycles are known by the locals and even if the catching methods are well developed the termite swarmings are still sometimes a bit unpredictible Our experience was therefore quite representative of what happens when you try to find termites There, so don’t blame us if we got caught in the rain It’s not our fault it’s authenticity, okay? If only there was a way to get bugs without the randomness You know very well there is one How so? You’re gonna talk about farming again, aren’t you What! Me? How dare you Indeed amongts the bugs we saw during our little cameroonian road trip there’s one that’s well suited for farming Also, I don’t know if you remember but we already saw a farm setting this up in Thailand Exactly it’s the weevil’s larva Let’s go to Obout a community around 80 km south of Yaoundé Here was launched the first experimental foss farm which allows to produce the precious larva without wandering into the forest The project is carried by LIFR and the IRD We want to set up a system which would allow the villagers to produce the foss the raphia palm weevil larva at home given that it’s a very popular commodity here but its harvest is exclusively in the nature its availability is seasonal With a farming system, we can have it anytime So we’ve started doing research here since 2014 and we collaborate with the farmers We take care of all the scientific data and they take care of production and sales They sell it to use the revenues in order to better their lifes So it’s here that Michel and Valentin raise the foss in big plastic boxes Well, here, most of the boxes are empty as they sold everything at a fair in Yaoundé but they kept two boxes to do the demonstration So, how do you farm the foss? First, you add 3 pairs of adult weevils in the box The male has a short beak and there’s some sort of beard at the tip around here But the female has a smooth beak and a bit longer too Then, they are given pieces of raphia in which to lay their eggs First we cut the heart of the tree which is the most tender part And here we go Just close the lid and feed them wood every week Between the moment where the adult weevils are put in the box and the moment where the larvae are harvested only 25 days passed But you can leave up to 30 days so that they get bigger And that makes them one of the edible insects with the fastest life cycle And so, 25 days after the launching of the box the precious foss are harvested In the end 50 larvae per box were collected So about two times more than what we got when we went to get them in the forest and this without too much effort So yeah, it’s not too bad Right now, I’m here The rain doesn’t bother me I work easily But the person who’s in the bush right now suffers Interesting and cool fun fact contrary to the weevil farm we saw in Thailand Michel and Valentin don’t produce their adults in their farm in the ordinary way but they catch them behind their houses in the forest To catch the weevils just put some raphia in a plastic container and perch it in the tree The adults will enter it and you can get them easily Yep, he was caught Bully for you This method allows to take advantage of the abundance of weevils in the environment in order to easily get adults without bothering with keeping larvae for reproduction So the whole farm production can be collected However, this technique has a few drawbacks including the fact that well, like any other wild-harvest of bugs it’s still very random You never know what you’ll get You may catch 300 weevils in your traps or only 20 Maybe you’ll get a balanced sex-ratio with 50% males and 50% females or it’s gonna be a Republican party and you’ll get 90% males Not to mention the insects age The older the weevil the less fertile it’ll be As for selecting a strain you can forget that too That’s why in the future Michel and Valentin will try to produce their adults themselves They’ll just have to put a few larva boxes aside Had we kept these ones about one week longer they would have entered the nests to turn into adults And in only one month they’ll get young and dynamic adults with a bright look and a shiny shell ready to launch a new generation of delicious larvae that’ll delight big and small Speaking of delicious larvae for how much are these sold? 5 individuals for 200 So with these two boxes you can get 2 000 CFA francs per box so about 3€ That’s 2 to 4 times cheaper than the larvae sold in the markets of Yaoundé Farming weevils has lots of advantages And is it a good situation, foss farmer? One box gives on average 1 500 francs and we have about 100 boxes here So they can easily produce 150 000 francs each month In a rural cameroonian setting that’s a solid revenue In comparison to other activities A cocoa farmer who earns 600 to 1 million francs is a good cocoa farmer But as you can see, if they can produce 150 000 each month if the work is well coordinated they’ll earn more than 2 millions a year so it’s a very profitable job It already contributes to the village’s development because they give away a lot of their production Good! It’s time to get back behind the stove with Marie-Françoise who’s going to show us how to cook the foss After thoroughly cleaning up the larvae open them alive and put them in a pot To cut them, you can use a knife Prepare condiments like for example shallots messep, ginger, chili, and tomatoes and cook everything with a bit of water salt, and broth The key for a great foss stew is to let it simmer thoroughly with all the condiments And after 20 minutes it’s ready It’s really good It’s amazing, it’s really good! There’s a lot of flavour It’s a bit spicy, it’s really nice Oh it’s very spicy, actually It’s nice and tender, and juicy You can really taste all the flavours of ginger, of chili of the shallots It’s excellent It’s so satisfying to eat The weevil larvae are very healthy Not only do they have the same amount of proteins than ordinary meat but all their fatty acids are omega 3 and 6 And let’s also appreciate the absense of diseases that could be transmitted from the edible insect to humans No tapeworm in these worms There are therapeutic values associated with the consumption of these bugs Studies made in this same village showed that these larvae can solve problems in the strengthening of bones in children Also, women who can’t birth the worms can be used in some ways to solve this When you look at people who eat insects They’re still Strong In any case, it looks like they’re really proud of their larvae That’s usual If there’s one thing we noticed by talking to the locals every cameroonian we met is super proud of the products of their country When you eat this, you also eat lots of leaves For instance, medicinal herbs They swallow all of this in their bellies By eating this, you cure yourself without knowing As it’s organic they sell it at a high price In Cameroon, you have this everywhere in the bush, in the villages, in the homes Lots of products We eat it like that, even if it’s raw we eat live vitamins There’s wealth in Cameroon lots of vitamins It is true that the Centre of Cameroon is the kind of place where you can walk for 10 meters in the forest and pick up your breakfast The environment is rich and people are very attached to the natural and organic products of their regions be they farmed or harvested in the forest and edible insects are a part of this These really are wild strawberries It’s a product you can find in the nature like mushrooms or wild fruits to eat them on the spot or to bring home to cook a traditional meal And as for mushrooms, the insect harvest requires a good knowledge of local edible species You must be able to distinguish the edible caterpillars If you’re not from around here you will make mistakes They really look alike there are caterpillars you can’t eat You just touch them and it stings and it’s hot, and itchy, and gives you a rash At least you don’t need chili with those caterpillars So yeah, from one region to another you won’t eat the same bugs First because it’s not the same environments and so not the same critters but sometimes, it’s also just a matter of habit Let’s talk about the locusts During the dry season, they’re abundant in the Centre region The children take advantage of the locusts flocking around the street lights at night to catch them and store them in plastic bottles then they sell them, or roast them on the spot But that doesn’t happen everywhere in the central region of Cameroon Around Garoua Boulaï at the border with the Central African Republic The children around there hunt crickets If you show the cricket meal to a child from around here They won’t take it Same if you take our locust meal that we eat around here You show it to a child in Garoua Boulaï They’ll look at it with suspicious eyes Because they won’t recognize it, they don’t know it It’s a matter of habit And it’s the same for our good friends the termites We ended up making a dish with the Pele the black termites who come out at 2 pm but let’s mention that, traditionnaly these ones are not eaten, even if they’re perfectly edible We don’t eat this around here because of this black colour Our parents didn’t teach us to eat this They said it damages your teeth But it’s edible If they’re not eaten in the Centre maybe they’re eaten in the north or in the south It’s a matter of habit And this difference of habit gets even stronger in the cities Maybe they won’t eat this because they think it’s gonna kill them and because they don’t know the value of this For someone like me, I eat it because I know I grew up in the village Our grandmothers always made those And in Yaoundé the main townspeople who buy them are upper middle class who want to eat a typical product from their childhood So, connoisseurs then But this typical product can sometimes have availability issues As you noticed, there’s the randomness of the harvest, but that’s not all Since you follow this documentary series, you get it the bugs captured in the nature are a direct product of the environment Change the environment, you’ll change the insects that can be harvested That’s what happened with the extention of agriculture around Obala which diminished the availability of our friend the rhino beetle There used to be many of them, everywhere, behind the house and all Now there aren’t any left Back then, there was still the forest But today our grandparents turned everything in cocoa plants So the forest’s completely finished Now there is cassava, arachids, plantain banana so it’s not the forest anymore Wild-harvested insects aren’t always compatible with agriculture But fortunatelly farming will save the cameroonian ento-gastronomy Well, actually, farming is just at its beginnings for now Let’s specify that we’re still in the research phase The productivity varies with several factors including humidity, temperature, and quality of feed We had cases where in this box we collected 150 individuals we also have cases where we collect 80 we have cases where we get 100, we have cases were we get 50 even cases where we get 30 and in some cases it completely fails We collect nothing So yeah, even in the experimental foss farm it’s true that the production is still a bit random Then again that’s what “experimental farming” means Remember that this project is a collaboration between the villagers of Obout and several research organizations While Michel and Valentin farm the foss the researchers can take advantage of this opportunity to collect data on the insects and get deeper knowledge on the weevil’s biology and its needs in order to better the farming techniques A good example of this agronomic research is the larva’s feed For now, they are fed raphia which seems to be the best feed to farm them We tried several feeds, we tried palm tree we tried watermelon, we tried corn, we tried several things But for now, we have the best results with raphia and specifically this raphia here so the species called okori raphia For now, that’s the best for domestication And farming foss saves a lot of wood compared to their wild harvest as the same amount of larvae can be produced with four times less wood However, small detail in Cameroon, the raphia is exploited but not cultivated And let’s not forget an important point A production system never exists in isolation It will be sustainable as long as the other systems it relies on are too For example, the raphia forests So farming may save wood but isn’t there a risk to overharvest the forest if farming is developing? No worries, the LIFT is working on it That’s why we’re collaborating with IRD CNRS and AgroParisTech we’re thinking about developing feed that doesn’t rely on raphia It could be the grasses outside to make compositions to use for farming Also, the benefits of developing the foss farming aren’t just about not having to go in the forest It may actually be about the country’s food safety itself In 2030 if I’m not mistaken Africa will have more than half of the world’s population so we have to think about alternatives And meat has its famous problems Not mentionning its bad effects on health when eaten excessively the game on which the villages rely is getting rarer and rarer Also, meat is expensive! So we must promote alternatives that are organic and considered healthy And we think that one solution to all of these problems is insect farming The consumption of 100g of insects gives you the same amount of proteins than the consumption of 100g of beef or mutton for example By eating 10 worms a day you can satisfy your daily needs in proteins So who eats insects betters their life conditions We can imagine a situation where every family farms their own bugs in 10 boxes behind their homes It doesn’t take much space, it’s not restrictive and with one box, you can cover the family’s daily protein needs Yes, food safety! We also talk about this in Europe Yes, but in Cameroon, contrary to Europe eating insects is already a part of the culture Eating insects is a part of our cultural food habits It’s not something new that we want to introduce culturally, we eat insects In each region of Cameroon, there’s one insect species that’s eaten Indeed, most of cameroonians have no problems with eating insects No, what can be surprising at first is the idea of FARMING them We’re seen a bit like madmen The others called them sorcerers They brought witchcraft and integrated witchcraft How can you FARM insects?? But as time passes, people understand Mentalities evolve, things change, people understand and today, they are local elites Now you have conflicts about everyone wanting to be part of the deal And it won’t stop here Once the foss farming is developed other production pilots will be launched a bit everywhere in Cameroon And as not the same species are eaten in every region not the same insects will be produced too The goal is to develop techniques to farm local insects in order to fit what’s eaten in each region And it’s a great process, as it’s perfectly adapted to the country’s context It’s about developing a myriad of small farms to make a local product that’s organic and nutritious and that sustains the families’ food safety and livelihoods Obout’s experimental farm is not just a pilot weevil farm It’s the pilot for the whole cameroonian insect sector Our stop in Cameroon is now over If you want to know more about recipes with termites, caterpillars, and foss as you know, the cooking video is here for that in the description And we must go back in the plane to continue our african trip Next stop : Zimbabwe